Abstract

A new integrated-optic coupler was proposed for coupling a guided wave to a free-space wave propagating vertically from the waveguide surface. The coupler consists of a grating coupler in a cavity formed by two distributed Bragg reflectors, and has a small aperture. The cavity was designed to eliminate both transmission and reflection of the incident guided wave, resulting in 100 % radiation by a several-micron aperture. Design consideration was theoretically discussed based on the coupled mode analysis. Predicted performance was simulated and confirmed by the finite difference time domain method.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, and B. A. Scott, "Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523-525 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Kogelnik and T. P. Sosnowski, "Holographic thin film couplers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602-1608 (1970).
  3. A. Katzir, A. C. Livanos, J. B. Shellan, and A. Yariv, "Chirped gratings in integrated optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 296-304 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Miler and M. Skalsky, "Stigmatically focusing grating coupler," Electron. Lett. 15, 275-276 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Heitmann and R. V. Pole, "Two-dimensional focusing holographic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 585-587 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Ura, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Linearly focusing grating coupler for integrated-optic parallel data pickup," Tech. Digest Int�??l Sympo. Opt. Memory, pp. 93-94, Kobe, Japan, Sept. 26-28, 1989.
  7. S. Ura, T. Endoh, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Linearly focusing grating couplers for sensing 2-dimensional grating-scale displacement," Meet. Digest Topical Meet. Int�??l Commission Opt., p. 164, Kyoto, Japan, April 4-8, 1994.
  8. S. Ura, H. Sunagawa, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Focusing grating couplers for polarization detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1028-1033 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Ura, H. Moriguchi, S. Kido, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Switching of output coupling in a grating coupler by diffraction transition to the distributed Bragg reflector regime," Appl. Opt. 38, 2500-2503 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, and S. Namba, "High-efficiency blazed grating couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303-305 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Hagberg, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, "High efficiency surface emitting lasers using blazed grating outcouplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3685-3687 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. V. Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillarert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, "Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP-InGaAsP waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 396-398 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide," J. Lightwave Technolol. 12, 1569-1576 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Ura, "Selective guided mode coupling via bridging mode by integrated gratings for intraboard optical interconnects," Proc. SPIE 4652, 86-96 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic add/drop multiplexing of free-space waves for intra-board chip-to-chi optical interconnects," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 7987-7992 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Kintaka, J. Nishii. K. Shinoda, and S. Ura, "WDM signal transmission in a thin-film waveguide for optical interconnection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2299-2301 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thorhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "High efficiency grating coupler between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and perfectly vertical optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1495-1497 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. Gunn, "CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects," IEEE Micro 26, 58-66 (March-April 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, 1989), Chap. 4.

2007 (2)

F. V. Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillarert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, "Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP-InGaAsP waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 396-398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "High efficiency grating coupler between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and perfectly vertical optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1495-1497 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

C. Gunn, "CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects," IEEE Micro 26, 58-66 (March-April 2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii. K. Shinoda, and S. Ura, "WDM signal transmission in a thin-film waveguide for optical interconnection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2299-2301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thorhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic add/drop multiplexing of free-space waves for intra-board chip-to-chi optical interconnects," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 7987-7992 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, "Selective guided mode coupling via bridging mode by integrated gratings for intraboard optical interconnects," Proc. SPIE 4652, 86-96 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Hagberg, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, "High efficiency surface emitting lasers using blazed grating outcouplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3685-3687 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

S. Ura, H. Moriguchi, S. Kido, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Switching of output coupling in a grating coupler by diffraction transition to the distributed Bragg reflector regime," Appl. Opt. 38, 2500-2503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide," J. Lightwave Technolol. 12, 1569-1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Ura, H. Sunagawa, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Focusing grating couplers for polarization detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1028-1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. Heitmann and R. V. Pole, "Two-dimensional focusing holographic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 585-587 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

M. Miler and M. Skalsky, "Stigmatically focusing grating coupler," Electron. Lett. 15, 275-276 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Katzir, A. C. Livanos, J. B. Shellan, and A. Yariv, "Chirped gratings in integrated optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 296-304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, and S. Namba, "High-efficiency blazed grating couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303-305 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, and B. A. Scott, "Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523-525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and T. P. Sosnowski, "Holographic thin film couplers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602-1608 (1970).

Aoyagi, T.

T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, and S. Namba, "High-efficiency blazed grating couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303-305 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, Y.

T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, and S. Namba, "High-efficiency blazed grating couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303-305 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thorhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

F. V. Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillarert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, "Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP-InGaAsP waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 396-398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "High efficiency grating coupler between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and perfectly vertical optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1495-1497 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thorhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thorhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thorhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Daele, P. V.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dakss, M. L.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, and B. A. Scott, "Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523-525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, N.

M. Hagberg, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, "High efficiency surface emitting lasers using blazed grating outcouplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3685-3687 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, C.

C. Gunn, "CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects," IEEE Micro 26, 58-66 (March-April 2006).
[CrossRef]

Hagberg, M.

M. Hagberg, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, "High efficiency surface emitting lasers using blazed grating outcouplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3685-3687 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, P. F.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, and B. A. Scott, "Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523-525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, D.

D. Heitmann and R. V. Pole, "Two-dimensional focusing holographic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 585-587 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Imaoka, Y.

J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic add/drop multiplexing of free-space waves for intra-board chip-to-chi optical interconnects," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 7987-7992 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Katzir, A.

A. Katzir, A. C. Livanos, J. B. Shellan, and A. Yariv, "Chirped gratings in integrated optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 296-304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kido, S.

Kintaka, K.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii. K. Shinoda, and S. Ura, "WDM signal transmission in a thin-film waveguide for optical interconnection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2299-2301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic add/drop multiplexing of free-space waves for intra-board chip-to-chi optical interconnects," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 7987-7992 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and T. P. Sosnowski, "Holographic thin film couplers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602-1608 (1970).

Kotlyar, M. V.

F. V. Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillarert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, "Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP-InGaAsP waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 396-398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

F. V. Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillarert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, "Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP-InGaAsP waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 396-398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, L.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, and B. A. Scott, "Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523-525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Laere, F. V.

F. V. Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillarert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, "Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP-InGaAsP waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 396-398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thorhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

M. Hagberg, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, "High efficiency surface emitting lasers using blazed grating outcouplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3685-3687 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Livanos, A. C.

A. Katzir, A. C. Livanos, J. B. Shellan, and A. Yariv, "Chirped gratings in integrated optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 296-304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mesel, K. D.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miler, M.

M. Miler and M. Skalsky, "Stigmatically focusing grating coupler," Electron. Lett. 15, 275-276 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moriguchi, H.

Namba, S.

T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, and S. Namba, "High-efficiency blazed grating couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303-305 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic add/drop multiplexing of free-space waves for intra-board chip-to-chi optical interconnects," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 7987-7992 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, H. Moriguchi, S. Kido, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Switching of output coupling in a grating coupler by diffraction transition to the distributed Bragg reflector regime," Appl. Opt. 38, 2500-2503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide," J. Lightwave Technolol. 12, 1569-1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, H. Sunagawa, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Focusing grating couplers for polarization detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1028-1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii. K. Shinoda, and S. Ura, "WDM signal transmission in a thin-film waveguide for optical interconnection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2299-2301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M.

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide," J. Lightwave Technolol. 12, 1569-1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ohmori, J.

J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic add/drop multiplexing of free-space waves for intra-board chip-to-chi optical interconnects," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 7987-7992 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pole, R. V.

D. Heitmann and R. V. Pole, "Two-dimensional focusing holographic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 585-587 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

Satoh, R.

J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic add/drop multiplexing of free-space waves for intra-board chip-to-chi optical interconnects," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 7987-7992 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scott, B. A.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, and B. A. Scott, "Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523-525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Shellan, J. B.

A. Katzir, A. C. Livanos, J. B. Shellan, and A. Yariv, "Chirped gratings in integrated optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 296-304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Shinoda, K.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii. K. Shinoda, and S. Ura, "WDM signal transmission in a thin-film waveguide for optical interconnection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2299-2301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skalsky, M.

M. Miler and M. Skalsky, "Stigmatically focusing grating coupler," Electron. Lett. 15, 275-276 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sosnowski, T. P.

H. Kogelnik and T. P. Sosnowski, "Holographic thin film couplers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602-1608 (1970).

Suhara, T.

S. Ura, H. Moriguchi, S. Kido, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Switching of output coupling in a grating coupler by diffraction transition to the distributed Bragg reflector regime," Appl. Opt. 38, 2500-2503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide," J. Lightwave Technolol. 12, 1569-1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, H. Sunagawa, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Focusing grating couplers for polarization detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1028-1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sunagawa, H.

S. Ura, H. Sunagawa, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Focusing grating couplers for polarization detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1028-1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thorhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taillarert, D.

F. V. Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillarert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, "Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP-InGaAsP waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 396-398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thorhout, D. V.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thorhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

F. V. Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillarert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, "Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP-InGaAsP waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 396-398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "High efficiency grating coupler between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and perfectly vertical optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1495-1497 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ura, S.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii. K. Shinoda, and S. Ura, "WDM signal transmission in a thin-film waveguide for optical interconnection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2299-2301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic add/drop multiplexing of free-space waves for intra-board chip-to-chi optical interconnects," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 7987-7992 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, "Selective guided mode coupling via bridging mode by integrated gratings for intraboard optical interconnects," Proc. SPIE 4652, 86-96 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide," J. Lightwave Technolol. 12, 1569-1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, H. Moriguchi, S. Kido, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Switching of output coupling in a grating coupler by diffraction transition to the distributed Bragg reflector regime," Appl. Opt. 38, 2500-2503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, H. Sunagawa, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Focusing grating couplers for polarization detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1028-1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Katzir, A. C. Livanos, J. B. Shellan, and A. Yariv, "Chirped gratings in integrated optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 296-304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, and B. A. Scott, "Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523-525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

D. Heitmann and R. V. Pole, "Two-dimensional focusing holographic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 585-587 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, and S. Namba, "High-efficiency blazed grating couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303-305 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Hagberg, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, "High efficiency surface emitting lasers using blazed grating outcouplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3685-3687 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik and T. P. Sosnowski, "Holographic thin film couplers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602-1608 (1970).

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Miler and M. Skalsky, "Stigmatically focusing grating coupler," Electron. Lett. 15, 275-276 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Katzir, A. C. Livanos, J. B. Shellan, and A. Yariv, "Chirped gratings in integrated optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 296-304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Micro (1)

C. Gunn, "CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects," IEEE Micro 26, 58-66 (March-April 2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii. K. Shinoda, and S. Ura, "WDM signal transmission in a thin-film waveguide for optical interconnection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2299-2301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillarert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, "Compact slanted grating couplers between optical fiber and InP-InGaAsP waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 396-398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A guided-mode-selective focusing grating coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

S. Ura, H. Sunagawa, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Focusing grating couplers for polarization detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1028-1033 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technolol. (1)

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide," J. Lightwave Technolol. 12, 1569-1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thorhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, S. Ura, K. Kintaka, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic add/drop multiplexing of free-space waves for intra-board chip-to-chi optical interconnects," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 7987-7992 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Ura, "Selective guided mode coupling via bridging mode by integrated gratings for intraboard optical interconnects," Proc. SPIE 4652, 86-96 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. Ura, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Linearly focusing grating coupler for integrated-optic parallel data pickup," Tech. Digest Int�??l Sympo. Opt. Memory, pp. 93-94, Kobe, Japan, Sept. 26-28, 1989.

S. Ura, T. Endoh, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "Linearly focusing grating couplers for sensing 2-dimensional grating-scale displacement," Meet. Digest Topical Meet. Int�??l Commission Opt., p. 164, Kyoto, Japan, April 4-8, 1994.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, 1989), Chap. 4.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Basic configuration of the proposed resonance grating coupler (RGC).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diagram of the guided modes and the radiation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Structure example.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Wavelength dependences of transmission, reflection and output coupling efficiencies calculated by the coupled mode analysis.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Wavelength dependences of transmission, reflection and output coupling efficiencies simulated by FDTD method.

Equations (27)

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dA ( z ) dz = j i a vi ( z ) κ vi , A * exp [ j { β v ( β A K GC ) } z ] d β v ,
dB ( z ) dz = j i a vi ( z ) κ vi , B * exp [ j { β v ( β B + K GC ) } z ] d β v ,
da vi ( z ) dz = jA ( z ) κ vi , A exp [ j { β v ( β A K GC ) } z ] jB ( z ) κ vi , B exp [ j { β v ( β B + K GC ) } z ] ( i = a or s ) ,
κ vi , A = κ vi , B = ε 0 ω 4 E vi * ( x ) Δ εE g ( x ) dx ( i = a or s ) ,
dA ( z ) dz = αA ( z ) κ GC * B ( z ) exp ( j 2 Δ GC z ) ,
dB ( z ) dz = κ GC A ( z ) exp ( j 2 Δ GC z ) αB ( z ) .
α = π = ( κ a , A 2 + κ s , A 2 ) = π ( κ a , B 2 ) + κ s , B 2 )
κ GC = π ( κ a , B * κ a , A + κ s , B * κ s , A ) ,
Δ GC = K GC β A .
A ( z ) = { cosh ( ζ z ) sin c ( j ζ z ) ( r BR κ GC + α j Δ GC ) z } exp ( j Δ GC z ) ,
B ( z ) = { r BR cosh ( ζ z ) + sin c ( j ζ z ) ( κ GC + r BR [ α GC ] ) z } exp ( GC z ) ,
ζ = ( α GC ) 2 κ GC 2 .
A ( z ) = 1 κ GC ( 1 + r BR ) z ,
B ( z ) = r BR + κ GC ( 1 + r BR ) z .
dA ( z ) dz = BA B ( z ) exp ( j 2 Δ DBR z ) ,
dB ( z ) dz = BA A ( z ) exp ( j 2 Δ DBR z ) ,
κ BA = ε 0 ω 4 E g * ( x ) Δ εE g ( x ) dx ,
Δ DBR = ( K DBR 2 β A 2 ) = ( 2 K GC 2 β A 2 ) = Δ GC .
r BR = B ( 0 ) = j exp ( j 2 β A l R ) κ BA sinh ( κ BA 2 Δ DBR 2 L BR ) κ BA 2 Δ DBR 2 cosh ( κ BA 2 Δ DBR 2 L BR ) DBR sinh κ BA 2 Δ DBR 2 L BR ) .
r BR = j exp ( j 2 β A l R ) tanh ( κ BA L BR ) .
l R = ( i 2 1 8 ) Λ GC .    ( i : integer)
A ( L GC l F L BF ) = exp { j ( β A l F + Δ DBR L BF ) } × { A ( L GC ) cosh ( κ BA 2 Δ DBR 2 L BF ) + j κ BA exp ( 2 A l F ) B ( L GC ) Δ DBR A ( L GC ) κ BA 2 Δ DBR 2 sinh ( κ BA 2 Δ DBR 2 L BF ) ) ,
B ( L GC l F L BF ) = exp { j ( β A l F + Δ DBR L BF ) } × { B ( L GC ) cosh ( κ BA 2 Δ DBR 2 L BF ) + j κ BA exp ( 2 A l F ) B ( L GC ) Δ DBR B ( L GC ) κ BA 2 Δ DBR 2 sinh ( κ BA 2 Δ DBR 2 L BF ) ) ,
B ( L GC ) A ( L GC ) = j exp ( 2 j β A l F ) tanh ( κ BA L BF ) .
B ( L GC ) A ( L GC ) = r BR κ GC ( 1 + r BR ) L GC 1 + κ GC ( 1 + r BR ) L GC .
l F = ( i 2 1 8 ) Λ GC , ( i : integer )
L BF = 1 κ BA tanh 1 r BR κ GC ( 1 + r BR ) L GC 1 + κ GC ( 1 + r BR ) L GC .

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