Abstract

We report on the utilization of a dual-clad optical fiber for two-photon excited fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). High excitation efficiency is obtained by sending prechirped ultrafast pulses through the single-mode core of the fiber, while the fluorescence collection efficiency is enhanced because of the larger numerical aperture of the inner cladding. We show that the utilization of a dual-clad fiber is critical for ultrasensitive two-photon fluorescence detection. Our system has the ability to detect fluorescent nanospheres as small as 12 nm in radius. Quantum dots of radius 7 nm are also measured and show excellent signal to noise ratio. The particle sizes obtained from the fiber FCS system were confirmed by measurements using a commercial dynamic light scattering (DLS) system.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

T. P. Thomas, J. Y. Ye, Y. C. Chang, A. Kotlyar, Z. Cao, I. J. Majoros, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Investigation of tumor cell targeting of a dendrimer nanoparticle using a double-clad optical fiber probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

K. Garai, R. Sureka, S. Maiti, “Detecting amyloid-beta aggregation with fiber-based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 92, L55–L57 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Kim, K. G. Heinze, P. Schwille, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in living cells,” Nature Methods 4, 963–973 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7, 1711–1716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2004 (2)

T. P. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, A. K. Patri, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Detection and analysis of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber probe,” Biophys. J. 86, 3959–3965 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Elson, “Quick tour of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy from its inception,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 857–864 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, W. F. W., W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, J. R. Baker, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Enhanced two-photon biosensing with double-clad photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1224–1226 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

J. Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, J. Baker, “Biosensing based on two-photon fluorescence measurements through optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1412–1414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Helmchen, “Miniaturization of fluorescence microscopes using fibre optics,” Exp Physiol 87, 737–745 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bohmer, M. Wahl, H. J. Rahn, R. Erdmann, J. Enderlein, “Time-resolved fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 439–445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. H. Behrens, D. G. Grier, “The charge of glass and silica surfaces,” J of Chem. Phys. 115, 6716–6721 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. C. Lamb, A. Schenk, C. Rocker, C. Scalfi-Happ, G. U. Nienhaus, “Sensitivity enhancement in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of multiple species using time-gated detection,” Biophys. J. 79, 1129–1138 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, W. W. Webb, “Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one- and two-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 77, 2251–2265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, E. Gratton, “2-Photon Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy - Method and Application to the Intracellular Environment,” Biophys. J. 68, 694–701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mertz, C. Xu, W. W. Webb, “Single-molecule detection by two-photon-excited fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2532–2534 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Eigen, R. Rigler, “Sorting Single Molecules - Application to Diagnostics and Evolutionary Biotechnology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 5740–5747 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

E. L. Elson, D. Magde, “Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy .1. Conceptual Basis and Theory,” Biopolymers 13, 1–27 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. Magde, W. W. Webb, E. Elson, “Thermodynamic Fluctuations in a Reacting System - Measurement by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 705-&(1972).
[CrossRef]

Baker, J.

Baker, J. R.

T. P. Thomas, J. Y. Ye, Y. C. Chang, A. Kotlyar, Z. Cao, I. J. Majoros, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Investigation of tumor cell targeting of a dendrimer nanoparticle using a double-clad optical fiber probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, A. K. Patri, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Detection and analysis of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber probe,” Biophys. J. 86, 3959–3965 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, J. R. Baker, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Enhanced two-photon biosensing with double-clad photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1224–1226 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, Jr., J.R.

J.Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T.P. Thomas, I.J. Majoros, A. Kotlyar, J.R. Baker, Jr., W.J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.J. Russell, T.B. Norris, “Development of a double-clad photonic-crystal-fiber based scanning Microscope,” in Proc. of the SPIE, Ammasi Periasamy ed., Vol. 5700, pp. 23–27 (2005).

Barrett, T.

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7, 1711–1716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beals, J.

T. P. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, A. K. Patri, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Detection and analysis of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber probe,” Biophys. J. 86, 3959–3965 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behrens, S. H.

S. H. Behrens, D. G. Grier, “The charge of glass and silica surfaces,” J of Chem. Phys. 115, 6716–6721 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berland, K. M.

K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, E. Gratton, “2-Photon Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy - Method and Application to the Intracellular Environment,” Biophys. J. 68, 694–701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohmer, M.

M. Bohmer, M. Wahl, H. J. Rahn, R. Erdmann, J. Enderlein, “Time-resolved fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 439–445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bouwmans, G.

M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, J. R. Baker, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Enhanced two-photon biosensing with double-clad photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1224–1226 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T.P. Thomas, I.J. Majoros, A. Kotlyar, J.R. Baker, Jr., W.J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.J. Russell, T.B. Norris, “Development of a double-clad photonic-crystal-fiber based scanning Microscope,” in Proc. of the SPIE, Ammasi Periasamy ed., Vol. 5700, pp. 23–27 (2005).

Bruchez, M. P.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, W. F. W., W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Candido, K.

T. P. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, A. K. Patri, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Detection and analysis of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber probe,” Biophys. J. 86, 3959–3965 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, P.

T. P. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, A. K. Patri, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Detection and analysis of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber probe,” Biophys. J. 86, 3959–3965 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Z.

T. P. Thomas, J. Y. Ye, Y. C. Chang, A. Kotlyar, Z. Cao, I. J. Majoros, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Investigation of tumor cell targeting of a dendrimer nanoparticle using a double-clad optical fiber probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Y. C.

T. P. Thomas, J. Y. Ye, Y. C. Chang, A. Kotlyar, Z. Cao, I. J. Majoros, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Investigation of tumor cell targeting of a dendrimer nanoparticle using a double-clad optical fiber probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choyke, P. L.

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7, 1711–1716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, S. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, W. F. W., W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eigen, M.

M. Eigen, R. Rigler, “Sorting Single Molecules - Application to Diagnostics and Evolutionary Biotechnology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 5740–5747 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elson, E.

D. Magde, W. W. Webb, E. Elson, “Thermodynamic Fluctuations in a Reacting System - Measurement by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 705-&(1972).
[CrossRef]

R. Rigler, E. Elson, Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy : theory and applications (Springer, Berlin ; New York, 2001).

Elson, E. L.

E. L. Elson, “Quick tour of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy from its inception,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 857–864 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Elson, D. Magde, “Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy .1. Conceptual Basis and Theory,” Biopolymers 13, 1–27 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Enderlein, J.

M. Bohmer, M. Wahl, H. J. Rahn, R. Erdmann, J. Enderlein, “Time-resolved fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 439–445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, R.

M. Bohmer, M. Wahl, H. J. Rahn, R. Erdmann, J. Enderlein, “Time-resolved fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 439–445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Garai, K.

K. Garai, R. Sureka, S. Maiti, “Detecting amyloid-beta aggregation with fiber-based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 92, L55–L57 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Garai, M. Muralidhar, S. Maiti, “Fiber-optic fluorescence correlation spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7538–7542 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, E. Gratton, “2-Photon Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy - Method and Application to the Intracellular Environment,” Biophys. J. 68, 694–701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grier, D. G.

S. H. Behrens, D. G. Grier, “The charge of glass and silica surfaces,” J of Chem. Phys. 115, 6716–6721 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hama, Y.

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7, 1711–1716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haupts, U.

P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, W. W. Webb, “Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one- and two-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 77, 2251–2265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinze, K. G.

S. A. Kim, K. G. Heinze, P. Schwille, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in living cells,” Nature Methods 4, 963–973 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen, “Miniaturization of fluorescence microscopes using fibre optics,” Exp Physiol 87, 737–745 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keszler, B.

T. P. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, A. K. Patri, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Detection and analysis of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber probe,” Biophys. J. 86, 3959–3965 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. A.

S. A. Kim, K. G. Heinze, P. Schwille, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in living cells,” Nature Methods 4, 963–973 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

Knight, J.C.

J.Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T.P. Thomas, I.J. Majoros, A. Kotlyar, J.R. Baker, Jr., W.J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.J. Russell, T.B. Norris, “Development of a double-clad photonic-crystal-fiber based scanning Microscope,” in Proc. of the SPIE, Ammasi Periasamy ed., Vol. 5700, pp. 23–27 (2005).

Kobayashi, H.

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7, 1711–1716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotlyar, A.

T. P. Thomas, J. Y. Ye, Y. C. Chang, A. Kotlyar, Z. Cao, I. J. Majoros, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Investigation of tumor cell targeting of a dendrimer nanoparticle using a double-clad optical fiber probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, A. K. Patri, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Detection and analysis of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber probe,” Biophys. J. 86, 3959–3965 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T.P. Thomas, I.J. Majoros, A. Kotlyar, J.R. Baker, Jr., W.J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.J. Russell, T.B. Norris, “Development of a double-clad photonic-crystal-fiber based scanning Microscope,” in Proc. of the SPIE, Ammasi Periasamy ed., Vol. 5700, pp. 23–27 (2005).

Koyama, Y.

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7, 1711–1716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamb, D. C.

D. C. Lamb, A. Schenk, C. Rocker, C. Scalfi-Happ, G. U. Nienhaus, “Sensitivity enhancement in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of multiple species using time-gated detection,” Biophys. J. 79, 1129–1138 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, D. R.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, W. F. W., W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magde, D.

E. L. Elson, D. Magde, “Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy .1. Conceptual Basis and Theory,” Biopolymers 13, 1–27 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. Magde, W. W. Webb, E. Elson, “Thermodynamic Fluctuations in a Reacting System - Measurement by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 705-&(1972).
[CrossRef]

Maiti, S.

K. Garai, R. Sureka, S. Maiti, “Detecting amyloid-beta aggregation with fiber-based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 92, L55–L57 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Garai, M. Muralidhar, S. Maiti, “Fiber-optic fluorescence correlation spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7538–7542 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, W. W. Webb, “Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one- and two-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 77, 2251–2265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Majoros, I. J.

T. P. Thomas, J. Y. Ye, Y. C. Chang, A. Kotlyar, Z. Cao, I. J. Majoros, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Investigation of tumor cell targeting of a dendrimer nanoparticle using a double-clad optical fiber probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Majoros, I.J.

J.Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T.P. Thomas, I.J. Majoros, A. Kotlyar, J.R. Baker, Jr., W.J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.J. Russell, T.B. Norris, “Development of a double-clad photonic-crystal-fiber based scanning Microscope,” in Proc. of the SPIE, Ammasi Periasamy ed., Vol. 5700, pp. 23–27 (2005).

Mertz, J.

Muralidhar, M.

Myaing, M. T.

T. P. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, A. K. Patri, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Detection and analysis of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber probe,” Biophys. J. 86, 3959–3965 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, J. R. Baker, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Enhanced two-photon biosensing with double-clad photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1224–1226 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, J. Baker, “Biosensing based on two-photon fluorescence measurements through optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1412–1414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T.P. Thomas, I.J. Majoros, A. Kotlyar, J.R. Baker, Jr., W.J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.J. Russell, T.B. Norris, “Development of a double-clad photonic-crystal-fiber based scanning Microscope,” in Proc. of the SPIE, Ammasi Periasamy ed., Vol. 5700, pp. 23–27 (2005).

Nienhaus, G. U.

D. C. Lamb, A. Schenk, C. Rocker, C. Scalfi-Happ, G. U. Nienhaus, “Sensitivity enhancement in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of multiple species using time-gated detection,” Biophys. J. 79, 1129–1138 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, T. B.

T. P. Thomas, J. Y. Ye, Y. C. Chang, A. Kotlyar, Z. Cao, I. J. Majoros, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Investigation of tumor cell targeting of a dendrimer nanoparticle using a double-clad optical fiber probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, A. K. Patri, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Detection and analysis of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber probe,” Biophys. J. 86, 3959–3965 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, J. R. Baker, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Enhanced two-photon biosensing with double-clad photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1224–1226 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, J. Baker, “Biosensing based on two-photon fluorescence measurements through optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1412–1414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T.B.

J.Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T.P. Thomas, I.J. Majoros, A. Kotlyar, J.R. Baker, Jr., W.J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.J. Russell, T.B. Norris, “Development of a double-clad photonic-crystal-fiber based scanning Microscope,” in Proc. of the SPIE, Ammasi Periasamy ed., Vol. 5700, pp. 23–27 (2005).

Patri, A. K.

T. P. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, A. K. Patri, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Detection and analysis of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber probe,” Biophys. J. 86, 3959–3965 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rahn, H. J.

M. Bohmer, M. Wahl, H. J. Rahn, R. Erdmann, J. Enderlein, “Time-resolved fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 439–445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Regino, C. A.

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7, 1711–1716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rigler, R.

M. Eigen, R. Rigler, “Sorting Single Molecules - Application to Diagnostics and Evolutionary Biotechnology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 5740–5747 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rigler, E. Elson, Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy : theory and applications (Springer, Berlin ; New York, 2001).

Rocker, C.

D. C. Lamb, A. Schenk, C. Rocker, C. Scalfi-Happ, G. U. Nienhaus, “Sensitivity enhancement in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of multiple species using time-gated detection,” Biophys. J. 79, 1129–1138 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

Russell, P.J.

J.Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T.P. Thomas, I.J. Majoros, A. Kotlyar, J.R. Baker, Jr., W.J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.J. Russell, T.B. Norris, “Development of a double-clad photonic-crystal-fiber based scanning Microscope,” in Proc. of the SPIE, Ammasi Periasamy ed., Vol. 5700, pp. 23–27 (2005).

Scalfi-Happ, C.

D. C. Lamb, A. Schenk, C. Rocker, C. Scalfi-Happ, G. U. Nienhaus, “Sensitivity enhancement in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of multiple species using time-gated detection,” Biophys. J. 79, 1129–1138 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schenk, A.

D. C. Lamb, A. Schenk, C. Rocker, C. Scalfi-Happ, G. U. Nienhaus, “Sensitivity enhancement in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of multiple species using time-gated detection,” Biophys. J. 79, 1129–1138 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwille, P.

S. A. Kim, K. G. Heinze, P. Schwille, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in living cells,” Nature Methods 4, 963–973 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, W. W. Webb, “Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one- and two-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 77, 2251–2265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, P. T. C.

K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, E. Gratton, “2-Photon Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy - Method and Application to the Intracellular Environment,” Biophys. J. 68, 694–701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sureka, R.

K. Garai, R. Sureka, S. Maiti, “Detecting amyloid-beta aggregation with fiber-based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 92, L55–L57 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, T.

Thomas, T. P.

T. P. Thomas, J. Y. Ye, Y. C. Chang, A. Kotlyar, Z. Cao, I. J. Majoros, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Investigation of tumor cell targeting of a dendrimer nanoparticle using a double-clad optical fiber probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, A. K. Patri, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Detection and analysis of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber probe,” Biophys. J. 86, 3959–3965 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, T.P.

J.Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T.P. Thomas, I.J. Majoros, A. Kotlyar, J.R. Baker, Jr., W.J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.J. Russell, T.B. Norris, “Development of a double-clad photonic-crystal-fiber based scanning Microscope,” in Proc. of the SPIE, Ammasi Periasamy ed., Vol. 5700, pp. 23–27 (2005).

Thompson, N. L.

N. L. Thompson, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” in Topics in Fluorescnce Spectroscopy, J. R. Lakowicz, ed. (Plenum Press, New York, 1991).

Urano, Y.

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7, 1711–1716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. W.,

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, W. F. W., W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wadsworth, W.J.

J.Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T.P. Thomas, I.J. Majoros, A. Kotlyar, J.R. Baker, Jr., W.J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.J. Russell, T.B. Norris, “Development of a double-clad photonic-crystal-fiber based scanning Microscope,” in Proc. of the SPIE, Ammasi Periasamy ed., Vol. 5700, pp. 23–27 (2005).

Wahl, M.

M. Bohmer, M. Wahl, H. J. Rahn, R. Erdmann, J. Enderlein, “Time-resolved fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 439–445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, W. F. W., W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, W. W. Webb, “Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one- and two-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 77, 2251–2265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mertz, C. Xu, W. W. Webb, “Single-molecule detection by two-photon-excited fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2532–2534 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Magde, W. W. Webb, E. Elson, “Thermodynamic Fluctuations in a Reacting System - Measurement by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 705-&(1972).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. M.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, W. F. W., W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolfbeis, O. S.

O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 78, 3859–3873 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

Ye, J. Y.

T. P. Thomas, J. Y. Ye, Y. C. Chang, A. Kotlyar, Z. Cao, I. J. Majoros, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Investigation of tumor cell targeting of a dendrimer nanoparticle using a double-clad optical fiber probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, A. K. Patri, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Detection and analysis of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber probe,” Biophys. J. 86, 3959–3965 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, J. R. Baker, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Enhanced two-photon biosensing with double-clad photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1224–1226 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, J. Baker, “Biosensing based on two-photon fluorescence measurements through optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1412–1414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.Y.

J.Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T.P. Thomas, I.J. Majoros, A. Kotlyar, J.R. Baker, Jr., W.J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.J. Russell, T.B. Norris, “Development of a double-clad photonic-crystal-fiber based scanning Microscope,” in Proc. of the SPIE, Ammasi Periasamy ed., Vol. 5700, pp. 23–27 (2005).

Zipfel, W. R.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, W. F. W., W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 78, 3859–3873 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biophys. J. (5)

K. Garai, R. Sureka, S. Maiti, “Detecting amyloid-beta aggregation with fiber-based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 92, L55–L57 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, A. K. Patri, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Detection and analysis of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber probe,” Biophys. J. 86, 3959–3965 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, E. Gratton, “2-Photon Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy - Method and Application to the Intracellular Environment,” Biophys. J. 68, 694–701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, W. W. Webb, “Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one- and two-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 77, 2251–2265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Lamb, A. Schenk, C. Rocker, C. Scalfi-Happ, G. U. Nienhaus, “Sensitivity enhancement in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of multiple species using time-gated detection,” Biophys. J. 79, 1129–1138 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biopolymers (1)

E. L. Elson, D. Magde, “Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy .1. Conceptual Basis and Theory,” Biopolymers 13, 1–27 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Bohmer, M. Wahl, H. J. Rahn, R. Erdmann, J. Enderlein, “Time-resolved fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 439–445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Exp Physiol (1)

F. Helmchen, “Miniaturization of fluorescence microscopes using fibre optics,” Exp Physiol 87, 737–745 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J of Chem. Phys. (1)

S. H. Behrens, D. G. Grier, “The charge of glass and silica surfaces,” J of Chem. Phys. 115, 6716–6721 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

T. P. Thomas, J. Y. Ye, Y. C. Chang, A. Kotlyar, Z. Cao, I. J. Majoros, T. B. Norris, J. R. Baker, “Investigation of tumor cell targeting of a dendrimer nanoparticle using a double-clad optical fiber probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Elson, “Quick tour of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy from its inception,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 857–864 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

H. Kobayashi, Y. Hama, Y. Koyama, T. Barrett, C. A. Regino, Y. Urano, P. L. Choyke, “Simultaneous multicolor imaging of five different lymphatic basins using quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7, 1711–1716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Methods (1)

S. A. Kim, K. G. Heinze, P. Schwille, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in living cells,” Nature Methods 4, 963–973 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Magde, W. W. Webb, E. Elson, “Thermodynamic Fluctuations in a Reacting System - Measurement by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 705-&(1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

M. Eigen, R. Rigler, “Sorting Single Molecules - Application to Diagnostics and Evolutionary Biotechnology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 5740–5747 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, W. F. W., W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

N. L. Thompson, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” in Topics in Fluorescnce Spectroscopy, J. R. Lakowicz, ed. (Plenum Press, New York, 1991).

R. Rigler, E. Elson, Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy : theory and applications (Springer, Berlin ; New York, 2001).

J.Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T.P. Thomas, I.J. Majoros, A. Kotlyar, J.R. Baker, Jr., W.J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P.J. Russell, T.B. Norris, “Development of a double-clad photonic-crystal-fiber based scanning Microscope,” in Proc. of the SPIE, Ammasi Periasamy ed., Vol. 5700, pp. 23–27 (2005).

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