Abstract

We show that in the generation of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in long (>1km) fiber, the threshold for observing coherent Stokes emission occurs at notably lower gain than the classical lasing threshold gain for SBS. The effect is due coherent regenerative amplification of strong spontaneous Brillouin scattering, which occurs in the presence of feedback. The magnitude of the effect scales with the length of interaction.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. G. Smith, "Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering," Appl. Opt. 11, 2489-2494 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, and A. Tünnermann, "100-W single-frequency master-oscillator fiber power amplifier," Opt. Lett. 28, 1537-1539 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. G. Harrison, V. I. Kovalev, W. Lu, and D. Yu, "SBS self-phase conjugation of CW Nd:YAG laser radiation in an optical fibre," Opt. Commun. 163, 208 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, and D. C. Johnson, "cw Brillouin laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 608-609 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. L. Gaeta and R. W. Boyd, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in the presence of external feedback," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 581-594 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, "Observation of inhomogeneous spectral broadening of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1879-1882 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, "Waveguide-induced inhomogeneous spectral broadening of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 27, 2022-2024 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).
  10. V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, "Origin of temporally stable continuous-wave Stokes emission in stimulated Brillouin scattering: evidence of spectral self-phase conjugation," Opt. Lett. 30, 3389-3391 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, "The dynamics of a SBS fibre laser: the nature of periodic spiking at harmonics of the fundamental oscillation frequency," Opt. Commun. 204, 349-354 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Mocofanescu, L. Wang, R. Jain, K. D. Shaw, A. Gavrielides, and M. P. Sharma, "SBS threshold for single mode and multimode GRIN fibers in an all fiber configuration," Opt. Express,  13, 2019-2024 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. H. Stolen, "Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157-1160 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, "Threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber," Opt. Express 15, 17625-17630 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. L. Tang, "Saturation and spectral characteristics of the Stokes emission in the stimulated Brillouin process," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2945-2955 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Yariv. Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th Ed. (Oxford University Press, 1997).
  17. V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, "Temporally stable continuous-wave phase conjugation by stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber with cavity feedback," Opt. Lett. 30, 1375-1377 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Heiman, D. S. Hamilton, and R. W. Hellwarth, "Brillouin scattering measurements in optical glasses," Phys. Rev. 19, 6583-6592 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Ya. Zeldovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, and V. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation, (Springer Verlag, 1985).
  20. B. S. Kawasaki, D. C. Johnson Y. Fujii, and K. O. Hill, "Bandwidth-limited operation of a mode-locked Brillouin parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 429-431 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  21. I. Bar-Joseph, A. A. Friesem, E. Lichtman, and R.G. Waarts, "Spontaneous mode locking of single and multi mode pumped SBS fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 59, 296-298 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (4)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, "Waveguide-induced inhomogeneous spectral broadening of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 27, 2022-2024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, "The dynamics of a SBS fibre laser: the nature of periodic spiking at harmonics of the fundamental oscillation frequency," Opt. Commun. 204, 349-354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, "Observation of inhomogeneous spectral broadening of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1879-1882 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. G. Harrison, V. I. Kovalev, W. Lu, and D. Yu, "SBS self-phase conjugation of CW Nd:YAG laser radiation in an optical fibre," Opt. Commun. 163, 208 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. L. Gaeta and R. W. Boyd, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in the presence of external feedback," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 581-594 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

I. Bar-Joseph, A. A. Friesem, E. Lichtman, and R.G. Waarts, "Spontaneous mode locking of single and multi mode pumped SBS fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 59, 296-298 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

R. H. Stolen, "Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157-1160 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. Heiman, D. S. Hamilton, and R. W. Hellwarth, "Brillouin scattering measurements in optical glasses," Phys. Rev. 19, 6583-6592 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

B. S. Kawasaki, D. C. Johnson Y. Fujii, and K. O. Hill, "Bandwidth-limited operation of a mode-locked Brillouin parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 429-431 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, and D. C. Johnson, "cw Brillouin laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 608-609 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1966 (1)

C. L. Tang, "Saturation and spectral characteristics of the Stokes emission in the stimulated Brillouin process," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2945-2955 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bar-Joseph, I.

I. Bar-Joseph, A. A. Friesem, E. Lichtman, and R.G. Waarts, "Spontaneous mode locking of single and multi mode pumped SBS fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 59, 296-298 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, M. S.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gaeta and R. W. Boyd, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in the presence of external feedback," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 581-594 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

I. Bar-Joseph, A. A. Friesem, E. Lichtman, and R.G. Waarts, "Spontaneous mode locking of single and multi mode pumped SBS fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 59, 296-298 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gaeta and R. W. Boyd, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in the presence of external feedback," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 581-594 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D. J.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gavrielides, A.

Hamilton, D. S.

D. Heiman, D. S. Hamilton, and R. W. Hellwarth, "Brillouin scattering measurements in optical glasses," Phys. Rev. 19, 6583-6592 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, R. G.

Heiman, D.

D. Heiman, D. S. Hamilton, and R. W. Hellwarth, "Brillouin scattering measurements in optical glasses," Phys. Rev. 19, 6583-6592 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R. W.

D. Heiman, D. S. Hamilton, and R. W. Hellwarth, "Brillouin scattering measurements in optical glasses," Phys. Rev. 19, 6583-6592 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, and D. C. Johnson, "cw Brillouin laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 608-609 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R.

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, and D. C. Johnson, "cw Brillouin laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 608-609 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

B. S. Kawasaki, D. C. Johnson Y. Fujii, and K. O. Hill, "Bandwidth-limited operation of a mode-locked Brillouin parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 429-431 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, and D. C. Johnson, "cw Brillouin laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 608-609 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kovalev, V. I.

Lichtman, E.

I. Bar-Joseph, A. A. Friesem, E. Lichtman, and R.G. Waarts, "Spontaneous mode locking of single and multi mode pumped SBS fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 59, 296-298 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

Lu, W.

R. G. Harrison, V. I. Kovalev, W. Lu, and D. Yu, "SBS self-phase conjugation of CW Nd:YAG laser radiation in an optical fibre," Opt. Commun. 163, 208 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mocofanescu, A.

Okawachi, Y.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweinsberg, A.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, M. P.

Sharping, J. E.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, K. D.

Smith, R. G.

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, "Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157-1160 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

C. L. Tang, "Saturation and spectral characteristics of the Stokes emission in the stimulated Brillouin process," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2945-2955 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Waarts, R.G.

I. Bar-Joseph, A. A. Friesem, E. Lichtman, and R.G. Waarts, "Spontaneous mode locking of single and multi mode pumped SBS fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 59, 296-298 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Yu, D.

R. G. Harrison, V. I. Kovalev, W. Lu, and D. Yu, "SBS self-phase conjugation of CW Nd:YAG laser radiation in an optical fibre," Opt. Commun. 163, 208 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zellmer, H.

Zu, Z.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, and D. C. Johnson, "cw Brillouin laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 608-609 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys.Lett. (1)

B. S. Kawasaki, D. C. Johnson Y. Fujii, and K. O. Hill, "Bandwidth-limited operation of a mode-locked Brillouin parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 429-431 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. H. Stolen, "Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157-1160 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. (1)

A. L. Gaeta and R. W. Boyd, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in the presence of external feedback," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 581-594 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. L. Tang, "Saturation and spectral characteristics of the Stokes emission in the stimulated Brillouin process," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2945-2955 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, "The dynamics of a SBS fibre laser: the nature of periodic spiking at harmonics of the fundamental oscillation frequency," Opt. Commun. 204, 349-354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Harrison, V. I. Kovalev, W. Lu, and D. Yu, "SBS self-phase conjugation of CW Nd:YAG laser radiation in an optical fibre," Opt. Commun. 163, 208 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Bar-Joseph, A. A. Friesem, E. Lichtman, and R.G. Waarts, "Spontaneous mode locking of single and multi mode pumped SBS fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 59, 296-298 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. Heiman, D. S. Hamilton, and R. W. Hellwarth, "Brillouin scattering measurements in optical glasses," Phys. Rev. 19, 6583-6592 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, "Observation of inhomogeneous spectral broadening of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1879-1882 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

B. Ya. Zeldovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, and V. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation, (Springer Verlag, 1985).

A. Yariv. Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th Ed. (Oxford University Press, 1997).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Oscilloscope traces of the output Stokes signal from fiber samples of length 0.34 km (a and b) and 4.2 km (c and d) at P/Pth ≅ 1.1 (a and c), 1.2 (b). 1.6 (d). Period of modulation is tr .

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dependence of the SBS reflectivity, PS /Pp , on the exponential SBS gain, G, for L 1 = 0.2 km and for L 2 = 4.2 km (solid lines 1 and 2). Thin lines 1a and 2a are the stochastic, SS, contributions, and dashed lines 1b and 2b are the coherent, SC, contributions to PS /Pp respectively. The dotted horizontal line represents the 1% criterion for SBS threshold.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Threshold characteristics for SBS in fiber samples

Equations (6)

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( 1 c t z ) E s ( z , t ) = g 2 E S ( z , t ) I p ( 0 ) + E′ S ( z , t ) ,
d E S ( ω , z ) dz = [ g ( ω ) 2 E S ( ω , z ) + KΘΓ π [ 4 ( ω ω B ) 2 + Γ 2 ] ] I p ( 0 ) .
E SS ( ω , 0 ) 2 = 2 ΚΘ L Γ I p ( 0 ) G ( ω ) π [ 4 ( ω ω B ) 2 + Γ 2 ] [ e G ( ω ) 1 ] ,
E SC ( ω , 0 ) = E SC ( ω , L ) e G ( ω ) 2 ( 1 r 1 r 2 e G ( ω ) 2 ) 1 ,
1 r 1 r 2 e G ( ω ) 2 = ε ,
I S ( 0 ) = ( 1 r 1 2 ) ΘΚ L I p ( 0 ) ( e G 1 ) G [ 1 G + N 2 2 δ ω c πΓ ( 1 r 1 r 2 e G 2 ) 2 ] ,

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