Abstract

A new method for in-situ detection and measurement of dissolved methane in aqueous media/environments with a limit of detection of 0.2 nM (3σ, and t90~110s) and range (1–300 nM) is presented. The detection method is based on refractive index (RI) modulation of a modified PolyDiMethylSiloxane (PDMS) layer incorporating molecules of cryptophane-A [1] which have a selective and reversible affinity for methane [2]. The refractive index is accurately determined using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) [3]. A prototype sensor has been repeatedly tested, using a dissolved gas calibration system under a range of temperature and salinity regimes. Laboratory-based results show that the technique is specific, sensitive, and reversible. The method is suitable for miniaturization and incorporation into in situ sensor technology.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  53. H. W. Bange, R. Ramesh, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Methane in surface waters of the Arabian Sea," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3547-3550 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  54. G. L. Klunder, J. Bürck, H.-J. Ache, R. J. Silva, and R. E. Russo, "Temperature Effects on a Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Absorption Sensor," Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 387-393 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Benounis, T. Aka-Ngnui, N. Jaffrezic, and J. P. Dutasta, "NIR and optical fiber sensor for gases detection produced by transformation oil degradation," Sens. Actuators A 141, 76-83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. Sosna, G. Denuault, R. W. Pascal, R. D. Prien, and M. Mowlem, "Development of a reliable microelectrode dissolved oxygen sensor," Sens. Actuators B 123, 344-351 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Reeburgh, "Oceanic Methane Biogeochemistry," Chem. Rev. 107, 486-513 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

V. Kitidis, L. H. Tizzard, G. Uher, A. G. Judd, R. C. Upstill-Goddard, I. M. Head, N. D. Gray, G. Taylor, R. Duran, J. Iglesias, and S. Garcia-Gil, "The biogeochemical Cycling of Methane in Ria de Vigo, NW Spain: sediment Processing and Sea-Air exchange," J. Mar. Syst. 66, 258-271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Abad, A. Montoya, A. Hildebrandt, D. Barcelo, and L. M. Lechuga, "Determination of carbaryl in natural water samples by a surface plasmon resonance flow-through immunosensor," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 2129-2136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Sauter, S. I. Muyakshin, J.-L. Charlou, M. Schlüter, A. Boetius, K. Jerosch, E. Damm, J.-P. Foucher, and M. Klages, "Methane discharge from a deep-sea submarine mud volcano into the upper water column by gas hydrate-coated methane bubbles," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 243, 354-365 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

S. Kroger and R. J. Law, "Sensing the sea," Trends in Biotechnology 23, 250-256 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1. S. De Gregorio, S. Gurrieri, and M. Valenza, "A PTFE membrane for the in situ extraction of dissolved gases in natural waters: Theory and applications," Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 6, Q09005, doi:09010.01029/02005GC000947 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Sih, M. O. Wolf, D. Jarvis, and J. F. Young, "Surface-plasmon resonance sensing of alcohol with electrodeposited polythiophene and gold nanoparticle-oligothiophene films," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 10.1063/1061.2138373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Brotin, N. Roy, and J. P. Dutasta, "Improved Synthesis of Functional CTVs and Cryptophanes Using Sc(OTf)3 as Catalyst," J. Org. Chem. 70, 6187-6195 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Shakova, I. Semiletov, and G. Panteleev, "The distribution of methane on the Siberian Arctic shelves: Implications for the marine methane cycle," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32 (2005).

2004 (3)

P. G. Brewer, G. Malb, J. D. Pasteris, S. N. White, T. Peltzer, B. Wopenka, J. Freeman, and M. O. Brown, "Development of a laser Raman spectrometer for deep-ocean science," Deep Sea Res. I 51, 739-753 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt, N. Bich Ha, J. Pfannkuche, H. Amann, H.-D. Kronfeldt, and G. Kowalewska, "Detection of PAHs in seawater using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Mar. Poll. Bull. 49, 229-234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tosner, O. Petrov, S. V. Dvinskikh, J. Kowalewski, and D. Sandstrom, "A 13C solid-state NMR study of cryptophane-E:chloromethane inclusion complexes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 388, 208-211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, "Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor," Sens. Actuators B 91, 266-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Reeburgh, "Global Methane Biogeochemistry," Treatise on Geochemistry 4, 1-25 (2003).

T. Shioda, N. Takamatsu, K. Suzuki, and S. Shichijyo, "Influence of water sorption on refractive index of fluorinated polyimide," Polymer 44, 137-142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Charlou, J. P. Donval, T. Zitter, N. Roy, P. Jean-Baptiste, J. P. Foucher, and J. Woodside, "Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines on mud volcanoes of the eastern Mediterranean Sea," Deep Sea Res. I 50, 941-958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

J. J. Middelburg, J. Nieuwenhuize, N. Iversen, N. Høgh, H. de Wilde, W. Helder, R. Seifert, and O. Christof, "Methane distribution in European tidal estuaries," Biogeochemistry 59, 95-119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Cowen, X. Wen, and B. N. Popp, "Methane in aging hydrothermal plumes," Geochim. Cosmoch. Acta 66, 3563-3571 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Amouroux, G. Roberts, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Biogenic gas (CH4, N2O, DMS) Emission to the Atmosphere from Near-Shore of the North-western Black Sea," Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 54, 575-587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Rehder, R. W. Collier, K. Heeschen, P. M. Kosro, J. Barth, and E. Suess, "Enhanced marine CH4 emissions to the atmosphere off Oregon caused by coastal upwelling," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 10.1029/2000GB001391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Baker, R. N. Hey, J. E. Lupton, J. A. Resing, R. A. Feely, J. J. Gharib, G. J. Massoth, F. J. Sansone, M. Kleinrock, F. Martinez, D. F. Naar, C. Rodrigo, D. Bohnenstiehl, and D. Pardee, "Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5o-32.3oS," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2130 doi:2110.1029/2001JB000651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Urashi and T. Arakawa, "Detection of lower hydrocarbons by means of surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 76, 32-35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Murphy, S. Lucht, H. Schmidt, and H.-D. Kronfeldt, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system for continuous measurements of chemicals in sea-water," J. Raman. Spectrosc. 31, 943-948 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

S. Houweling, T. Kaminski, F. Dentener, J. Lelieveld, and M. Heimann, "Inverse modeling of methane sources and sinks using the adjoint of a global transport model," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 26137-26160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Mizaikoff, "Mid-Infrared evanescent wave sensors - a novel approach for subsea monitoring," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1185-1194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Short, D. P. Fries, S. K. Toler, C. E. Lembke, and R. H. Byrne, "Development of an underwater mass-spectrometry system for in situ chemical analysis," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1195-1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. Bartik, M. Luhmer, J. P. Dutasta, A. Collet, and J. Reisse, "129Xe and 1H NMR Study of the Reversible Trapping of Xenon by Cryptophane-A in Organic Solution," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 784-791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Bange, R. Ramesh, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Methane in surface waters of the Arabian Sea," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3547-3550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. A. Currie, "Detection: International update, and some emerging dilemmas involving calibration, the blank and multiple detection decisions," Chemom. Intell. Lab. Systems 37, 151-181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. Souteyrand, D. Nicolas, J. R. Martin, J. P. Chauvet, and H. Perez, "Behaviour of cryptophane molecules in gas media," Sens. Actuators B 33, 182-187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. K. Paull, W. UsslerIII, W. S. Borowski, and F. N. Spiess, "Methane-rich plumes on the Carolina continental rise: Associations with gas hydrates," Geology 23, 89-92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

G. L. Klunder, J. Bürck, H.-J. Ache, R. J. Silva, and R. E. Russo, "Temperature Effects on a Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Absorption Sensor," Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 387-393 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Bange, U. H. Bartell, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Methane in the Baltic and North Seas and a reassessment of the marine emission of methane," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 8, 465-480 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

L. Garel, J. P. Dutasta, and A. Collet, "Complexation of methane and chlorofluorocarbons by cryptophane-A in organic solution," Angew.Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 32, 1169-1171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Ideta and T. Arakawa, "Surface plasmon resonance study for the detection of some chemical species," Sens. Actuators B 13, 384-386 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Charlou and J.-P. Donval, "Hydrothermal methane venting between 12oN and 26oN along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 9625-9642 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. Schirrer, P. Thepin, and G. Torres, "Water absorption, swelling, rupture and salt release in salt-silicone rubber compounds," J. Mat. Sci. 27, 3424-3434 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

J. Canceill and A. Collet, "Two-step Synthesis of D3 and C3h Cryptophanes," J.C.S. Chem. Comm. 9, 582-584 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Kvenvolden, "Methane hydrate-a major reservoir of carbon in the shallow geosphere?," Chem. Geol. 71, 41-51 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. Gabard and A. Collet, "Synthesis of a (D3)-Bis(cyclotriveratrylenyl) Macrocage by Stereospecific Replication of a (C3)-Subunit," J.C.S. Chem. Comm. 21, 1137-1139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

J. W. Swinnerton and V. J. Linnenbom, "Determination of the C1 to C4 hydrocarbons in sea water by gas chromatography," Journal of Gas Chromatography 5, 570-573 (1967).

1963 (1)

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons by light," Naturforsch A 23, 2135-2136 (1963).

Abad, A.

E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Abad, A. Montoya, A. Hildebrandt, D. Barcelo, and L. M. Lechuga, "Determination of carbaryl in natural water samples by a surface plasmon resonance flow-through immunosensor," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 2129-2136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ache, H.-J.

Aka-Ngnui, T.

M. Benounis, T. Aka-Ngnui, N. Jaffrezic, and J. P. Dutasta, "NIR and optical fiber sensor for gases detection produced by transformation oil degradation," Sens. Actuators A 141, 76-83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amann, H.

H. Schmidt, N. Bich Ha, J. Pfannkuche, H. Amann, H.-D. Kronfeldt, and G. Kowalewska, "Detection of PAHs in seawater using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Mar. Poll. Bull. 49, 229-234 (2004).
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Amouroux, D.

D. Amouroux, G. Roberts, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Biogenic gas (CH4, N2O, DMS) Emission to the Atmosphere from Near-Shore of the North-western Black Sea," Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 54, 575-587 (2002).
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Andreae, M. O.

D. Amouroux, G. Roberts, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Biogenic gas (CH4, N2O, DMS) Emission to the Atmosphere from Near-Shore of the North-western Black Sea," Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 54, 575-587 (2002).
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H. W. Bange, R. Ramesh, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Methane in surface waters of the Arabian Sea," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3547-3550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Bange, U. H. Bartell, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Methane in the Baltic and North Seas and a reassessment of the marine emission of methane," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 8, 465-480 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, T.

T. Urashi and T. Arakawa, "Detection of lower hydrocarbons by means of surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 76, 32-35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Ideta and T. Arakawa, "Surface plasmon resonance study for the detection of some chemical species," Sens. Actuators B 13, 384-386 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baker, E. T.

E. T. Baker, R. N. Hey, J. E. Lupton, J. A. Resing, R. A. Feely, J. J. Gharib, G. J. Massoth, F. J. Sansone, M. Kleinrock, F. Martinez, D. F. Naar, C. Rodrigo, D. Bohnenstiehl, and D. Pardee, "Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5o-32.3oS," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2130 doi:2110.1029/2001JB000651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bange, H. W.

H. W. Bange, R. Ramesh, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Methane in surface waters of the Arabian Sea," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3547-3550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Bange, U. H. Bartell, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Methane in the Baltic and North Seas and a reassessment of the marine emission of methane," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 8, 465-480 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barcelo, D.

E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Abad, A. Montoya, A. Hildebrandt, D. Barcelo, and L. M. Lechuga, "Determination of carbaryl in natural water samples by a surface plasmon resonance flow-through immunosensor," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 2129-2136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartell, U. H.

H. W. Bange, U. H. Bartell, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Methane in the Baltic and North Seas and a reassessment of the marine emission of methane," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 8, 465-480 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barth, J.

G. Rehder, R. W. Collier, K. Heeschen, P. M. Kosro, J. Barth, and E. Suess, "Enhanced marine CH4 emissions to the atmosphere off Oregon caused by coastal upwelling," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 10.1029/2000GB001391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bartholomew, D. U.

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, "Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor," Sens. Actuators B 91, 266-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bartik, K.

K. Bartik, M. Luhmer, J. P. Dutasta, A. Collet, and J. Reisse, "129Xe and 1H NMR Study of the Reversible Trapping of Xenon by Cryptophane-A in Organic Solution," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 784-791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benounis, M.

M. Benounis, T. Aka-Ngnui, N. Jaffrezic, and J. P. Dutasta, "NIR and optical fiber sensor for gases detection produced by transformation oil degradation," Sens. Actuators A 141, 76-83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bich Ha, N.

H. Schmidt, N. Bich Ha, J. Pfannkuche, H. Amann, H.-D. Kronfeldt, and G. Kowalewska, "Detection of PAHs in seawater using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Mar. Poll. Bull. 49, 229-234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boetius, A.

E. J. Sauter, S. I. Muyakshin, J.-L. Charlou, M. Schlüter, A. Boetius, K. Jerosch, E. Damm, J.-P. Foucher, and M. Klages, "Methane discharge from a deep-sea submarine mud volcano into the upper water column by gas hydrate-coated methane bubbles," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 243, 354-365 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bohnenstiehl, D.

E. T. Baker, R. N. Hey, J. E. Lupton, J. A. Resing, R. A. Feely, J. J. Gharib, G. J. Massoth, F. J. Sansone, M. Kleinrock, F. Martinez, D. F. Naar, C. Rodrigo, D. Bohnenstiehl, and D. Pardee, "Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5o-32.3oS," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2130 doi:2110.1029/2001JB000651 (2002).
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Borowski, W. S.

C. K. Paull, W. UsslerIII, W. S. Borowski, and F. N. Spiess, "Methane-rich plumes on the Carolina continental rise: Associations with gas hydrates," Geology 23, 89-92 (1995).
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Brewer, P. G.

P. G. Brewer, G. Malb, J. D. Pasteris, S. N. White, T. Peltzer, B. Wopenka, J. Freeman, and M. O. Brown, "Development of a laser Raman spectrometer for deep-ocean science," Deep Sea Res. I 51, 739-753 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brotin, T.

T. Brotin, N. Roy, and J. P. Dutasta, "Improved Synthesis of Functional CTVs and Cryptophanes Using Sc(OTf)3 as Catalyst," J. Org. Chem. 70, 6187-6195 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, M. O.

P. G. Brewer, G. Malb, J. D. Pasteris, S. N. White, T. Peltzer, B. Wopenka, J. Freeman, and M. O. Brown, "Development of a laser Raman spectrometer for deep-ocean science," Deep Sea Res. I 51, 739-753 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bürck, J.

Byrne, R. H.

R. T. Short, D. P. Fries, S. K. Toler, C. E. Lembke, and R. H. Byrne, "Development of an underwater mass-spectrometry system for in situ chemical analysis," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1195-1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Calle, A.

E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Abad, A. Montoya, A. Hildebrandt, D. Barcelo, and L. M. Lechuga, "Determination of carbaryl in natural water samples by a surface plasmon resonance flow-through immunosensor," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 2129-2136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Canceill, J.

J. Canceill and A. Collet, "Two-step Synthesis of D3 and C3h Cryptophanes," J.C.S. Chem. Comm. 9, 582-584 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Charlou, J. L.

J. L. Charlou, J. P. Donval, T. Zitter, N. Roy, P. Jean-Baptiste, J. P. Foucher, and J. Woodside, "Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines on mud volcanoes of the eastern Mediterranean Sea," Deep Sea Res. I 50, 941-958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Charlou, J.-L.

E. J. Sauter, S. I. Muyakshin, J.-L. Charlou, M. Schlüter, A. Boetius, K. Jerosch, E. Damm, J.-P. Foucher, and M. Klages, "Methane discharge from a deep-sea submarine mud volcano into the upper water column by gas hydrate-coated methane bubbles," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 243, 354-365 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Charlou and J.-P. Donval, "Hydrothermal methane venting between 12oN and 26oN along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 9625-9642 (1993).
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Chauvet, J. P.

E. Souteyrand, D. Nicolas, J. R. Martin, J. P. Chauvet, and H. Perez, "Behaviour of cryptophane molecules in gas media," Sens. Actuators B 33, 182-187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chinowsky, T. M.

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, "Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor," Sens. Actuators B 91, 266-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Christof, O.

J. J. Middelburg, J. Nieuwenhuize, N. Iversen, N. Høgh, H. de Wilde, W. Helder, R. Seifert, and O. Christof, "Methane distribution in European tidal estuaries," Biogeochemistry 59, 95-119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Collet, A.

K. Bartik, M. Luhmer, J. P. Dutasta, A. Collet, and J. Reisse, "129Xe and 1H NMR Study of the Reversible Trapping of Xenon by Cryptophane-A in Organic Solution," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 784-791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Garel, J. P. Dutasta, and A. Collet, "Complexation of methane and chlorofluorocarbons by cryptophane-A in organic solution," Angew.Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 32, 1169-1171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Canceill and A. Collet, "Two-step Synthesis of D3 and C3h Cryptophanes," J.C.S. Chem. Comm. 9, 582-584 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Gabard and A. Collet, "Synthesis of a (D3)-Bis(cyclotriveratrylenyl) Macrocage by Stereospecific Replication of a (C3)-Subunit," J.C.S. Chem. Comm. 21, 1137-1139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Collier, R. W.

G. Rehder, R. W. Collier, K. Heeschen, P. M. Kosro, J. Barth, and E. Suess, "Enhanced marine CH4 emissions to the atmosphere off Oregon caused by coastal upwelling," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 10.1029/2000GB001391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cowen, J. P.

J. P. Cowen, X. Wen, and B. N. Popp, "Methane in aging hydrothermal plumes," Geochim. Cosmoch. Acta 66, 3563-3571 (2002).
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Currie, L. A.

L. A. Currie, "Detection: International update, and some emerging dilemmas involving calibration, the blank and multiple detection decisions," Chemom. Intell. Lab. Systems 37, 151-181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Damm, E.

E. J. Sauter, S. I. Muyakshin, J.-L. Charlou, M. Schlüter, A. Boetius, K. Jerosch, E. Damm, J.-P. Foucher, and M. Klages, "Methane discharge from a deep-sea submarine mud volcano into the upper water column by gas hydrate-coated methane bubbles," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 243, 354-365 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Gregorio, S.

1. S. De Gregorio, S. Gurrieri, and M. Valenza, "A PTFE membrane for the in situ extraction of dissolved gases in natural waters: Theory and applications," Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 6, Q09005, doi:09010.01029/02005GC000947 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Wilde, H.

J. J. Middelburg, J. Nieuwenhuize, N. Iversen, N. Høgh, H. de Wilde, W. Helder, R. Seifert, and O. Christof, "Methane distribution in European tidal estuaries," Biogeochemistry 59, 95-119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dentener, F.

S. Houweling, T. Kaminski, F. Dentener, J. Lelieveld, and M. Heimann, "Inverse modeling of methane sources and sinks using the adjoint of a global transport model," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 26137-26160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Denuault, G.

M. Sosna, G. Denuault, R. W. Pascal, R. D. Prien, and M. Mowlem, "Development of a reliable microelectrode dissolved oxygen sensor," Sens. Actuators B 123, 344-351 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Donval, J. P.

J. L. Charlou, J. P. Donval, T. Zitter, N. Roy, P. Jean-Baptiste, J. P. Foucher, and J. Woodside, "Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines on mud volcanoes of the eastern Mediterranean Sea," Deep Sea Res. I 50, 941-958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Donval, J.-P.

J.-L. Charlou and J.-P. Donval, "Hydrothermal methane venting between 12oN and 26oN along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 9625-9642 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Duran, R.

V. Kitidis, L. H. Tizzard, G. Uher, A. G. Judd, R. C. Upstill-Goddard, I. M. Head, N. D. Gray, G. Taylor, R. Duran, J. Iglesias, and S. Garcia-Gil, "The biogeochemical Cycling of Methane in Ria de Vigo, NW Spain: sediment Processing and Sea-Air exchange," J. Mar. Syst. 66, 258-271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dutasta, J. P.

M. Benounis, T. Aka-Ngnui, N. Jaffrezic, and J. P. Dutasta, "NIR and optical fiber sensor for gases detection produced by transformation oil degradation," Sens. Actuators A 141, 76-83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Brotin, N. Roy, and J. P. Dutasta, "Improved Synthesis of Functional CTVs and Cryptophanes Using Sc(OTf)3 as Catalyst," J. Org. Chem. 70, 6187-6195 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bartik, M. Luhmer, J. P. Dutasta, A. Collet, and J. Reisse, "129Xe and 1H NMR Study of the Reversible Trapping of Xenon by Cryptophane-A in Organic Solution," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 784-791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Garel, J. P. Dutasta, and A. Collet, "Complexation of methane and chlorofluorocarbons by cryptophane-A in organic solution," Angew.Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 32, 1169-1171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dvinskikh, S. V.

Z. Tosner, O. Petrov, S. V. Dvinskikh, J. Kowalewski, and D. Sandstrom, "A 13C solid-state NMR study of cryptophane-E:chloromethane inclusion complexes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 388, 208-211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elkind, J. L.

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, "Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor," Sens. Actuators B 91, 266-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feely, R. A.

E. T. Baker, R. N. Hey, J. E. Lupton, J. A. Resing, R. A. Feely, J. J. Gharib, G. J. Massoth, F. J. Sansone, M. Kleinrock, F. Martinez, D. F. Naar, C. Rodrigo, D. Bohnenstiehl, and D. Pardee, "Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5o-32.3oS," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2130 doi:2110.1029/2001JB000651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Foucher, J. P.

J. L. Charlou, J. P. Donval, T. Zitter, N. Roy, P. Jean-Baptiste, J. P. Foucher, and J. Woodside, "Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines on mud volcanoes of the eastern Mediterranean Sea," Deep Sea Res. I 50, 941-958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foucher, J.-P.

E. J. Sauter, S. I. Muyakshin, J.-L. Charlou, M. Schlüter, A. Boetius, K. Jerosch, E. Damm, J.-P. Foucher, and M. Klages, "Methane discharge from a deep-sea submarine mud volcano into the upper water column by gas hydrate-coated methane bubbles," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 243, 354-365 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, J.

P. G. Brewer, G. Malb, J. D. Pasteris, S. N. White, T. Peltzer, B. Wopenka, J. Freeman, and M. O. Brown, "Development of a laser Raman spectrometer for deep-ocean science," Deep Sea Res. I 51, 739-753 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fries, D. P.

R. T. Short, D. P. Fries, S. K. Toler, C. E. Lembke, and R. H. Byrne, "Development of an underwater mass-spectrometry system for in situ chemical analysis," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1195-1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gabard, J.

J. Gabard and A. Collet, "Synthesis of a (D3)-Bis(cyclotriveratrylenyl) Macrocage by Stereospecific Replication of a (C3)-Subunit," J.C.S. Chem. Comm. 21, 1137-1139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Gil, S.

V. Kitidis, L. H. Tizzard, G. Uher, A. G. Judd, R. C. Upstill-Goddard, I. M. Head, N. D. Gray, G. Taylor, R. Duran, J. Iglesias, and S. Garcia-Gil, "The biogeochemical Cycling of Methane in Ria de Vigo, NW Spain: sediment Processing and Sea-Air exchange," J. Mar. Syst. 66, 258-271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garel, L.

L. Garel, J. P. Dutasta, and A. Collet, "Complexation of methane and chlorofluorocarbons by cryptophane-A in organic solution," Angew.Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 32, 1169-1171 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gharib, J. J.

E. T. Baker, R. N. Hey, J. E. Lupton, J. A. Resing, R. A. Feely, J. J. Gharib, G. J. Massoth, F. J. Sansone, M. Kleinrock, F. Martinez, D. F. Naar, C. Rodrigo, D. Bohnenstiehl, and D. Pardee, "Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5o-32.3oS," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2130 doi:2110.1029/2001JB000651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gray, N. D.

V. Kitidis, L. H. Tizzard, G. Uher, A. G. Judd, R. C. Upstill-Goddard, I. M. Head, N. D. Gray, G. Taylor, R. Duran, J. Iglesias, and S. Garcia-Gil, "The biogeochemical Cycling of Methane in Ria de Vigo, NW Spain: sediment Processing and Sea-Air exchange," J. Mar. Syst. 66, 258-271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gurrieri, S.

1. S. De Gregorio, S. Gurrieri, and M. Valenza, "A PTFE membrane for the in situ extraction of dissolved gases in natural waters: Theory and applications," Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 6, Q09005, doi:09010.01029/02005GC000947 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Head, I. M.

V. Kitidis, L. H. Tizzard, G. Uher, A. G. Judd, R. C. Upstill-Goddard, I. M. Head, N. D. Gray, G. Taylor, R. Duran, J. Iglesias, and S. Garcia-Gil, "The biogeochemical Cycling of Methane in Ria de Vigo, NW Spain: sediment Processing and Sea-Air exchange," J. Mar. Syst. 66, 258-271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heeschen, K.

G. Rehder, R. W. Collier, K. Heeschen, P. M. Kosro, J. Barth, and E. Suess, "Enhanced marine CH4 emissions to the atmosphere off Oregon caused by coastal upwelling," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 10.1029/2000GB001391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heimann, M.

S. Houweling, T. Kaminski, F. Dentener, J. Lelieveld, and M. Heimann, "Inverse modeling of methane sources and sinks using the adjoint of a global transport model," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 26137-26160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Helder, W.

J. J. Middelburg, J. Nieuwenhuize, N. Iversen, N. Høgh, H. de Wilde, W. Helder, R. Seifert, and O. Christof, "Methane distribution in European tidal estuaries," Biogeochemistry 59, 95-119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hey, R. N.

E. T. Baker, R. N. Hey, J. E. Lupton, J. A. Resing, R. A. Feely, J. J. Gharib, G. J. Massoth, F. J. Sansone, M. Kleinrock, F. Martinez, D. F. Naar, C. Rodrigo, D. Bohnenstiehl, and D. Pardee, "Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5o-32.3oS," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2130 doi:2110.1029/2001JB000651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrandt, A.

E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Abad, A. Montoya, A. Hildebrandt, D. Barcelo, and L. M. Lechuga, "Determination of carbaryl in natural water samples by a surface plasmon resonance flow-through immunosensor," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 2129-2136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Høgh, N.

J. J. Middelburg, J. Nieuwenhuize, N. Iversen, N. Høgh, H. de Wilde, W. Helder, R. Seifert, and O. Christof, "Methane distribution in European tidal estuaries," Biogeochemistry 59, 95-119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Houweling, S.

S. Houweling, T. Kaminski, F. Dentener, J. Lelieveld, and M. Heimann, "Inverse modeling of methane sources and sinks using the adjoint of a global transport model," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 26137-26160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ideta, K.

K. Ideta and T. Arakawa, "Surface plasmon resonance study for the detection of some chemical species," Sens. Actuators B 13, 384-386 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Iglesias, J.

V. Kitidis, L. H. Tizzard, G. Uher, A. G. Judd, R. C. Upstill-Goddard, I. M. Head, N. D. Gray, G. Taylor, R. Duran, J. Iglesias, and S. Garcia-Gil, "The biogeochemical Cycling of Methane in Ria de Vigo, NW Spain: sediment Processing and Sea-Air exchange," J. Mar. Syst. 66, 258-271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iversen, N.

J. J. Middelburg, J. Nieuwenhuize, N. Iversen, N. Høgh, H. de Wilde, W. Helder, R. Seifert, and O. Christof, "Methane distribution in European tidal estuaries," Biogeochemistry 59, 95-119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jaffrezic, N.

M. Benounis, T. Aka-Ngnui, N. Jaffrezic, and J. P. Dutasta, "NIR and optical fiber sensor for gases detection produced by transformation oil degradation," Sens. Actuators A 141, 76-83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jarvis, D.

B. C. Sih, M. O. Wolf, D. Jarvis, and J. F. Young, "Surface-plasmon resonance sensing of alcohol with electrodeposited polythiophene and gold nanoparticle-oligothiophene films," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 10.1063/1061.2138373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jean-Baptiste, P.

J. L. Charlou, J. P. Donval, T. Zitter, N. Roy, P. Jean-Baptiste, J. P. Foucher, and J. Woodside, "Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines on mud volcanoes of the eastern Mediterranean Sea," Deep Sea Res. I 50, 941-958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jerosch, K.

E. J. Sauter, S. I. Muyakshin, J.-L. Charlou, M. Schlüter, A. Boetius, K. Jerosch, E. Damm, J.-P. Foucher, and M. Klages, "Methane discharge from a deep-sea submarine mud volcano into the upper water column by gas hydrate-coated methane bubbles," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 243, 354-365 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Judd, A. G.

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T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, "Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor," Sens. Actuators B 91, 266-274 (2003).
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S. Houweling, T. Kaminski, F. Dentener, J. Lelieveld, and M. Heimann, "Inverse modeling of methane sources and sinks using the adjoint of a global transport model," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 26137-26160 (1999).
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V. Kitidis, L. H. Tizzard, G. Uher, A. G. Judd, R. C. Upstill-Goddard, I. M. Head, N. D. Gray, G. Taylor, R. Duran, J. Iglesias, and S. Garcia-Gil, "The biogeochemical Cycling of Methane in Ria de Vigo, NW Spain: sediment Processing and Sea-Air exchange," J. Mar. Syst. 66, 258-271 (2006).
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Klages, M.

E. J. Sauter, S. I. Muyakshin, J.-L. Charlou, M. Schlüter, A. Boetius, K. Jerosch, E. Damm, J.-P. Foucher, and M. Klages, "Methane discharge from a deep-sea submarine mud volcano into the upper water column by gas hydrate-coated methane bubbles," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 243, 354-365 (2006).
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Kleinrock, M.

E. T. Baker, R. N. Hey, J. E. Lupton, J. A. Resing, R. A. Feely, J. J. Gharib, G. J. Massoth, F. J. Sansone, M. Kleinrock, F. Martinez, D. F. Naar, C. Rodrigo, D. Bohnenstiehl, and D. Pardee, "Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5o-32.3oS," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2130 doi:2110.1029/2001JB000651 (2002).
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Klunder, G. L.

Kosro, P. M.

G. Rehder, R. W. Collier, K. Heeschen, P. M. Kosro, J. Barth, and E. Suess, "Enhanced marine CH4 emissions to the atmosphere off Oregon caused by coastal upwelling," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 10.1029/2000GB001391 (2002).
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H. Schmidt, N. Bich Ha, J. Pfannkuche, H. Amann, H.-D. Kronfeldt, and G. Kowalewska, "Detection of PAHs in seawater using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Mar. Poll. Bull. 49, 229-234 (2004).
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Z. Tosner, O. Petrov, S. V. Dvinskikh, J. Kowalewski, and D. Sandstrom, "A 13C solid-state NMR study of cryptophane-E:chloromethane inclusion complexes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 388, 208-211 (2004).
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E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons by light," Naturforsch A 23, 2135-2136 (1963).

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H. Schmidt, N. Bich Ha, J. Pfannkuche, H. Amann, H.-D. Kronfeldt, and G. Kowalewska, "Detection of PAHs in seawater using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Mar. Poll. Bull. 49, 229-234 (2004).
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T. Murphy, S. Lucht, H. Schmidt, and H.-D. Kronfeldt, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system for continuous measurements of chemicals in sea-water," J. Raman. Spectrosc. 31, 943-948 (2000).
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E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Abad, A. Montoya, A. Hildebrandt, D. Barcelo, and L. M. Lechuga, "Determination of carbaryl in natural water samples by a surface plasmon resonance flow-through immunosensor," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 2129-2136 (2006).
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Lelieveld, J.

S. Houweling, T. Kaminski, F. Dentener, J. Lelieveld, and M. Heimann, "Inverse modeling of methane sources and sinks using the adjoint of a global transport model," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 26137-26160 (1999).
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Lembke, C. E.

R. T. Short, D. P. Fries, S. K. Toler, C. E. Lembke, and R. H. Byrne, "Development of an underwater mass-spectrometry system for in situ chemical analysis," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1195-1201 (1999).
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C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
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Lind, T.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
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J. W. Swinnerton and V. J. Linnenbom, "Determination of the C1 to C4 hydrocarbons in sea water by gas chromatography," Journal of Gas Chromatography 5, 570-573 (1967).

Lucht, S.

T. Murphy, S. Lucht, H. Schmidt, and H.-D. Kronfeldt, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system for continuous measurements of chemicals in sea-water," J. Raman. Spectrosc. 31, 943-948 (2000).
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Luhmer, M.

K. Bartik, M. Luhmer, J. P. Dutasta, A. Collet, and J. Reisse, "129Xe and 1H NMR Study of the Reversible Trapping of Xenon by Cryptophane-A in Organic Solution," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 784-791 (1998).
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Lupton, J. E.

E. T. Baker, R. N. Hey, J. E. Lupton, J. A. Resing, R. A. Feely, J. J. Gharib, G. J. Massoth, F. J. Sansone, M. Kleinrock, F. Martinez, D. F. Naar, C. Rodrigo, D. Bohnenstiehl, and D. Pardee, "Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5o-32.3oS," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2130 doi:2110.1029/2001JB000651 (2002).
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Malb, G.

P. G. Brewer, G. Malb, J. D. Pasteris, S. N. White, T. Peltzer, B. Wopenka, J. Freeman, and M. O. Brown, "Development of a laser Raman spectrometer for deep-ocean science," Deep Sea Res. I 51, 739-753 (2004).
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Martin, J. R.

E. Souteyrand, D. Nicolas, J. R. Martin, J. P. Chauvet, and H. Perez, "Behaviour of cryptophane molecules in gas media," Sens. Actuators B 33, 182-187 (1996).
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Martinez, F.

E. T. Baker, R. N. Hey, J. E. Lupton, J. A. Resing, R. A. Feely, J. J. Gharib, G. J. Massoth, F. J. Sansone, M. Kleinrock, F. Martinez, D. F. Naar, C. Rodrigo, D. Bohnenstiehl, and D. Pardee, "Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5o-32.3oS," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2130 doi:2110.1029/2001JB000651 (2002).
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Massoth, G. J.

E. T. Baker, R. N. Hey, J. E. Lupton, J. A. Resing, R. A. Feely, J. J. Gharib, G. J. Massoth, F. J. Sansone, M. Kleinrock, F. Martinez, D. F. Naar, C. Rodrigo, D. Bohnenstiehl, and D. Pardee, "Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5o-32.3oS," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2130 doi:2110.1029/2001JB000651 (2002).
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E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Abad, A. Montoya, A. Hildebrandt, D. Barcelo, and L. M. Lechuga, "Determination of carbaryl in natural water samples by a surface plasmon resonance flow-through immunosensor," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 2129-2136 (2006).
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Middelburg, J. J.

J. J. Middelburg, J. Nieuwenhuize, N. Iversen, N. Høgh, H. de Wilde, W. Helder, R. Seifert, and O. Christof, "Methane distribution in European tidal estuaries," Biogeochemistry 59, 95-119 (2002).
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B. Mizaikoff, "Mid-Infrared evanescent wave sensors - a novel approach for subsea monitoring," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1185-1194 (1999).
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E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Abad, A. Montoya, A. Hildebrandt, D. Barcelo, and L. M. Lechuga, "Determination of carbaryl in natural water samples by a surface plasmon resonance flow-through immunosensor," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 2129-2136 (2006).
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M. Sosna, G. Denuault, R. W. Pascal, R. D. Prien, and M. Mowlem, "Development of a reliable microelectrode dissolved oxygen sensor," Sens. Actuators B 123, 344-351 (2007).
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T. Murphy, S. Lucht, H. Schmidt, and H.-D. Kronfeldt, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system for continuous measurements of chemicals in sea-water," J. Raman. Spectrosc. 31, 943-948 (2000).
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Muyakshin, S. I.

E. J. Sauter, S. I. Muyakshin, J.-L. Charlou, M. Schlüter, A. Boetius, K. Jerosch, E. Damm, J.-P. Foucher, and M. Klages, "Methane discharge from a deep-sea submarine mud volcano into the upper water column by gas hydrate-coated methane bubbles," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 243, 354-365 (2006).
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Naar, D. F.

E. T. Baker, R. N. Hey, J. E. Lupton, J. A. Resing, R. A. Feely, J. J. Gharib, G. J. Massoth, F. J. Sansone, M. Kleinrock, F. Martinez, D. F. Naar, C. Rodrigo, D. Bohnenstiehl, and D. Pardee, "Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5o-32.3oS," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2130 doi:2110.1029/2001JB000651 (2002).
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E. Souteyrand, D. Nicolas, J. R. Martin, J. P. Chauvet, and H. Perez, "Behaviour of cryptophane molecules in gas media," Sens. Actuators B 33, 182-187 (1996).
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J. J. Middelburg, J. Nieuwenhuize, N. Iversen, N. Høgh, H. de Wilde, W. Helder, R. Seifert, and O. Christof, "Methane distribution in European tidal estuaries," Biogeochemistry 59, 95-119 (2002).
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C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
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N. Shakova, I. Semiletov, and G. Panteleev, "The distribution of methane on the Siberian Arctic shelves: Implications for the marine methane cycle," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32 (2005).

Pardee, D.

E. T. Baker, R. N. Hey, J. E. Lupton, J. A. Resing, R. A. Feely, J. J. Gharib, G. J. Massoth, F. J. Sansone, M. Kleinrock, F. Martinez, D. F. Naar, C. Rodrigo, D. Bohnenstiehl, and D. Pardee, "Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5o-32.3oS," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2130 doi:2110.1029/2001JB000651 (2002).
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M. Sosna, G. Denuault, R. W. Pascal, R. D. Prien, and M. Mowlem, "Development of a reliable microelectrode dissolved oxygen sensor," Sens. Actuators B 123, 344-351 (2007).
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Pasteris, J. D.

P. G. Brewer, G. Malb, J. D. Pasteris, S. N. White, T. Peltzer, B. Wopenka, J. Freeman, and M. O. Brown, "Development of a laser Raman spectrometer for deep-ocean science," Deep Sea Res. I 51, 739-753 (2004).
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C. K. Paull, W. UsslerIII, W. S. Borowski, and F. N. Spiess, "Methane-rich plumes on the Carolina continental rise: Associations with gas hydrates," Geology 23, 89-92 (1995).
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P. G. Brewer, G. Malb, J. D. Pasteris, S. N. White, T. Peltzer, B. Wopenka, J. Freeman, and M. O. Brown, "Development of a laser Raman spectrometer for deep-ocean science," Deep Sea Res. I 51, 739-753 (2004).
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Perez, H.

E. Souteyrand, D. Nicolas, J. R. Martin, J. P. Chauvet, and H. Perez, "Behaviour of cryptophane molecules in gas media," Sens. Actuators B 33, 182-187 (1996).
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Petrov, O.

Z. Tosner, O. Petrov, S. V. Dvinskikh, J. Kowalewski, and D. Sandstrom, "A 13C solid-state NMR study of cryptophane-E:chloromethane inclusion complexes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 388, 208-211 (2004).
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Pfannkuche, J.

H. Schmidt, N. Bich Ha, J. Pfannkuche, H. Amann, H.-D. Kronfeldt, and G. Kowalewska, "Detection of PAHs in seawater using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Mar. Poll. Bull. 49, 229-234 (2004).
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M. Sosna, G. Denuault, R. W. Pascal, R. D. Prien, and M. Mowlem, "Development of a reliable microelectrode dissolved oxygen sensor," Sens. Actuators B 123, 344-351 (2007).
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Quinn, J. G.

T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, "Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor," Sens. Actuators B 91, 266-274 (2003).
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E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons by light," Naturforsch A 23, 2135-2136 (1963).

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H. W. Bange, R. Ramesh, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Methane in surface waters of the Arabian Sea," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3547-3550 (1998).
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D. Amouroux, G. Roberts, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Biogenic gas (CH4, N2O, DMS) Emission to the Atmosphere from Near-Shore of the North-western Black Sea," Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 54, 575-587 (2002).
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K. Bartik, M. Luhmer, J. P. Dutasta, A. Collet, and J. Reisse, "129Xe and 1H NMR Study of the Reversible Trapping of Xenon by Cryptophane-A in Organic Solution," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 784-791 (1998).
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Resing, J. A.

E. T. Baker, R. N. Hey, J. E. Lupton, J. A. Resing, R. A. Feely, J. J. Gharib, G. J. Massoth, F. J. Sansone, M. Kleinrock, F. Martinez, D. F. Naar, C. Rodrigo, D. Bohnenstiehl, and D. Pardee, "Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5o-32.3oS," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2130 doi:2110.1029/2001JB000651 (2002).
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Roberts, G.

D. Amouroux, G. Roberts, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Biogenic gas (CH4, N2O, DMS) Emission to the Atmosphere from Near-Shore of the North-western Black Sea," Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 54, 575-587 (2002).
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Rodrigo, C.

E. T. Baker, R. N. Hey, J. E. Lupton, J. A. Resing, R. A. Feely, J. J. Gharib, G. J. Massoth, F. J. Sansone, M. Kleinrock, F. Martinez, D. F. Naar, C. Rodrigo, D. Bohnenstiehl, and D. Pardee, "Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5o-32.3oS," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2130 doi:2110.1029/2001JB000651 (2002).
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Sandstrom, D.

Z. Tosner, O. Petrov, S. V. Dvinskikh, J. Kowalewski, and D. Sandstrom, "A 13C solid-state NMR study of cryptophane-E:chloromethane inclusion complexes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 388, 208-211 (2004).
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Sansone, F. J.

E. T. Baker, R. N. Hey, J. E. Lupton, J. A. Resing, R. A. Feely, J. J. Gharib, G. J. Massoth, F. J. Sansone, M. Kleinrock, F. Martinez, D. F. Naar, C. Rodrigo, D. Bohnenstiehl, and D. Pardee, "Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5o-32.3oS," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2130 doi:2110.1029/2001JB000651 (2002).
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E. J. Sauter, S. I. Muyakshin, J.-L. Charlou, M. Schlüter, A. Boetius, K. Jerosch, E. Damm, J.-P. Foucher, and M. Klages, "Methane discharge from a deep-sea submarine mud volcano into the upper water column by gas hydrate-coated methane bubbles," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 243, 354-365 (2006).
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E. J. Sauter, S. I. Muyakshin, J.-L. Charlou, M. Schlüter, A. Boetius, K. Jerosch, E. Damm, J.-P. Foucher, and M. Klages, "Methane discharge from a deep-sea submarine mud volcano into the upper water column by gas hydrate-coated methane bubbles," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 243, 354-365 (2006).
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Schmidt, H.

H. Schmidt, N. Bich Ha, J. Pfannkuche, H. Amann, H.-D. Kronfeldt, and G. Kowalewska, "Detection of PAHs in seawater using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Mar. Poll. Bull. 49, 229-234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Murphy, S. Lucht, H. Schmidt, and H.-D. Kronfeldt, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system for continuous measurements of chemicals in sea-water," J. Raman. Spectrosc. 31, 943-948 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, R.

J. J. Middelburg, J. Nieuwenhuize, N. Iversen, N. Høgh, H. de Wilde, W. Helder, R. Seifert, and O. Christof, "Methane distribution in European tidal estuaries," Biogeochemistry 59, 95-119 (2002).
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Semiletov, I.

N. Shakova, I. Semiletov, and G. Panteleev, "The distribution of methane on the Siberian Arctic shelves: Implications for the marine methane cycle," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32 (2005).

Shakova, N.

N. Shakova, I. Semiletov, and G. Panteleev, "The distribution of methane on the Siberian Arctic shelves: Implications for the marine methane cycle," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32 (2005).

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T. Shioda, N. Takamatsu, K. Suzuki, and S. Shichijyo, "Influence of water sorption on refractive index of fluorinated polyimide," Polymer 44, 137-142 (2003).
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R. T. Short, D. P. Fries, S. K. Toler, C. E. Lembke, and R. H. Byrne, "Development of an underwater mass-spectrometry system for in situ chemical analysis," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1195-1201 (1999).
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Sih, B. C.

B. C. Sih, M. O. Wolf, D. Jarvis, and J. F. Young, "Surface-plasmon resonance sensing of alcohol with electrodeposited polythiophene and gold nanoparticle-oligothiophene films," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 10.1063/1061.2138373 (2005).
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Sosna, M.

M. Sosna, G. Denuault, R. W. Pascal, R. D. Prien, and M. Mowlem, "Development of a reliable microelectrode dissolved oxygen sensor," Sens. Actuators B 123, 344-351 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Souteyrand, E.

E. Souteyrand, D. Nicolas, J. R. Martin, J. P. Chauvet, and H. Perez, "Behaviour of cryptophane molecules in gas media," Sens. Actuators B 33, 182-187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spiess, F. N.

C. K. Paull, W. UsslerIII, W. S. Borowski, and F. N. Spiess, "Methane-rich plumes on the Carolina continental rise: Associations with gas hydrates," Geology 23, 89-92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suess, E.

G. Rehder, R. W. Collier, K. Heeschen, P. M. Kosro, J. Barth, and E. Suess, "Enhanced marine CH4 emissions to the atmosphere off Oregon caused by coastal upwelling," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 10.1029/2000GB001391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

T. Shioda, N. Takamatsu, K. Suzuki, and S. Shichijyo, "Influence of water sorption on refractive index of fluorinated polyimide," Polymer 44, 137-142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Swinnerton, J. W.

J. W. Swinnerton and V. J. Linnenbom, "Determination of the C1 to C4 hydrocarbons in sea water by gas chromatography," Journal of Gas Chromatography 5, 570-573 (1967).

Takamatsu, N.

T. Shioda, N. Takamatsu, K. Suzuki, and S. Shichijyo, "Influence of water sorption on refractive index of fluorinated polyimide," Polymer 44, 137-142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, G.

V. Kitidis, L. H. Tizzard, G. Uher, A. G. Judd, R. C. Upstill-Goddard, I. M. Head, N. D. Gray, G. Taylor, R. Duran, J. Iglesias, and S. Garcia-Gil, "The biogeochemical Cycling of Methane in Ria de Vigo, NW Spain: sediment Processing and Sea-Air exchange," J. Mar. Syst. 66, 258-271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thepin, P.

R. Schirrer, P. Thepin, and G. Torres, "Water absorption, swelling, rupture and salt release in salt-silicone rubber compounds," J. Mat. Sci. 27, 3424-3434 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tizzard, L. H.

V. Kitidis, L. H. Tizzard, G. Uher, A. G. Judd, R. C. Upstill-Goddard, I. M. Head, N. D. Gray, G. Taylor, R. Duran, J. Iglesias, and S. Garcia-Gil, "The biogeochemical Cycling of Methane in Ria de Vigo, NW Spain: sediment Processing and Sea-Air exchange," J. Mar. Syst. 66, 258-271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toler, S. K.

R. T. Short, D. P. Fries, S. K. Toler, C. E. Lembke, and R. H. Byrne, "Development of an underwater mass-spectrometry system for in situ chemical analysis," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1195-1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Torres, G.

R. Schirrer, P. Thepin, and G. Torres, "Water absorption, swelling, rupture and salt release in salt-silicone rubber compounds," J. Mat. Sci. 27, 3424-3434 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tosner, Z.

Z. Tosner, O. Petrov, S. V. Dvinskikh, J. Kowalewski, and D. Sandstrom, "A 13C solid-state NMR study of cryptophane-E:chloromethane inclusion complexes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 388, 208-211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uher, G.

V. Kitidis, L. H. Tizzard, G. Uher, A. G. Judd, R. C. Upstill-Goddard, I. M. Head, N. D. Gray, G. Taylor, R. Duran, J. Iglesias, and S. Garcia-Gil, "The biogeochemical Cycling of Methane in Ria de Vigo, NW Spain: sediment Processing and Sea-Air exchange," J. Mar. Syst. 66, 258-271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Upstill-Goddard, R. C.

V. Kitidis, L. H. Tizzard, G. Uher, A. G. Judd, R. C. Upstill-Goddard, I. M. Head, N. D. Gray, G. Taylor, R. Duran, J. Iglesias, and S. Garcia-Gil, "The biogeochemical Cycling of Methane in Ria de Vigo, NW Spain: sediment Processing and Sea-Air exchange," J. Mar. Syst. 66, 258-271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Urashi, T.

T. Urashi and T. Arakawa, "Detection of lower hydrocarbons by means of surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 76, 32-35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ussler, W.

C. K. Paull, W. UsslerIII, W. S. Borowski, and F. N. Spiess, "Methane-rich plumes on the Carolina continental rise: Associations with gas hydrates," Geology 23, 89-92 (1995).
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Valenza, M.

1. S. De Gregorio, S. Gurrieri, and M. Valenza, "A PTFE membrane for the in situ extraction of dissolved gases in natural waters: Theory and applications," Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 6, Q09005, doi:09010.01029/02005GC000947 (2005).
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Wen, X.

J. P. Cowen, X. Wen, and B. N. Popp, "Methane in aging hydrothermal plumes," Geochim. Cosmoch. Acta 66, 3563-3571 (2002).
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White, S. N.

P. G. Brewer, G. Malb, J. D. Pasteris, S. N. White, T. Peltzer, B. Wopenka, J. Freeman, and M. O. Brown, "Development of a laser Raman spectrometer for deep-ocean science," Deep Sea Res. I 51, 739-753 (2004).
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Wolf, M. O.

B. C. Sih, M. O. Wolf, D. Jarvis, and J. F. Young, "Surface-plasmon resonance sensing of alcohol with electrodeposited polythiophene and gold nanoparticle-oligothiophene films," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 10.1063/1061.2138373 (2005).
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J. L. Charlou, J. P. Donval, T. Zitter, N. Roy, P. Jean-Baptiste, J. P. Foucher, and J. Woodside, "Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines on mud volcanoes of the eastern Mediterranean Sea," Deep Sea Res. I 50, 941-958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wopenka, B.

P. G. Brewer, G. Malb, J. D. Pasteris, S. N. White, T. Peltzer, B. Wopenka, J. Freeman, and M. O. Brown, "Development of a laser Raman spectrometer for deep-ocean science," Deep Sea Res. I 51, 739-753 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

B. C. Sih, M. O. Wolf, D. Jarvis, and J. F. Young, "Surface-plasmon resonance sensing of alcohol with electrodeposited polythiophene and gold nanoparticle-oligothiophene films," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 10.1063/1061.2138373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zitter, T.

J. L. Charlou, J. P. Donval, T. Zitter, N. Roy, P. Jean-Baptiste, J. P. Foucher, and J. Woodside, "Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines on mud volcanoes of the eastern Mediterranean Sea," Deep Sea Res. I 50, 941-958 (2003).
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Biogeochemistry (1)

J. J. Middelburg, J. Nieuwenhuize, N. Iversen, N. Høgh, H. de Wilde, W. Helder, R. Seifert, and O. Christof, "Methane distribution in European tidal estuaries," Biogeochemistry 59, 95-119 (2002).
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E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Abad, A. Montoya, A. Hildebrandt, D. Barcelo, and L. M. Lechuga, "Determination of carbaryl in natural water samples by a surface plasmon resonance flow-through immunosensor," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 2129-2136 (2006).
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K. A. Kvenvolden, "Methane hydrate-a major reservoir of carbon in the shallow geosphere?," Chem. Geol. 71, 41-51 (1988).
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Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Tosner, O. Petrov, S. V. Dvinskikh, J. Kowalewski, and D. Sandstrom, "A 13C solid-state NMR study of cryptophane-E:chloromethane inclusion complexes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 388, 208-211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

W. S. Reeburgh, "Oceanic Methane Biogeochemistry," Chem. Rev. 107, 486-513 (2007).
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Chemom. Intell. Lab. Systems (1)

L. A. Currie, "Detection: International update, and some emerging dilemmas involving calibration, the blank and multiple detection decisions," Chemom. Intell. Lab. Systems 37, 151-181 (1997).
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Deep Sea Res. I (2)

J. L. Charlou, J. P. Donval, T. Zitter, N. Roy, P. Jean-Baptiste, J. P. Foucher, and J. Woodside, "Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines on mud volcanoes of the eastern Mediterranean Sea," Deep Sea Res. I 50, 941-958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Brewer, G. Malb, J. D. Pasteris, S. N. White, T. Peltzer, B. Wopenka, J. Freeman, and M. O. Brown, "Development of a laser Raman spectrometer for deep-ocean science," Deep Sea Res. I 51, 739-753 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (1)

E. J. Sauter, S. I. Muyakshin, J.-L. Charlou, M. Schlüter, A. Boetius, K. Jerosch, E. Damm, J.-P. Foucher, and M. Klages, "Methane discharge from a deep-sea submarine mud volcano into the upper water column by gas hydrate-coated methane bubbles," Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 243, 354-365 (2006).
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D. Amouroux, G. Roberts, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Biogenic gas (CH4, N2O, DMS) Emission to the Atmosphere from Near-Shore of the North-western Black Sea," Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 54, 575-587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. (1)

1. S. De Gregorio, S. Gurrieri, and M. Valenza, "A PTFE membrane for the in situ extraction of dissolved gases in natural waters: Theory and applications," Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 6, Q09005, doi:09010.01029/02005GC000947 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geochim. Cosmoch. Acta (1)

J. P. Cowen, X. Wen, and B. N. Popp, "Methane in aging hydrothermal plumes," Geochim. Cosmoch. Acta 66, 3563-3571 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Geology (1)

C. K. Paull, W. UsslerIII, W. S. Borowski, and F. N. Spiess, "Methane-rich plumes on the Carolina continental rise: Associations with gas hydrates," Geology 23, 89-92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

H. W. Bange, R. Ramesh, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Methane in surface waters of the Arabian Sea," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3547-3550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Shakova, I. Semiletov, and G. Panteleev, "The distribution of methane on the Siberian Arctic shelves: Implications for the marine methane cycle," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32 (2005).

Global Biogeochem. Cycles (2)

G. Rehder, R. W. Collier, K. Heeschen, P. M. Kosro, J. Barth, and E. Suess, "Enhanced marine CH4 emissions to the atmosphere off Oregon caused by coastal upwelling," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 10.1029/2000GB001391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Bange, U. H. Bartell, S. Rapsomanikis, and M. O. Andreae, "Methane in the Baltic and North Seas and a reassessment of the marine emission of methane," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 8, 465-480 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

K. Bartik, M. Luhmer, J. P. Dutasta, A. Collet, and J. Reisse, "129Xe and 1H NMR Study of the Reversible Trapping of Xenon by Cryptophane-A in Organic Solution," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 784-791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. C. Sih, M. O. Wolf, D. Jarvis, and J. F. Young, "Surface-plasmon resonance sensing of alcohol with electrodeposited polythiophene and gold nanoparticle-oligothiophene films," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 10.1063/1061.2138373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

S. Houweling, T. Kaminski, F. Dentener, J. Lelieveld, and M. Heimann, "Inverse modeling of methane sources and sinks using the adjoint of a global transport model," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 26137-26160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Baker, R. N. Hey, J. E. Lupton, J. A. Resing, R. A. Feely, J. J. Gharib, G. J. Massoth, F. J. Sansone, M. Kleinrock, F. Martinez, D. F. Naar, C. Rodrigo, D. Bohnenstiehl, and D. Pardee, "Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5o-32.3oS," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2130 doi:2110.1029/2001JB000651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Charlou and J.-P. Donval, "Hydrothermal methane venting between 12oN and 26oN along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 9625-9642 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Syst. (1)

V. Kitidis, L. H. Tizzard, G. Uher, A. G. Judd, R. C. Upstill-Goddard, I. M. Head, N. D. Gray, G. Taylor, R. Duran, J. Iglesias, and S. Garcia-Gil, "The biogeochemical Cycling of Methane in Ria de Vigo, NW Spain: sediment Processing and Sea-Air exchange," J. Mar. Syst. 66, 258-271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mat. Sci. (1)

R. Schirrer, P. Thepin, and G. Torres, "Water absorption, swelling, rupture and salt release in salt-silicone rubber compounds," J. Mat. Sci. 27, 3424-3434 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Org. Chem. (1)

T. Brotin, N. Roy, and J. P. Dutasta, "Improved Synthesis of Functional CTVs and Cryptophanes Using Sc(OTf)3 as Catalyst," J. Org. Chem. 70, 6187-6195 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Raman. Spectrosc. (1)

T. Murphy, S. Lucht, H. Schmidt, and H.-D. Kronfeldt, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system for continuous measurements of chemicals in sea-water," J. Raman. Spectrosc. 31, 943-948 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.C.S. Chem. Comm. (2)

J. Gabard and A. Collet, "Synthesis of a (D3)-Bis(cyclotriveratrylenyl) Macrocage by Stereospecific Replication of a (C3)-Subunit," J.C.S. Chem. Comm. 21, 1137-1139 (1981).
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J. Canceill and A. Collet, "Two-step Synthesis of D3 and C3h Cryptophanes," J.C.S. Chem. Comm. 9, 582-584 (1988).
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Journal of Gas Chromatography (1)

J. W. Swinnerton and V. J. Linnenbom, "Determination of the C1 to C4 hydrocarbons in sea water by gas chromatography," Journal of Gas Chromatography 5, 570-573 (1967).

Mar. Poll. Bull. (1)

H. Schmidt, N. Bich Ha, J. Pfannkuche, H. Amann, H.-D. Kronfeldt, and G. Kowalewska, "Detection of PAHs in seawater using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Mar. Poll. Bull. 49, 229-234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

R. T. Short, D. P. Fries, S. K. Toler, C. E. Lembke, and R. H. Byrne, "Development of an underwater mass-spectrometry system for in situ chemical analysis," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1195-1201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Mizaikoff, "Mid-Infrared evanescent wave sensors - a novel approach for subsea monitoring," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1185-1194 (1999).
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E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons by light," Naturforsch A 23, 2135-2136 (1963).

Polymer (1)

T. Shioda, N. Takamatsu, K. Suzuki, and S. Shichijyo, "Influence of water sorption on refractive index of fluorinated polyimide," Polymer 44, 137-142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators (1)

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

M. Benounis, T. Aka-Ngnui, N. Jaffrezic, and J. P. Dutasta, "NIR and optical fiber sensor for gases detection produced by transformation oil degradation," Sens. Actuators A 141, 76-83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (5)

M. Sosna, G. Denuault, R. W. Pascal, R. D. Prien, and M. Mowlem, "Development of a reliable microelectrode dissolved oxygen sensor," Sens. Actuators B 123, 344-351 (2007).
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K. Ideta and T. Arakawa, "Surface plasmon resonance study for the detection of some chemical species," Sens. Actuators B 13, 384-386 (1993).
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T. Urashi and T. Arakawa, "Detection of lower hydrocarbons by means of surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 76, 32-35 (2001).
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T. M. Chinowsky, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, "Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor," Sens. Actuators B 91, 266-274 (2003).
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J. Bussell, G. Klinkhammer, R. W. Collier, P. Linke, F. Appel, K. Heeschen, E. Suess, M. A. De Angelis, and M. Masson, "Applications of the METS methane sensor to the in situ determination of methane over a range of timescales and environments," in EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union(1999).

A. Collet, J.-P. Dutasta, B. Lozach, and J. Canceill, "Cyclotriveratrylenes and cryptophanes: Their synthesis and applications to host-guest chemistry and to the design of new materials," in Supramolecular Chemistry I ?? Directed Synthesis and Molecular Recognition(1993), pp. 103-129.

M. Benounis, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, J. P. Dutasta, K. Cherif, and A. Abdelghani, "Study of a new evanescent wave optical fibre sensor for methane detection based on cryptophane molecules," Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors - EUROPT(R)ODE VII 107, 32 (2005).

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R. W. Collier and M. D. Lilley, "Composition of shelf methane seeps on the Cascadia Continental Margin," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L06609, doi:06610.01029/02004GL022050 (2005).
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R. Camilli and H. Hemond, "NEREUS/Kemonaut, a mobile autonomous underwater mass spectrometer," Trends in analytical chemistry 23, 307-313 (2004).
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R. Collier, and G. Klinkhammer, "Applications of the METS Methane Sensor to the In-situ Detection of Methane Over a Range of Time Scales and Environments," in RIDGE In situ Sensors Workshop(2000).

H.-D. Kronfeldt, H. Schmidt, H. Amann, B. D. MacCraith, M. Lehaitre, M. Leclercq, E. Bernabeu, B. Mizaikoff, and D. Grant, "Technical elements and Potential Application of Spectroscopy for Ocean Monitoring," in OCEANS'98(1998), pp. 1780-1784.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

General structure of cryptophane hosts; the cavity volume is determined by Z functionalities, the external properties are dependent on the X and Y groups (a) and molecular structure of cryptophane-A (b).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross section of the methane sensor incorporating a Spreeta 2000 chip (adapted from Chinowsky et al., 2003) and the sensing film. A: gold layer (10 mm×4 mm×50 nm); B: reactive layer (PDMS+cryptophane A- 50–100 µm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic representation of the gas calibration system. A: saturated solution reservoir, B: measurement cell, C: outlet connector, D: temperature probe, E: sampling port, F: outlet pump connector, G: valve, H: pure methane gas, I: glass tubing, J: pump, K: SPR sensor, M: magnetic stirrer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Response of the sensor due to changes of dissolved methane concentration (solid line) compared with the response of non-sensing layer, i.e. without cryptophane (dashed line). Filled circles are the concentration of methane measured in control samples by gas chromatography. A: in degassed solution, B: in 50 nM CH4-solution, C: in degassed solution, D: in degassed solution with mixing.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Water absorption in the polymer (filled circles). 10 minutes are necessary to obtain a stable baseline at room temperature. The presence of cryptophane-A in the polymer (grey squares) does not influence the water absorption.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calibration curve obtained with “sensor 4” using the gas calibration rig (filled circles). Data were linearly fitted (R2=0.9885). Errors bars are 2 times the standard deviation on RI measurement. Samples (opened circles) were taken for control (a). Calibration curves obtained in different experimental conditions (direct bubbling and gas calibration rig). Filled circles: sensor 2 (direct bubbling); filled triangles: sensor 2–30 days (direct bubbling); grey squares: sensor 3 (direct bubbling); opened circles: sensor 3 (gas rig); opened triangles: sensor 4 (gas rig) (b and c).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Temperature effect on the sensor response (opened squares) compared with the response of a non-sensing layer (filled circles).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Salinity effect on the sensor response (filled circles and opened squares) compared with the response of a non-sensing layer (grey triangles).

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Sensitivity, noise and detection limits

Equations (1)

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c i = c i 1 + c sat V ex V tot c i 1 V ex V tot

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