Abstract

We are using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to image structure and function of the developing embryonic heart in avian models. Fast OCT imaging produces very large 3D (2D + time) and 4D (3D volumes + time) data sets, which greatly challenge ones ability to visualize results. Noise in OCT images poses additional challenges. We created an algorithm with a quick, data set specific optimization for reduction of both shot and speckle noise and applied it to 3D visualization and image segmentation in OCT. When compared to baseline algorithms (median, Wiener, orthogonal wavelet, basic non-orthogonal wavelet), a panel of experts judged the new algorithm to give much improved volume renderings concerning both noise and 3D visualization. Specifically, the algorithm provided a better visualization of the myocardial and endocardial surfaces, and the interaction of the embryonic heart tube with surrounding tissue. Quantitative evaluation using an image quality figure of merit also indicated superiority of th new algorithm. Noise reduction aided semi-automatic 2D image segmentation, as quantitatively evaluated using a contour distance measure with respect to an expert segmented contour. In conclusion, the noise reduction algorithm should be quite useful for visualization and quantitative measurements (e.g., heart volume, stroke volume, contraction velocity, etc.) in OCT embryo images. With its semi-automatic, data set specific optimization, we believe that the algorithm can be applied to OCT images from other applications.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (6)

2006 (5)

M. W. Jenkins, F. Rothenberg, D. Roy, V. P. Nikolski, Z. Hu, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, "4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 736-748 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Speckle reduction in OCT using massively-parallel detection and frequency-domain ranging," Opt. Express 14, 4736-4745 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, Y. F. Jiang, H. T. Tsui, and P. A. Heng, "Boundary enhancement and speckle reduction for ultrasound images via salient structure extraction," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2300-2309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yue, M. M. Croitoru, J. B. Zwischenberger, and J. W. Clark, "Nonlinear multiscale wavelet diffusion for speckle suppression and edge enhancement in ultrasound images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 25, 297-311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Zha and T. S. Qiu, "A new algorithm for shot noise removal in medical ultrasound images based on alpha-stable model," International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing 20, 251-263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, "Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Gupta, R. C. Chauhan, and S. C. Sexana, "Wavelet-based statistical approach for speckle reduction in medical ultrasound images," Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing 42, 189-192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, "Precision of measurement of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3027-3037 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565-569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Perlibakas, "Automatical detection of face features and exact face contour," Pattern. Recogn. Lett. 24, 2977-2985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, "Image processing techniques for noise removal, enhancement and segmentation of cartilage OCT images," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 641-655 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Ebert, C. J. Morris, P. Rheingans, and T. S. Yoo, "Designing effective transfer functions for volume rendering from photographic volumes," IEEE. Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 8,183-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kniss, G. Kindlmann, and C. Hansen, "Multidimensional transfer functions for interactive volume rendering," IEEE. Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 8, 270-285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

A. Achim, A. Bezerianos, and P. Tsakalides, "Novel Bayesian multiscale method for speckle removal in medical ultrasound images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 20, 772-783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kutay, A. P. Petropulu, and C. W. Piccoli, "On modeling biomedical ultrasound RF echoes using a power-law shot-noise model," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 48, 953-968 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Frangakis and R. Hegerl, "Noise reduction in electron tomographic reconstructions using nonlinear anisotropic diffusion," J. Struct. Biol. 135, 239-250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chang, C. S. Chan, and J. Y. Hsiao, "A color image retrieval method based on local histogram," Advances in Mutlimedia Information Processing - Pcm 2001, Proceedings 2195, 831-836 (2001).

T. F. Cootes, G. J. Edwards, and C. J. Taylor, "Active appearance models," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 681-685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

T. F. Cootes, C. Beeston, G. J. Edwards, and C. J. Taylor, "A unified framework for atlas matching using Active Appearance Models," Information Processing in Medical Imaging, Proceedings 1613, 322-333 (1999).

X. H. Hao, S. K. Gao, and X. R. Gao, "A novel multiscale nonlinear thresholding method for ultrasonic speckle suppressing," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 18, 787-794 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

E. N. Mortensen and W. A. Barrett, "Interactive segmentation with intelligent scissors," Graphical Models and Image Processing 60, 349-384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Chambolle, R. A. Devore, N. Y. Lee, and B. J. Lucier, "Nonlinear wavelet image processing: Variational problems, compression, and noise removal through wavelet shrinkage," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 319-335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

V. Dutt and J. F. Greenleaf, "Adaptive speckle reduction filter for log-compressed B-scan images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 15, 802-813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. F. Cootes, C. J. Taylor, D. H. Cooper, and J. Graham, "Active Shape Models - Their Training and Application," Computer Vision and Image Understanding 61, 38-59 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

T. F. Cootes, A. Hill, C. J. Taylor, and J. Haslam, "Use of Active Shape Models for Locating Structure in Medical Images," Image and Vision Computing 12, 355-365 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Demirci, "Matlab Image-Processing Toolbox," Computer 27, 106-107 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. T. M. Verhoeven, J. M. Thijssen, and A. G. M. Theeuwes, "Improvement of Lesion Detection by Echographic Image-Processing - Signal-To-Noise-Ratio Imaging," Ultrason. Imaging 13, 238-251 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

P. Perona and J. Malik, "Scale-Space and Edge-Detection Using Anisotropic Diffusion," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12, 629-639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

T. Loupas, W. N. Mcdicken, and P. L. Allan, "An Adaptive Weighted Median Filter for Speckle Suppression in Medical Ultrasonic Images," IEEE.Trans. Circuits Syst. 36, 129-135 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

E.W. Dijkstra, "A note on two problems in connection with graphs," Numerische Mathematik 1, 269-271 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Achim, A.

A. Achim, A. Bezerianos, and P. Tsakalides, "Novel Bayesian multiscale method for speckle removal in medical ultrasound images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 20, 772-783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Allan, P. L.

T. Loupas, W. N. Mcdicken, and P. L. Allan, "An Adaptive Weighted Median Filter for Speckle Suppression in Medical Ultrasonic Images," IEEE.Trans. Circuits Syst. 36, 129-135 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Atsumi, H.

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, H. Atsumi, T. Koller, G. Gerig, S. Yoshida, and R. Kikinis, "3D multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images," Cvrmed-Mrcas'97 1205, 213-222 (1997).

Barrett, W. A.

E. N. Mortensen and W. A. Barrett, "Interactive segmentation with intelligent scissors," Graphical Models and Image Processing 60, 349-384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Basavanhally, A. N.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bashkansky, M.

Beeston, C.

T. F. Cootes, C. Beeston, G. J. Edwards, and C. J. Taylor, "A unified framework for atlas matching using Active Appearance Models," Information Processing in Medical Imaging, Proceedings 1613, 322-333 (1999).

Belding, J.

Bezerianos, A.

A. Achim, A. Bezerianos, and P. Tsakalides, "Novel Bayesian multiscale method for speckle removal in medical ultrasound images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 20, 772-783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bilenca, A.

Bizheva, K.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Bovik, A. C.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, "Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, "Image processing techniques for noise removal, enhancement and segmentation of cartilage OCT images," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 641-655 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chambolle, A.

A. Chambolle, R. A. Devore, N. Y. Lee, and B. J. Lucier, "Nonlinear wavelet image processing: Variational problems, compression, and noise removal through wavelet shrinkage," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 319-335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. S.

C. C. Chang, C. S. Chan, and J. Y. Hsiao, "A color image retrieval method based on local histogram," Advances in Mutlimedia Information Processing - Pcm 2001, Proceedings 2195, 831-836 (2001).

Chang, C. C.

C. C. Chang, C. S. Chan, and J. Y. Hsiao, "A color image retrieval method based on local histogram," Advances in Mutlimedia Information Processing - Pcm 2001, Proceedings 2195, 831-836 (2001).

Chauhan, R. C.

S. Gupta, R. C. Chauhan, and S. C. Sexana, "Wavelet-based statistical approach for speckle reduction in medical ultrasound images," Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing 42, 189-192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chughtai, O. Q.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J. W.

Y. Yue, M. M. Croitoru, J. B. Zwischenberger, and J. W. Clark, "Nonlinear multiscale wavelet diffusion for speckle suppression and edge enhancement in ultrasound images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 25, 297-311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D. H.

T. F. Cootes, C. J. Taylor, D. H. Cooper, and J. Graham, "Active Shape Models - Their Training and Application," Computer Vision and Image Understanding 61, 38-59 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cootes, T. F.

T. F. Cootes, G. J. Edwards, and C. J. Taylor, "Active appearance models," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 681-685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Cootes, C. Beeston, G. J. Edwards, and C. J. Taylor, "A unified framework for atlas matching using Active Appearance Models," Information Processing in Medical Imaging, Proceedings 1613, 322-333 (1999).

T. F. Cootes, C. J. Taylor, D. H. Cooper, and J. Graham, "Active Shape Models - Their Training and Application," Computer Vision and Image Understanding 61, 38-59 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Cootes, A. Hill, C. J. Taylor, and J. Haslam, "Use of Active Shape Models for Locating Structure in Medical Images," Image and Vision Computing 12, 355-365 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Croitoru, M. M.

Y. Yue, M. M. Croitoru, J. B. Zwischenberger, and J. W. Clark, "Nonlinear multiscale wavelet diffusion for speckle suppression and edge enhancement in ultrasound images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 25, 297-311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Csebfalvi, B.

B. Csebfalvi, L. Mroz, H. Hauser, A. Konig, and E. Groller, "Fast visualization of object contours by non-photorealistic volume rendering," Computer Graphics Forum 20, C452-+ (2001).

Demirci, M.

M. Demirci, "Matlab Image-Processing Toolbox," Computer 27, 106-107 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deng, H.

Desjardins, A. E.

Devore, R. A.

A. Chambolle, R. A. Devore, N. Y. Lee, and B. J. Lucier, "Nonlinear wavelet image processing: Variational problems, compression, and noise removal through wavelet shrinkage," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 319-335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dijkstra, E.W.

E.W. Dijkstra, "A note on two problems in connection with graphs," Numerische Mathematik 1, 269-271 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Dutt, V.

V. Dutt and J. F. Greenleaf, "Adaptive speckle reduction filter for log-compressed B-scan images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 15, 802-813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, D. S.

D. S. Ebert, C. J. Morris, P. Rheingans, and T. S. Yoo, "Designing effective transfer functions for volume rendering from photographic volumes," IEEE. Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 8,183-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, G. J.

T. F. Cootes, G. J. Edwards, and C. J. Taylor, "Active appearance models," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 681-685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Cootes, C. Beeston, G. J. Edwards, and C. J. Taylor, "A unified framework for atlas matching using Active Appearance Models," Information Processing in Medical Imaging, Proceedings 1613, 322-333 (1999).

Efimov, I. R.

Esenaliev, R. O.

Fercher, A. F.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565-569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frangakis, A. S.

A. S. Frangakis and R. Hegerl, "Noise reduction in electron tomographic reconstructions using nonlinear anisotropic diffusion," J. Struct. Biol. 135, 239-250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gao, S. K.

X. H. Hao, S. K. Gao, and X. R. Gao, "A novel multiscale nonlinear thresholding method for ultrasonic speckle suppressing," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 18, 787-794 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X. R.

X. H. Hao, S. K. Gao, and X. R. Gao, "A novel multiscale nonlinear thresholding method for ultrasonic speckle suppressing," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 18, 787-794 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gargesha, M.

Gerig, G.

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, H. Atsumi, T. Koller, G. Gerig, S. Yoshida, and R. Kikinis, "3D multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images," Cvrmed-Mrcas'97 1205, 213-222 (1997).

Gotzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565-569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Graham, J.

T. F. Cootes, C. J. Taylor, D. H. Cooper, and J. Graham, "Active Shape Models - Their Training and Application," Computer Vision and Image Understanding 61, 38-59 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Greenleaf, J. F.

V. Dutt and J. F. Greenleaf, "Adaptive speckle reduction filter for log-compressed B-scan images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 15, 802-813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Groller, E.

B. Csebfalvi, L. Mroz, H. Hauser, A. Konig, and E. Groller, "Fast visualization of object contours by non-photorealistic volume rendering," Computer Graphics Forum 20, C452-+ (2001).

Gupta, S.

S. Gupta, R. C. Chauhan, and S. C. Sexana, "Wavelet-based statistical approach for speckle reduction in medical ultrasound images," Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing 42, 189-192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, C.

J. Kniss, G. Kindlmann, and C. Hansen, "Multidimensional transfer functions for interactive volume rendering," IEEE. Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 8, 270-285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hao, X. H.

X. H. Hao, S. K. Gao, and X. R. Gao, "A novel multiscale nonlinear thresholding method for ultrasonic speckle suppressing," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 18, 787-794 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haslam, J.

T. F. Cootes, A. Hill, C. J. Taylor, and J. Haslam, "Use of Active Shape Models for Locating Structure in Medical Images," Image and Vision Computing 12, 355-365 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hauser, H.

B. Csebfalvi, L. Mroz, H. Hauser, A. Konig, and E. Groller, "Fast visualization of object contours by non-photorealistic volume rendering," Computer Graphics Forum 20, C452-+ (2001).

Hegerl, R.

A. S. Frangakis and R. Hegerl, "Noise reduction in electron tomographic reconstructions using nonlinear anisotropic diffusion," J. Struct. Biol. 135, 239-250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heng, P. A.

J. Xie, Y. F. Jiang, H. T. Tsui, and P. A. Heng, "Boundary enhancement and speckle reduction for ultrasound images via salient structure extraction," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2300-2309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hill, A.

T. F. Cootes, A. Hill, C. J. Taylor, and J. Haslam, "Use of Active Shape Models for Locating Structure in Medical Images," Image and Vision Computing 12, 355-365 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565-569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, J. Y.

C. C. Chang, C. S. Chan, and J. Y. Hsiao, "A color image retrieval method based on local histogram," Advances in Mutlimedia Information Processing - Pcm 2001, Proceedings 2195, 831-836 (2001).

Hu, Z.

Huber, R.

Jenkins, M. W.

Jiang, Y. F.

J. Xie, Y. F. Jiang, H. T. Tsui, and P. A. Heng, "Boundary enhancement and speckle reduction for ultrasound images via salient structure extraction," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2300-2309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kholodnykh, A. I.

Kikinis, R.

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, H. Atsumi, T. Koller, G. Gerig, S. Yoshida, and R. Kikinis, "3D multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images," Cvrmed-Mrcas'97 1205, 213-222 (1997).

Kindlmann, G.

J. Kniss, G. Kindlmann, and C. Hansen, "Multidimensional transfer functions for interactive volume rendering," IEEE. Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 8, 270-285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kniss, J.

J. Kniss, G. Kindlmann, and C. Hansen, "Multidimensional transfer functions for interactive volume rendering," IEEE. Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 8, 270-285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koller, T.

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, H. Atsumi, T. Koller, G. Gerig, S. Yoshida, and R. Kikinis, "3D multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images," Cvrmed-Mrcas'97 1205, 213-222 (1997).

Konig, A.

B. Csebfalvi, L. Mroz, H. Hauser, A. Konig, and E. Groller, "Fast visualization of object contours by non-photorealistic volume rendering," Computer Graphics Forum 20, C452-+ (2001).

Kutay, M. A.

M. A. Kutay, A. P. Petropulu, and C. W. Piccoli, "On modeling biomedical ultrasound RF echoes using a power-law shot-noise model," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 48, 953-968 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Larin, K. V.

Lee, N. Y.

A. Chambolle, R. A. Devore, N. Y. Lee, and B. J. Lucier, "Nonlinear wavelet image processing: Variational problems, compression, and noise removal through wavelet shrinkage," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 319-335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565-569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loupas, T.

T. Loupas, W. N. Mcdicken, and P. L. Allan, "An Adaptive Weighted Median Filter for Speckle Suppression in Medical Ultrasonic Images," IEEE.Trans. Circuits Syst. 36, 129-135 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lucier, B. J.

A. Chambolle, R. A. Devore, N. Y. Lee, and B. J. Lucier, "Nonlinear wavelet image processing: Variational problems, compression, and noise removal through wavelet shrinkage," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 319-335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malik, J.

P. Perona and J. Malik, "Scale-Space and Edge-Detection Using Anisotropic Diffusion," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12, 629-639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marks, D. L.

Mcdicken, W. N.

T. Loupas, W. N. Mcdicken, and P. L. Allan, "An Adaptive Weighted Median Filter for Speckle Suppression in Medical Ultrasonic Images," IEEE.Trans. Circuits Syst. 36, 129-135 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Montano, M. M.

Morris, C. J.

D. S. Ebert, C. J. Morris, P. Rheingans, and T. S. Yoo, "Designing effective transfer functions for volume rendering from photographic volumes," IEEE. Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 8,183-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, E. N.

E. N. Mortensen and W. A. Barrett, "Interactive segmentation with intelligent scissors," Graphical Models and Image Processing 60, 349-384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Motamedi, M.

Mroz, L.

B. Csebfalvi, L. Mroz, H. Hauser, A. Konig, and E. Groller, "Fast visualization of object contours by non-photorealistic volume rendering," Computer Graphics Forum 20, C452-+ (2001).

Nakajima, S.

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, H. Atsumi, T. Koller, G. Gerig, S. Yoshida, and R. Kikinis, "3D multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images," Cvrmed-Mrcas'97 1205, 213-222 (1997).

Nikolski, V. P.

Ozcan, A.

Patel, P.

Perlibakas, V.

V. Perlibakas, "Automatical detection of face features and exact face contour," Pattern. Recogn. Lett. 24, 2977-2985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perona, P.

P. Perona and J. Malik, "Scale-Space and Edge-Detection Using Anisotropic Diffusion," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12, 629-639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Petropulu, A. P.

M. A. Kutay, A. P. Petropulu, and C. W. Piccoli, "On modeling biomedical ultrasound RF echoes using a power-law shot-noise model," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 48, 953-968 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petrova, I. Y.

Piccoli, C. W.

M. A. Kutay, A. P. Petropulu, and C. W. Piccoli, "On modeling biomedical ultrasound RF echoes using a power-law shot-noise model," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 48, 953-968 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565-569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Puvanathasan, P.

Qiu, T. S.

D. F. Zha and T. S. Qiu, "A new algorithm for shot noise removal in medical ultrasound images based on alpha-stable model," International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing 20, 251-263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, T. S.

Reintjes, J.

Rheingans, P.

D. S. Ebert, C. J. Morris, P. Rheingans, and T. S. Yoo, "Designing effective transfer functions for volume rendering from photographic volumes," IEEE. Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 8,183-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rogowska, J.

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, "Image processing techniques for noise removal, enhancement and segmentation of cartilage OCT images," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 641-655 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A. M.

Rothenberg, F.

Roy, D.

Sato, Y.

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, H. Atsumi, T. Koller, G. Gerig, S. Yoshida, and R. Kikinis, "3D multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images," Cvrmed-Mrcas'97 1205, 213-222 (1997).

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sexana, S. C.

S. Gupta, R. C. Chauhan, and S. C. Sexana, "Wavelet-based statistical approach for speckle reduction in medical ultrasound images," Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing 42, 189-192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheikh, H. R.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, "Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simoncelli, E. P.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, "Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, C. J.

T. F. Cootes, G. J. Edwards, and C. J. Taylor, "Active appearance models," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 681-685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Cootes, C. Beeston, G. J. Edwards, and C. J. Taylor, "A unified framework for atlas matching using Active Appearance Models," Information Processing in Medical Imaging, Proceedings 1613, 322-333 (1999).

T. F. Cootes, C. J. Taylor, D. H. Cooper, and J. Graham, "Active Shape Models - Their Training and Application," Computer Vision and Image Understanding 61, 38-59 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Cootes, A. Hill, C. J. Taylor, and J. Haslam, "Use of Active Shape Models for Locating Structure in Medical Images," Image and Vision Computing 12, 355-365 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Theeuwes, A. G. M.

J. T. M. Verhoeven, J. M. Thijssen, and A. G. M. Theeuwes, "Improvement of Lesion Detection by Echographic Image-Processing - Signal-To-Noise-Ratio Imaging," Ultrason. Imaging 13, 238-251 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thijssen, J. M.

J. T. M. Verhoeven, J. M. Thijssen, and A. G. M. Theeuwes, "Improvement of Lesion Detection by Echographic Image-Processing - Signal-To-Noise-Ratio Imaging," Ultrason. Imaging 13, 238-251 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tsakalides, P.

A. Achim, A. Bezerianos, and P. Tsakalides, "Novel Bayesian multiscale method for speckle removal in medical ultrasound images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 20, 772-783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsui, H. T.

J. Xie, Y. F. Jiang, H. T. Tsui, and P. A. Heng, "Boundary enhancement and speckle reduction for ultrasound images via salient structure extraction," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2300-2309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vakoc, B. J.

Verhoeven, J. T. M.

J. T. M. Verhoeven, J. M. Thijssen, and A. G. M. Theeuwes, "Improvement of Lesion Detection by Echographic Image-Processing - Signal-To-Noise-Ratio Imaging," Ultrason. Imaging 13, 238-251 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, "Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Wilson, D. L.

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.

J. Xie, Y. F. Jiang, H. T. Tsui, and P. A. Heng, "Boundary enhancement and speckle reduction for ultrasound images via salient structure extraction," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2300-2309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, T. S.

D. S. Ebert, C. J. Morris, P. Rheingans, and T. S. Yoo, "Designing effective transfer functions for volume rendering from photographic volumes," IEEE. Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 8,183-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, S.

Y. Sato, S. Nakajima, H. Atsumi, T. Koller, G. Gerig, S. Yoshida, and R. Kikinis, "3D multi-scale line filter for segmentation and visualization of curvilinear structures in medical images," Cvrmed-Mrcas'97 1205, 213-222 (1997).

Yue, Y.

Y. Yue, M. M. Croitoru, J. B. Zwischenberger, and J. W. Clark, "Nonlinear multiscale wavelet diffusion for speckle suppression and edge enhancement in ultrasound images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 25, 297-311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zha, D. F.

D. F. Zha and T. S. Qiu, "A new algorithm for shot noise removal in medical ultrasound images based on alpha-stable model," International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing 20, 251-263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zwischenberger, J. B.

Y. Yue, M. M. Croitoru, J. B. Zwischenberger, and J. W. Clark, "Nonlinear multiscale wavelet diffusion for speckle suppression and edge enhancement in ultrasound images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 25, 297-311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Computer (1)

M. Demirci, "Matlab Image-Processing Toolbox," Computer 27, 106-107 (1994).
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Computer Vision and Image Understanding (1)

T. F. Cootes, C. J. Taylor, D. H. Cooper, and J. Graham, "Active Shape Models - Their Training and Application," Computer Vision and Image Understanding 61, 38-59 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Graphical Models and Image Processing (1)

E. N. Mortensen and W. A. Barrett, "Interactive segmentation with intelligent scissors," Graphical Models and Image Processing 60, 349-384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

J. Xie, Y. F. Jiang, H. T. Tsui, and P. A. Heng, "Boundary enhancement and speckle reduction for ultrasound images via salient structure extraction," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2300-2309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (2)

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, "Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chambolle, R. A. Devore, N. Y. Lee, and B. J. Lucier, "Nonlinear wavelet image processing: Variational problems, compression, and noise removal through wavelet shrinkage," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 319-335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. (5)

Zhang Fan, Mo Yoo Yang, Mong Koh Liang, and Kim Yongmin, "Nonlinear Diffusion in Laplacian Pyramid Domain for Ultrasonic Speckle Reduction," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 26, 200-211 (2007).
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Y. Yue, M. M. Croitoru, J. B. Zwischenberger, and J. W. Clark, "Nonlinear multiscale wavelet diffusion for speckle suppression and edge enhancement in ultrasound images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 25, 297-311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Achim, A. Bezerianos, and P. Tsakalides, "Novel Bayesian multiscale method for speckle removal in medical ultrasound images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 20, 772-783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Dutt and J. F. Greenleaf, "Adaptive speckle reduction filter for log-compressed B-scan images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 15, 802-813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Hao, S. K. Gao, and X. R. Gao, "A novel multiscale nonlinear thresholding method for ultrasonic speckle suppressing," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 18, 787-794 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (2)

P. Perona and J. Malik, "Scale-Space and Edge-Detection Using Anisotropic Diffusion," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12, 629-639 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Cootes, G. J. Edwards, and C. J. Taylor, "Active appearance models," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 681-685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

M. A. Kutay, A. P. Petropulu, and C. W. Piccoli, "On modeling biomedical ultrasound RF echoes using a power-law shot-noise model," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 48, 953-968 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (2)

D. S. Ebert, C. J. Morris, P. Rheingans, and T. S. Yoo, "Designing effective transfer functions for volume rendering from photographic volumes," IEEE. Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 8,183-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kniss, G. Kindlmann, and C. Hansen, "Multidimensional transfer functions for interactive volume rendering," IEEE. Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 8, 270-285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Image and Vision Computing (1)

T. F. Cootes, A. Hill, C. J. Taylor, and J. Haslam, "Use of Active Shape Models for Locating Structure in Medical Images," Image and Vision Computing 12, 355-365 (1994).
[CrossRef]

International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing (1)

D. F. Zha and T. S. Qiu, "A new algorithm for shot noise removal in medical ultrasound images based on alpha-stable model," International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing 20, 251-263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565-569 (2003).
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M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030505 (2007).
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Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing (1)

S. Gupta, R. C. Chauhan, and S. C. Sexana, "Wavelet-based statistical approach for speckle reduction in medical ultrasound images," Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing 42, 189-192 (2004).
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V. Perlibakas, "Automatical detection of face features and exact face contour," Pattern. Recogn. Lett. 24, 2977-2985 (2003).
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J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, "Image processing techniques for noise removal, enhancement and segmentation of cartilage OCT images," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 641-655 (2002).
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T. F. Cootes, C. Beeston, G. J. Edwards, and C. J. Taylor, "A unified framework for atlas matching using Active Appearance Models," Information Processing in Medical Imaging, Proceedings 1613, 322-333 (1999).

C. C. Chang, C. S. Chan, and J. Y. Hsiao, "A color image retrieval method based on local histogram," Advances in Mutlimedia Information Processing - Pcm 2001, Proceedings 2195, 831-836 (2001).

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T. Loupas, W. N. Mcdicken, and P. L. Allan, "An Adaptive Weighted Median Filter for Speckle Suppression in Medical Ultrasonic Images," IEEE.Trans. Circuits Syst. 36, 129-135 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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J. T. M. Verhoeven, J. M. Thijssen, and A. G. M. Theeuwes, "Improvement of Lesion Detection by Echographic Image-Processing - Signal-To-Noise-Ratio Imaging," Ultrason. Imaging 13, 238-251 (1991).
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