Abstract

Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) reconstructs the images of internal optical parameter distribution using noninvasive boundary measurements. The image reconstruction procedure is known to be an ill-posed problem. In order to solve such a problem, a regularization technique is needed to constrain the solution space. In this study, a projection-error-based adaptive regularization (PAR) technique is proposed to improve the reconstructed image quality. Simulations are performed using a diffusion approximation model and the simulated results demonstrate that the PAR technique can improve reconstruction precision of object more effectively. The method is demonstrated to have low sensitivity to noise at various noise levels. Moreover, with the PAR method, the detectability of an object located both at the center and near the peripheral regions has been increased largely.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. W. Pogue, M. Testorf, T. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Instrumentation and design of a frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography imager for breast cancer detection," Opt. Express 1, 391-403 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  3. S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, "Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared," Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317-1334 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Douiri, M. Schweiger, J. Riley, and S. Arridge, "Local diffusion regularization method for optical tomography reconstruction by using robust statistics," Opt. Lett. 30, 2439-2441 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. K. Joseph, T. J. Huppert, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, "Diffuse optical tomography system to image brain activation with improved spatial resolution and validation with functional magnetic resonance imaging," Appl. Opt. 45, 8142-8151 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Q. Zhao, L. J. Ji, and T. Z. Jiang, "Improving performance of reflectance diffuse optical imaging using a multicentered mode," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 0640191-0640198 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. A. Boas, K. Chen, D. Grebert, and M. A. Franceschini, "Improving the diffuse optical imaging spatial resolution of the cerebral hemodynamic response to brain activation in humans," Opt. Lett. 29, 1506-1508 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. A. Boas, M. A. O�??Leary, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering of diffuse photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneities within turbid media: Analytic solution and applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 4887-4891 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. A. Boas, M. A. O�??Leary, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Detection and characterization of optical inhomogeneities with diffuse photon density waves: a signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Opt. 36, 75-92 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Schweiger, S. R Arridge, and I. Nissila, "Gauss-Newton method for image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2365-2386 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Yao, Y. Wang, Y. Pei, W. Zhu, and R. L. Barbour, "Frequency domain optical imaging of absorption and scattering distributions by a Born iterative method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 14, 325-342 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Zhou, J. Bai, and P. He, "Spatial location weighted optimization scheme for DC optical tomography," Opt. Express 11, 141-150 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, J. Prewitt, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Spatially variant regularization improves diffuse optical tomography," Appl. Opt. 38, 2950-2961 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. W. Pogue, X. M. Song, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical analysis of nonlinearly reconstructed near-Infrared tomographic images: Part I�??theory and simulations," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 755-764 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. W. Pogue, C. Willscher, T. O. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Contrast-detail analysis for detection and characterization with near-infrared diffuse tomography," Med. Phys. 27, 2693-2700 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical tomography resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, X. Song, and K. D. Paulsen, "Improved quantification of small objects in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1161-1171 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Comparing two regularization technique for diffuse optical tomography," Proc. SPIE 6434, 1-12 (2007).
  20. K. D. Paulsen and H. Jiang, "Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation," Med. Phys. 22, 691-701 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Dehghani, B. Brooksby, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue and K. D. Paulsen, "The effects of internal refractive index variation in near infrared optical tomography: A finite element modeling approach, " Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2713-2727 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue, and M. S. Patterson, "Optical image reconstruction using frequency-domain data: simulations and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 253-266 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three Dimensional Optical Tomography: Resolution in Small Object Imaging," Appl. Opt. 42,3117-3128 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: Initial simulation, phantom, and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. Xu, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. X. Song, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical Analysis of Nonlinearly Reconstructed Near-Infrared Tomographic Images: Part II�??Experimental Interpretation," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 764-773 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. P. Guo, M. R. Lyu, and C. L. P. Chen, "Regularization parameter estimation for feedforward neural networks," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part B: Cybernetics 33, 35-44 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. J. Niu, P. Guo, L. J. Ji, and T. Jiang, "Improving diffuse optical tomography imaging with adaptive regularization method," Proc. SPIE 6789 K, 1-7 (2007).
  29. X. M. Song, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, M. M. Doyley, and H. Dehghani, "Automated region detection based on the contrast-to-noise ratio in near-infrared tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 1053-1062 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Comparing two regularization technique for diffuse optical tomography," Proc. SPIE 6434, 1-12 (2007).

2006

2005

A. Douiri, M. Schweiger, J. Riley, and S. Arridge, "Local diffusion regularization method for optical tomography reconstruction by using robust statistics," Opt. Lett. 30, 2439-2441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R Arridge, and I. Nissila, "Gauss-Newton method for image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2365-2386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

P. Guo, M. R. Lyu, and C. L. P. Chen, "Regularization parameter estimation for feedforward neural networks," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part B: Cybernetics 33, 35-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, B. Brooksby, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue and K. D. Paulsen, "The effects of internal refractive index variation in near infrared optical tomography: A finite element modeling approach, " Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2713-2727 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical tomography resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three Dimensional Optical Tomography: Resolution in Small Object Imaging," Appl. Opt. 42,3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: Initial simulation, phantom, and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, J. Bai, and P. He, "Spatial location weighted optimization scheme for DC optical tomography," Opt. Express 11, 141-150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

B. W. Pogue, X. M. Song, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical analysis of nonlinearly reconstructed near-Infrared tomographic images: Part I�??theory and simulations," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 755-764 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Song, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical Analysis of Nonlinearly Reconstructed Near-Infrared Tomographic Images: Part II�??Experimental Interpretation," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 764-773 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000

B. W. Pogue, C. Willscher, T. O. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Contrast-detail analysis for detection and characterization with near-infrared diffuse tomography," Med. Phys. 27, 2693-2700 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

1996

1995

K. D. Paulsen and H. Jiang, "Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation," Med. Phys. 22, 691-701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

D. A. Boas, M. A. O�??Leary, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering of diffuse photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneities within turbid media: Analytic solution and applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 4887-4891 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, "Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared," Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317-1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S.

Arridge, S. R

M. Schweiger, S. R Arridge, and I. Nissila, "Gauss-Newton method for image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2365-2386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, J.

Barbour, R. L.

Y. Yao, Y. Wang, Y. Pei, W. Zhu, and R. L. Barbour, "Frequency domain optical imaging of absorption and scattering distributions by a Born iterative method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 14, 325-342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

Brooksby, B.

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical tomography resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three Dimensional Optical Tomography: Resolution in Small Object Imaging," Appl. Opt. 42,3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. Brooksby, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue and K. D. Paulsen, "The effects of internal refractive index variation in near infrared optical tomography: A finite element modeling approach, " Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2713-2727 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

D. A. Boas, M. A. O�??Leary, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Detection and characterization of optical inhomogeneities with diffuse photon density waves: a signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Opt. 36, 75-92 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, M. A. O�??Leary, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering of diffuse photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneities within turbid media: Analytic solution and applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 4887-4891 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. L. P.

P. Guo, M. R. Lyu, and C. L. P. Chen, "Regularization parameter estimation for feedforward neural networks," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part B: Cybernetics 33, 35-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

Davis, S. C.

S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Comparing two regularization technique for diffuse optical tomography," Proc. SPIE 6434, 1-12 (2007).

Dehghani, H.

S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Comparing two regularization technique for diffuse optical tomography," Proc. SPIE 6434, 1-12 (2007).

X. M. Song, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, M. M. Doyley, and H. Dehghani, "Automated region detection based on the contrast-to-noise ratio in near-infrared tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 1053-1062 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, X. Song, and K. D. Paulsen, "Improved quantification of small objects in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1161-1171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical tomography resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: Initial simulation, phantom, and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. Brooksby, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue and K. D. Paulsen, "The effects of internal refractive index variation in near infrared optical tomography: A finite element modeling approach, " Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2713-2727 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three Dimensional Optical Tomography: Resolution in Small Object Imaging," Appl. Opt. 42,3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douiri, A.

Doyley, M. M.

Franceschini, M. A.

Frank, G. L.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, "Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared," Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317-1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, J. J.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grebert, D.

Guo, P.

P. Guo, M. R. Lyu, and C. L. P. Chen, "Regularization parameter estimation for feedforward neural networks," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part B: Cybernetics 33, 35-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, P.

Huppert, T. J.

Ji, L. J.

Q. Zhao, L. J. Ji, and T. Z. Jiang, "Improving performance of reflectance diffuse optical imaging using a multicentered mode," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 0640191-0640198 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue, and M. S. Patterson, "Optical image reconstruction using frequency-domain data: simulations and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 253-266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Paulsen and H. Jiang, "Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation," Med. Phys. 22, 691-701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, X. Song, and K. D. Paulsen, "Improved quantification of small objects in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1161-1171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Song, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, M. M. Doyley, and H. Dehghani, "Automated region detection based on the contrast-to-noise ratio in near-infrared tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 1053-1062 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three Dimensional Optical Tomography: Resolution in Small Object Imaging," Appl. Opt. 42,3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical tomography resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, X. M. Song, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical analysis of nonlinearly reconstructed near-Infrared tomographic images: Part I�??theory and simulations," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 755-764 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Song, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical Analysis of Nonlinearly Reconstructed Near-Infrared Tomographic Images: Part II�??Experimental Interpretation," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 764-773 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, T. Z.

Q. Zhao, L. J. Ji, and T. Z. Jiang, "Improving performance of reflectance diffuse optical imaging using a multicentered mode," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 0640191-0640198 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, D. K.

Kogel, C.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyu, M. R.

P. Guo, M. R. Lyu, and C. L. P. Chen, "Regularization parameter estimation for feedforward neural networks," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part B: Cybernetics 33, 35-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McBride, T.

McBride, T. O.

B. W. Pogue, X. M. Song, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical analysis of nonlinearly reconstructed near-Infrared tomographic images: Part I�??theory and simulations," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 755-764 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Song, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical Analysis of Nonlinearly Reconstructed Near-Infrared Tomographic Images: Part II�??Experimental Interpretation," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 764-773 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, C. Willscher, T. O. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Contrast-detail analysis for detection and characterization with near-infrared diffuse tomography," Med. Phys. 27, 2693-2700 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, J. Prewitt, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Spatially variant regularization improves diffuse optical tomography," Appl. Opt. 38, 2950-2961 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nissila, I.

M. Schweiger, S. R Arridge, and I. Nissila, "Gauss-Newton method for image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2365-2386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O???Leary, M. A.

D. A. Boas, M. A. O�??Leary, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Detection and characterization of optical inhomogeneities with diffuse photon density waves: a signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Opt. 36, 75-92 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, M. A. O�??Leary, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering of diffuse photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneities within turbid media: Analytic solution and applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 4887-4891 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterberg, U. L.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, C. Willscher, T. O. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Contrast-detail analysis for detection and characterization with near-infrared diffuse tomography," Med. Phys. 27, 2693-2700 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, J. Prewitt, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Spatially variant regularization improves diffuse optical tomography," Appl. Opt. 38, 2950-2961 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, M. Testorf, T. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Instrumentation and design of a frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography imager for breast cancer detection," Opt. Express 1, 391-403 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue, and M. S. Patterson, "Optical image reconstruction using frequency-domain data: simulations and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 253-266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Osterman, K. S.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue, and M. S. Patterson, "Optical image reconstruction using frequency-domain data: simulations and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 253-266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, "Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared," Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317-1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Comparing two regularization technique for diffuse optical tomography," Proc. SPIE 6434, 1-12 (2007).

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, X. Song, and K. D. Paulsen, "Improved quantification of small objects in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1161-1171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: Initial simulation, phantom, and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical tomography resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, B. Brooksby, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue and K. D. Paulsen, "The effects of internal refractive index variation in near infrared optical tomography: A finite element modeling approach, " Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2713-2727 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three Dimensional Optical Tomography: Resolution in Small Object Imaging," Appl. Opt. 42,3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Song, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical Analysis of Nonlinearly Reconstructed Near-Infrared Tomographic Images: Part II�??Experimental Interpretation," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 764-773 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, X. M. Song, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical analysis of nonlinearly reconstructed near-Infrared tomographic images: Part I�??theory and simulations," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 755-764 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, C. Willscher, T. O. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Contrast-detail analysis for detection and characterization with near-infrared diffuse tomography," Med. Phys. 27, 2693-2700 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, J. Prewitt, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Spatially variant regularization improves diffuse optical tomography," Appl. Opt. 38, 2950-2961 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, M. Testorf, T. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Instrumentation and design of a frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography imager for breast cancer detection," Opt. Express 1, 391-403 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue, and M. S. Patterson, "Optical image reconstruction using frequency-domain data: simulations and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 253-266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Paulsen and H. Jiang, "Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation," Med. Phys. 22, 691-701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pei, Y.

Y. Yao, Y. Wang, Y. Pei, W. Zhu, and R. L. Barbour, "Frequency domain optical imaging of absorption and scattering distributions by a Born iterative method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 14, 325-342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peters, V. G.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, "Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared," Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317-1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Comparing two regularization technique for diffuse optical tomography," Proc. SPIE 6434, 1-12 (2007).

X. M. Song, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, M. M. Doyley, and H. Dehghani, "Automated region detection based on the contrast-to-noise ratio in near-infrared tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 1053-1062 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, X. Song, and K. D. Paulsen, "Improved quantification of small objects in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1161-1171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical tomography resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: Initial simulation, phantom, and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. Brooksby, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue and K. D. Paulsen, "The effects of internal refractive index variation in near infrared optical tomography: A finite element modeling approach, " Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2713-2727 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three Dimensional Optical Tomography: Resolution in Small Object Imaging," Appl. Opt. 42,3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, X. M. Song, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical analysis of nonlinearly reconstructed near-Infrared tomographic images: Part I�??theory and simulations," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 755-764 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Song, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical Analysis of Nonlinearly Reconstructed Near-Infrared Tomographic Images: Part II�??Experimental Interpretation," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 764-773 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, C. Willscher, T. O. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Contrast-detail analysis for detection and characterization with near-infrared diffuse tomography," Med. Phys. 27, 2693-2700 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, J. Prewitt, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Spatially variant regularization improves diffuse optical tomography," Appl. Opt. 38, 2950-2961 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, M. Testorf, T. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Instrumentation and design of a frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography imager for breast cancer detection," Opt. Express 1, 391-403 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue, and M. S. Patterson, "Optical image reconstruction using frequency-domain data: simulations and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 253-266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poplack, S. P.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: Initial simulation, phantom, and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Prewitt, J.

Riley, J.

Schweiger, M.

A. Douiri, M. Schweiger, J. Riley, and S. Arridge, "Local diffusion regularization method for optical tomography reconstruction by using robust statistics," Opt. Lett. 30, 2439-2441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R Arridge, and I. Nissila, "Gauss-Newton method for image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2365-2386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soho, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, X.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, X. Song, and K. D. Paulsen, "Improved quantification of small objects in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1161-1171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Song, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical Analysis of Nonlinearly Reconstructed Near-Infrared Tomographic Images: Part II�??Experimental Interpretation," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 764-773 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, X. M.

X. M. Song, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, M. M. Doyley, and H. Dehghani, "Automated region detection based on the contrast-to-noise ratio in near-infrared tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 1053-1062 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, X. M. Song, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical analysis of nonlinearly reconstructed near-Infrared tomographic images: Part I�??theory and simulations," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 755-764 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, X. Song, and K. D. Paulsen, "Improved quantification of small objects in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1161-1171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Testorf, M.

Tosteson, T. D.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Song, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical Analysis of Nonlinearly Reconstructed Near-Infrared Tomographic Images: Part II�??Experimental Interpretation," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 764-773 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, X. M. Song, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical analysis of nonlinearly reconstructed near-Infrared tomographic images: Part I�??theory and simulations," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 755-764 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vishwanath, K.

H. Dehghani, B. Brooksby, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue and K. D. Paulsen, "The effects of internal refractive index variation in near infrared optical tomography: A finite element modeling approach, " Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2713-2727 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Yao, Y. Wang, Y. Pei, W. Zhu, and R. L. Barbour, "Frequency domain optical imaging of absorption and scattering distributions by a Born iterative method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 14, 325-342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wells, W. A.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Willscher, C.

B. W. Pogue, C. Willscher, T. O. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Contrast-detail analysis for detection and characterization with near-infrared diffuse tomography," Med. Phys. 27, 2693-2700 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wyman, D. R.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, "Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared," Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317-1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yalavarthy, P. K.

S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Comparing two regularization technique for diffuse optical tomography," Proc. SPIE 6434, 1-12 (2007).

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, Y. Wang, Y. Pei, W. Zhu, and R. L. Barbour, "Frequency domain optical imaging of absorption and scattering distributions by a Born iterative method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 14, 325-342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A. G.

Yodh, A.G.

D. A. Boas, M. A. O�??Leary, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering of diffuse photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneities within turbid media: Analytic solution and applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 4887-4891 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Q.

Q. Zhao, L. J. Ji, and T. Z. Jiang, "Improving performance of reflectance diffuse optical imaging using a multicentered mode," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 0640191-0640198 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Zhu, W.

Y. Yao, Y. Wang, Y. Pei, W. Zhu, and R. L. Barbour, "Frequency domain optical imaging of absorption and scattering distributions by a Born iterative method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 14, 325-342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional optical tomography resolution in small-object imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, J. Prewitt, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Spatially variant regularization improves diffuse optical tomography," Appl. Opt. 38, 2950-2961 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, M. A. O�??Leary, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Detection and characterization of optical inhomogeneities with diffuse photon density waves: a signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Opt. 36, 75-92 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: Initial simulation, phantom, and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three Dimensional Optical Tomography: Resolution in Small Object Imaging," Appl. Opt. 42,3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Song, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, M. M. Doyley, and H. Dehghani, "Automated region detection based on the contrast-to-noise ratio in near-infrared tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 1053-1062 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Joseph, T. J. Huppert, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, "Diffuse optical tomography system to image brain activation with improved spatial resolution and validation with functional magnetic resonance imaging," Appl. Opt. 45, 8142-8151 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

B. W. Pogue, X. M. Song, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical analysis of nonlinearly reconstructed near-Infrared tomographic images: Part I�??theory and simulations," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 755-764 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Song, B. W. Pogue, T. D. Tosteson, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Statistical Analysis of Nonlinearly Reconstructed Near-Infrared Tomographic Images: Part II�??Experimental Interpretation," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 764-773 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part B: Cybernetics

P. Guo, M. R. Lyu, and C. L. P. Chen, "Regularization parameter estimation for feedforward neural networks," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part B: Cybernetics 33, 35-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, X. Song, and K. D. Paulsen, "Improved quantification of small objects in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1161-1171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhao, L. J. Ji, and T. Z. Jiang, "Improving performance of reflectance diffuse optical imaging using a multicentered mode," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 0640191-0640198 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.

Y. Yao, Y. Wang, Y. Pei, W. Zhu, and R. L. Barbour, "Frequency domain optical imaging of absorption and scattering distributions by a Born iterative method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 14, 325-342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys.

K. D. Paulsen and H. Jiang, "Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation," Med. Phys. 22, 691-701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, C. Willscher, T. O. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Contrast-detail analysis for detection and characterization with near-infrared diffuse tomography," Med. Phys. 27, 2693-2700 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

H. Dehghani, B. Brooksby, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue and K. D. Paulsen, "The effects of internal refractive index variation in near infrared optical tomography: A finite element modeling approach, " Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2713-2727 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R Arridge, and I. Nissila, "Gauss-Newton method for image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2365-2386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, "Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared," Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317-1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

D. A. Boas, M. A. O�??Leary, B. Chance, and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering of diffuse photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneities within turbid media: Analytic solution and applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 4887-4891 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Comparing two regularization technique for diffuse optical tomography," Proc. SPIE 6434, 1-12 (2007).

Radiology

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Other

H. J. Niu, P. Guo, L. J. Ji, and T. Jiang, "Improving diffuse optical tomography imaging with adaptive regularization method," Proc. SPIE 6789 K, 1-7 (2007).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Graphs of the CNR distribution of the reconstructed images using the (a) STR method, (b) LMR method, and (c) PAR method. A circular object located in the center of this imaging field was moved along the y-axis from 0 to 40 mm in 2 mm steps. At each position, the object size was increased from 1mm to 20 mm with 1mm intervals.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparisons of projection error and iteration number among the STR, LMR and PAR techniques. (a) and (c) illustrate objects 4mm and 10mm in diameter located at the center. The object sizes in (b) and (d) are the same as for (a) and (c) but are located near the edge. The CNR values indicate the image qualities of reconstructed objects with the three regularization methods.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparisons of reconstructed µa and µ′s images with three regularization methods at different noise levels. The 12-mm-diameter objects are located in the center of the imaging fields. (a)–(c) for STR, (d)–(f) for LMR, and (g)–(i) for PAR. The reconstructions in the first row are with 1% noise, the second row with 5% noise, and 10% noise for the last row.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The imaging conditions are the same as in Fig. 3, except that the objects are located at the edge of the imaging fields.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Graphs of the CNR distribution of reconstructed images for three object positions using PAR: (a) central region and (b) 23 mm from the boundary and (c) 3 mm from the boundary. The adaptive regularization method was applied in the reconstruction.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

STR reconstruction comparison for two regularization schemes: different regularization parameters for the amplitude and phase were placed in the Hessian matrix ((a) and (c)) and a constant regularization value of 1/2 was placed in the Hessian matrix ((b) and (d). The centrally located object appears in (a) and (b), and the peripheral one in (c) and (d). The object size is 12 mm in diameter.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulation comparisons of reconstructed µa and µ′s images with three regularization methods in poor (i.e. 30% OPD, (OPD represents the original photon density.)) and ideal (90% OPD) detector-object contact cases. Three measurements were chosen, and 30 and 90% of the OPD of each measurement was respectively considered as the measured photon density. A 12-mm-diameter object was located at the edge of the imaging fields. (a) and (b) for STR, (c) and (d) for LMR, and (e) and (f) for PAR.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table.1. The CNR values for the reconstructed µ a and µ′s images shown in Figs. 3 and 4.

Equations (6)

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· κ ( r ) Φ ( r , ω ) + ( μ a + i ω c ) Φ ( r , ω ) = q 0 ( r , ω ) ,
κ ( r ) = 1 3 ( μ a + μ s ) ,
χ ( μ ) = Φ m Φ c 2 + λ μ μ 0 2 .
Δ μ = J T ( J J T + λ H max I ) 1 ( Φ m Φ c ) ,
λ = 1 2 + e Δ Φ , Δ Φ = Φ m Φ c 2 ,
CNR = μ ROI μ ROB [ ω ROI σ ROI 2 + ω ROB σ ROB 2 ] 1 2 ,

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