Abstract

We report efficient random lasing in a ground powder of a novel solid-state material based on silica gel containing SiO2 nanoparticles embedding rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) dye. Basic properties of random lasing such as emission kinetics, emission spectrum, and threshold of stimulated emission are investigated by using real-time spectroscopy. The laser-like emission dynamics can be accurately described by a light diffusive propagation model. The device behavior is close to a conventional ultrafast Q-switched laser, which is an interesting fact aimed to further applications.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  22. G. Zacharakis, G. Heliotis, G. Filippidis, D. Anglos, and T. G. Papazoglou, "Investigation of the laserlike behavior of polymeric scattering gain media under subpicosecond laser excitation," Appl. Opt. 38, 6087-6092 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. W. Lee, K. S. Wong, J. D. Huang, S. V. Frolov, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser action in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films: stimulated emission in an inhomogeneously broadened exciton distribution," Chem. Phys. Lett. 314, 564-569 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. W. Shin, S. Y. Cho, K. H. Choi, S. L. Oh, and Y. R. Kim, "Directional random lasing in dye-TiO2 doped polymer nanowire array embedded in porous alumina membrane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 263112 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. Zhang, Y. Wang, and D. Ma, "Random lasing emission from a red fluorescent dye doped polystyrene film containing dispersed polystyrene nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091115 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Laser-like emission in opal photonic crystals," Opt. Commun. 162, 241-246 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nat. Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  30. M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. N. Williams, J. A. Adegoke, and M. A. Noginov, "Characterization of light scattering in translucent ceramics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 43-48 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  37. M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, and P. Venkateswarlu, "Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers," Opt. Commun. 118, 430-437 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

X. Wu and H. Cao, "Statistical studies of random-lasing modes and amplified spontaneous-emission spikes in weakly scattering systems," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, "The physics and applications of random lasers," Nat. Phys. 4, 359-367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nat. Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, "Random lasing in freely suspended dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 33, 557-559 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. N. Williams, J. A. Adegoke, and M. A. Noginov, "Characterization of light scattering in translucent ceramics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 43-48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. García-Ramiro, M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, and M. Al-Saleh, "Light propagation in optical crystal powders: effects of particle size and volume filling factor," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 456213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, "Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder," Phys. Rev. A 76, 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, "Quantitative analysis of several random lasers," Opt. Commun. 278, 110-113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, Y. Wang, and D. Ma, "Random lasing emission from a red fluorescent dye doped polystyrene film containing dispersed polystyrene nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. W. Shin, S. Y. Cho, K. H. Choi, S. L. Oh, and Y. R. Kim, "Directional random lasing in dye-TiO2 doped polymer nanowire array embedded in porous alumina membrane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 263112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

H. Cao, "Lasing in random media," Waves Random Media 13, R1-R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Universal properties of random lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 120-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, "Model for a random laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 215503 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, "Dynamics of a random laser above threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1522-1525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, "Time dependent theory for random lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 70-73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, S.-H. Chang, and S. T. Ho, "Transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser action in strongly scattering media," Phys. Rev. E 61, 1985-1989 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seeling, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Lee, K. S. Wong, J. D. Huang, S. V. Frolov, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser action in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films: stimulated emission in an inhomogeneously broadened exciton distribution," Chem. Phys. Lett. 314, 564-569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Laser-like emission in opal photonic crystals," Opt. Commun. 162, 241-246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Zacharakis, G. Heliotis, G. Filippidis, D. Anglos, and T. G. Papazoglou, "Investigation of the laserlike behavior of polymeric scattering gain media under subpicosecond laser excitation," Appl. Opt. 38, 6087-6092 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

R. M. Balachandran and N. M. Lawandy, "Theory of laser action in scattering gain media," Opt. Lett. 22, 319-321 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, "Dynamics of stimulated emission from random media," Phys. Rev. E 56, 6118-6122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

M. Siddique, R. R. Alfano, G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, "Time-resolved studies of stimulated emission from colloidal dye solutions," Opt. Lett. 21, 450-452 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John and G. Pang, "Theory of lasing in a multiple-scattering medium," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3642-3652 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, "Light diffusion with gain and random lasers," Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256-4265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, and P. Venkateswarlu, "Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers," Opt. Commun. 118, 430-437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

W. L. Sha, C. H. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "Spectral and temporal measurements of laser action of Rhodamine 640 dye in strongly scattering media," Opt. Lett. 19, 1922-1924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436-438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. Z. Genack, "Optical transmission in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2043-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. S. Letokhov, "Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption," Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835-840 (1968).

1967 (1)

V. S. Letokhov, "Stimulated emission of an ensemble of scattering particles with negative absorption," JETP Lett. 5, 212-215 (1967).

Adegoke, J. A.

Alfano, R. R.

Al-Saleh, M.

B. García-Ramiro, M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, and M. Al-Saleh, "Light propagation in optical crystal powders: effects of particle size and volume filling factor," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 456213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anastasiadis, S. H.

Anglos, D.

Aramburu, I.

B. García-Ramiro, M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, and M. Al-Saleh, "Light propagation in optical crystal powders: effects of particle size and volume filling factor," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 456213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. N. Williams, J. A. Adegoke, and M. A. Noginov, "Characterization of light scattering in translucent ceramics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 43-48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balachandran, R. M.

R. M. Balachandran and N. M. Lawandy, "Theory of laser action in scattering gain media," Opt. Lett. 22, 319-321 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436-438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. N. Williams, J. A. Adegoke, and M. A. Noginov, "Characterization of light scattering in translucent ceramics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 43-48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. García-Ramiro, M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, and M. Al-Saleh, "Light propagation in optical crystal powders: effects of particle size and volume filling factor," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 456213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barna, V.

Baughman, R. H.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Laser-like emission in opal photonic crystals," Opt. Commun. 162, 241-246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berger, G. A.

Blanco, A.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nat. Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burin, A. L.

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, "Model for a random laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 215503 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

X. Wu and H. Cao, "Statistical studies of random-lasing modes and amplified spontaneous-emission spikes in weakly scattering systems," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, "Lasing in random media," Waves Random Media 13, R1-R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, "Model for a random laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 215503 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, S.-H. Chang, and S. T. Ho, "Transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser action in strongly scattering media," Phys. Rev. E 61, 1985-1989 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seeling, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Caulfield, H. J.

M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, and P. Venkateswarlu, "Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers," Opt. Commun. 118, 430-437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, "Model for a random laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 215503 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seeling, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, S.-H. Chang, and S. T. Ho, "Transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser action in strongly scattering media," Phys. Rev. E 61, 1985-1989 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. Y.

H. W. Shin, S. Y. Cho, K. H. Choi, S. L. Oh, and Y. R. Kim, "Directional random lasing in dye-TiO2 doped polymer nanowire array embedded in porous alumina membrane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 263112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. H.

H. W. Shin, S. Y. Cho, K. H. Choi, S. L. Oh, and Y. R. Kim, "Directional random lasing in dye-TiO2 doped polymer nanowire array embedded in porous alumina membrane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 263112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Das, R. N.

De Luca, A.

Ferjani, S.

Fernández, J.

B. García-Ramiro, M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, and M. Al-Saleh, "Light propagation in optical crystal powders: effects of particle size and volume filling factor," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 456213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. N. Williams, J. A. Adegoke, and M. A. Noginov, "Characterization of light scattering in translucent ceramics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 43-48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Filippidis, G.

Florescu, L.

L. Florescu and S. John, "Lasing in a random amplifying medium: Spatiotemporal characteristics and nonadiabatic atomic dynamics," Phys. Rev. E 70, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, S. V.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Laser-like emission in opal photonic crystals," Opt. Commun. 162, 241-246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Lee, K. S. Wong, J. D. Huang, S. V. Frolov, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser action in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films: stimulated emission in an inhomogeneously broadened exciton distribution," Chem. Phys. Lett. 314, 564-569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, P. D.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nat. Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

García-Ramiro, B.

B. García-Ramiro, M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, and M. Al-Saleh, "Light propagation in optical crystal powders: effects of particle size and volume filling factor," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 456213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A. Z.

G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, "Dynamics of stimulated emission from random media," Phys. Rev. E 56, 6118-6122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Siddique, R. R. Alfano, G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, "Time-resolved studies of stimulated emission from colloidal dye solutions," Opt. Lett. 21, 450-452 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Z. Genack, "Optical transmission in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2043-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giannelis, E. P.

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436-438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gottardo, S.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nat. Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, Y. J.

Heliotis, G.

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, S.-H. Chang, and S. T. Ho, "Transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser action in strongly scattering media," Phys. Rev. E 61, 1985-1989 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seeling, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. D.

C. W. Lee, K. S. Wong, J. D. Huang, S. V. Frolov, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser action in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films: stimulated emission in an inhomogeneously broadened exciton distribution," Chem. Phys. Lett. 314, 564-569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. G.

Illarramendi, M. A.

B. García-Ramiro, M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, and M. Al-Saleh, "Light propagation in optical crystal powders: effects of particle size and volume filling factor," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 456213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. N. Williams, J. A. Adegoke, and M. A. Noginov, "Characterization of light scattering in translucent ceramics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 43-48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jakubiak, R.

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, "Time dependent theory for random lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 70-73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, S.

L. Florescu and S. John, "Lasing in a random amplifying medium: Spatiotemporal characteristics and nonadiabatic atomic dynamics," Phys. Rev. E 70, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. John and G. Pang, "Theory of lasing in a multiple-scattering medium," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3642-3652 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kempe, M.

Kim, Y. R.

H. W. Shin, S. Y. Cho, K. H. Choi, S. L. Oh, and Y. R. Kim, "Directional random lasing in dye-TiO2 doped polymer nanowire array embedded in porous alumina membrane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 263112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, "Quantitative analysis of several random lasers," Opt. Commun. 278, 110-113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. van Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, "Dynamics of a random laser above threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1522-1525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, "Light diffusion with gain and random lasers," Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256-4265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

R. M. Balachandran and N. M. Lawandy, "Theory of laser action in scattering gain media," Opt. Lett. 22, 319-321 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436-438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. W.

C. W. Lee, K. S. Wong, J. D. Huang, S. V. Frolov, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser action in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films: stimulated emission in an inhomogeneously broadened exciton distribution," Chem. Phys. Lett. 314, 564-569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, "Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption," Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835-840 (1968).

V. S. Letokhov, "Stimulated emission of an ensemble of scattering particles with negative absorption," JETP Lett. 5, 212-215 (1967).

Liu, C. H.

Lopez, C.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nat. Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, D.

D. Zhang, Y. Wang, and D. Ma, "Random lasing emission from a red fluorescent dye doped polystyrene film containing dispersed polystyrene nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mosk, A. P.

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, "Quantitative analysis of several random lasers," Opt. Commun. 278, 110-113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mujumdar, S.

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, "Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder," Phys. Rev. A 76, 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. N. Williams, J. A. Adegoke, and M. A. Noginov, "Characterization of light scattering in translucent ceramics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 43-48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, and P. Venkateswarlu, "Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers," Opt. Commun. 118, 430-437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noginova, N. E.

M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, and P. Venkateswarlu, "Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers," Opt. Commun. 118, 430-437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. L.

H. W. Shin, S. Y. Cho, K. H. Choi, S. L. Oh, and Y. R. Kim, "Directional random lasing in dye-TiO2 doped polymer nanowire array embedded in porous alumina membrane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 263112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pang, G.

S. John and G. Pang, "Theory of lasing in a multiple-scattering medium," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3642-3652 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papazoglou, T. G.

Poelwijk, F. J.

G. van Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, "Dynamics of a random laser above threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1522-1525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polson, R. C.

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Universal properties of random lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 120-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Psyllaki, M.

Raikh, M. E.

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Universal properties of random lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 120-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ratner, M. A.

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, "Model for a random laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 215503 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sapienza, R.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nat. Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436-438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Seeling, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seeling, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sha, W. L.

Shin, H. W.

H. W. Shin, S. Y. Cho, K. H. Choi, S. L. Oh, and Y. R. Kim, "Directional random lasing in dye-TiO2 doped polymer nanowire array embedded in porous alumina membrane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 263112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Siddique, M.

Soukoulis, C. M.

X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, "Time dependent theory for random lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 70-73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sprik, R.

G. van Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, "Dynamics of a random laser above threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1522-1525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stassinopoulos, A.

Strangi, G.

Torre, R.

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, "Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder," Phys. Rev. A 76, 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turck, V.

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, "Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder," Phys. Rev. A 76, 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vaia, R. A.

van der Molen, K. L.

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, "Quantitative analysis of several random lasers," Opt. Commun. 278, 110-113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Soest, G.

G. van Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, "Dynamics of a random laser above threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1522-1525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vardeny, Z. V.

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Universal properties of random lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 120-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Laser-like emission in opal photonic crystals," Opt. Commun. 162, 241-246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Lee, K. S. Wong, J. D. Huang, S. V. Frolov, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser action in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films: stimulated emission in an inhomogeneously broadened exciton distribution," Chem. Phys. Lett. 314, 564-569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Venkateswarlu, P.

M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, and P. Venkateswarlu, "Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers," Opt. Commun. 118, 430-437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Versace, C.

Wang, H. Z.

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seeling, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

D. Zhang, Y. Wang, and D. Ma, "Random lasing emission from a red fluorescent dye doped polystyrene film containing dispersed polystyrene nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nat. Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, "The physics and applications of random lasers," Nat. Phys. 4, 359-367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, "Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder," Phys. Rev. A 76, 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, "Light diffusion with gain and random lasers," Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256-4265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, S. N.

Wong, K. S.

C. W. Lee, K. S. Wong, J. D. Huang, S. V. Frolov, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser action in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films: stimulated emission in an inhomogeneously broadened exciton distribution," Chem. Phys. Lett. 314, 564-569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. M.

Wu, X.

X. Wu and H. Cao, "Statistical studies of random-lasing modes and amplified spontaneous-emission spikes in weakly scattering systems," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Y.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, S.-H. Chang, and S. T. Ho, "Transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser action in strongly scattering media," Phys. Rev. E 61, 1985-1989 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zacharakis, G.

Zakhidov, A. A.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Laser-like emission in opal photonic crystals," Opt. Commun. 162, 241-246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, Y. Wang, and D. Ma, "Random lasing emission from a red fluorescent dye doped polystyrene film containing dispersed polystyrene nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F. L.

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seeling, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X. G.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. W. Shin, S. Y. Cho, K. H. Choi, S. L. Oh, and Y. R. Kim, "Directional random lasing in dye-TiO2 doped polymer nanowire array embedded in porous alumina membrane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 263112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, Y. Wang, and D. Ma, "Random lasing emission from a red fluorescent dye doped polystyrene film containing dispersed polystyrene nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. W. Lee, K. S. Wong, J. D. Huang, S. V. Frolov, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Femtosecond time-resolved laser action in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films: stimulated emission in an inhomogeneously broadened exciton distribution," Chem. Phys. Lett. 314, 564-569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Universal properties of random lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 120-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

B. García-Ramiro, M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, and M. Al-Saleh, "Light propagation in optical crystal powders: effects of particle size and volume filling factor," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 456213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

V. S. Letokhov, "Stimulated emission of an ensemble of scattering particles with negative absorption," JETP Lett. 5, 212-215 (1967).

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nat. Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. S. Wiersma, "The physics and applications of random lasers," Nat. Phys. 4, 359-367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436-438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, and P. Venkateswarlu, "Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers," Opt. Commun. 118, 430-437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Laser-like emission in opal photonic crystals," Opt. Commun. 162, 241-246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, "Quantitative analysis of several random lasers," Opt. Commun. 278, 110-113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

S. John and G. Pang, "Theory of lasing in a multiple-scattering medium," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3642-3652 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, "Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder," Phys. Rev. A 76, 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wu and H. Cao, "Statistical studies of random-lasing modes and amplified spontaneous-emission spikes in weakly scattering systems," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (4)

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, "Light diffusion with gain and random lasers," Phys. Rev. E 54, 4256-4265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, S.-H. Chang, and S. T. Ho, "Transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser action in strongly scattering media," Phys. Rev. E 61, 1985-1989 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Florescu and S. John, "Lasing in a random amplifying medium: Spatiotemporal characteristics and nonadiabatic atomic dynamics," Phys. Rev. E 70, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, "Dynamics of stimulated emission from random media," Phys. Rev. E 56, 6118-6122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

G. van Soest, F. J. Poelwijk, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, "Dynamics of a random laser above threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1522-1525 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Z. Genack, "Optical transmission in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2043-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, "Time dependent theory for random lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 70-73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, "Model for a random laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 215503 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seeling, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

V. S. Letokhov, "Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption," Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835-840 (1968).

Waves Random Media (1)

H. Cao, "Lasing in random media," Waves Random Media 13, R1-R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. A. Noginov, Solid-State Random Lasers, (Springer, Berlin, 2005)

K. L. van der Molen, "Experiments on scattering lasers from Mie to random," Univ. Twente, Enschede, (2007).

C. J. Brinker and G. W. Sherer, Sol-Gel Science: The Physics and Chemistry of Sol-Gel Processing, (Academic Press, San Diego, 1990)

G. van Soest, "Experiments on Random Lasers," Ph. D. dissertation (Univ. Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 2001).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (Mill Valley, California, 1986)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Two-step preparation of Rh6G-doped silica nanoparticles embedded in a modified silica matrix.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental set-up for time-resolved spectroscopy measurements.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Emission spectra obtained at different pump pulse energies in bulk silica gel containing 2% Rh6G-SiO2 nanoparticles (a) and in the resulting ground powder (b). Right inset of Fig. 3(b): emission spectra of the ground powder with pump energies up to 53 μJ/pulse. Left insets: corresponding emission linewidths as a function of the pump energy. Exposure times of 1.4 ns and 200 ps were used, respectively, for the bulk sample and the ground powder. The time delay employed in both cases was the same.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Time-resolved emission spectra obtained as a function of time delay in the ground powder of a bulk silica gel containing 2% Rh6G-SiO2 nanoparticles at 27.8 μJ/pulse energy (a) and 450 μJ/pulse energy (b). The exposure time was 200 ps in both cases. Insets: respective linewidths as a function of the pump energy.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental temporal profiles obtained at different pump pulse energies in a bulk silica gel containing 2% Rh6G-SiO2 nanoparticles (a) and in the resulting ground powder (b). Right inset of Fig. 5(b): temporal profiles of the ground powder with pump energies up to 14 μJ/pulse. Note the different time scale in this case. The wavy structure of the temporal profiles is due to the typical response of the fast photodiode used in the experimental set-up. Left insets: FWHM of the respective time profiles as a function of the pump energy. Note that in the powder sample the width of the temporal profiles is reduced down to 100 ps which corresponds to the actual detector system resolution.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Theoretical temporal behavior obtained at different pump pulse energies. Blue curves represent the excited-state populations and red lines correspond to the time profiles obtained for β = 0.5 at the same pump pulse energy value. Right inset: excited-state populations and simulated temporal profiles obtained for pump energies up to 36.5 μJ/pulse. Note the different time scale in this case. Left inset: FWHM of the simulated time profiles as a function of the pump pulse energy.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Theoretical (blue squares) and experimental (red dots) pulse narrowing obtained as a function of the pump pulse energy in the ground powders of the bulk silica gel containing 2% Rh6G-SiO2 nanoparticles. The horizontal line represents the FWHM of the pump pulse indicating the actual detector system resolution. (b) Integrated intensity of the corresponding temporal profiles as a function of the pump pulse energy. Blue line represents the simulated data for β = 0.5. A laser threshold around 24 μJ/pulse is estimated from the linear fit (dashed line) of the experimental data (red dots)

Equations (4)

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W p ( z , t ) t = D p 2 W p ( z , t ) z 2 D p l abs 2 W p ( z , t ) + p ( z , t )
W e ( z , t ) t = D e 2 W e ( z , t ) z 2 + f v σ em N ( z , t ) W e ( z , t ) + β N ( z , t ) τ s
N ( z , t ) t = f v K abs W p ( z , t ) f v σ em N ( z , t ) W e ( z , t ) N ( z , t ) τ s
p ( z , t ) = j 0 l s ln 2 π Δ exp ( z l * ) exp ( ( ( t t peak z v ) Δ ) 2 ln 2 )

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