Abstract

We propose a Brillouin optical correlation-domain reflectometry (BOCDR), which can measure the distribution of strain and/or temperature along an optical fiber from a single end, by detecting spontaneous Brillouin scattering with controlling the interference of continuous lightwaves. In a pulse-based conventional Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry (BOTDR), it is difficult in principle to achieve a spatial resolution less than 1 m, and the measurement time is as long as 5-10 minutes. On the contrary, the continuous-wave-based BOCDR can exceed the limit of 1-m resolution, and realize much faster measurement and random access to measuring positions. Spatial resolution of 40 cm was experimentally demonstrated with sampling rate of 50 Hz.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, and M. Tateda, "A technique to measure distributed strain in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 352-354 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. Bao, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, "32-km distributed temperature sensor using Brillouin loss in optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 1561-1563 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Nikles, L. Thevenaz, and P. Robert, "Simple distributed fiber sensor based on Brillouin gain spectrum analysis," Opt. Lett. 21, 758-760 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "150-km-range distributed temperature sensor based on coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin backscatter and in-line Raman amplification," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 1321-1324 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Horiguchi and M. Tateda, "BOTDA-nondestructive measurement of single-mode optical fiber attenuation characteristics using Brillouin interaction: theory," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1170-1176 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. W. Brown, B. G. Colpitts, and K. Brown, "Distributed sensor based on dark-pulse Brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1501-1503 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Koyamada, "Proposal and simulation of double-pulse Brillouin optical time-domain analysis for measuring distributed strain and temperature with cm spatial resolution in km-long fiber," IEICE Trans. Commun. E 90-B, 1810-1815 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, and Y. Koyamada, "Brillouin optical-fiber time domain reflectometry," IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76-B, 382-390 (1993).
  9. Y. Koyamada, Y. Sakairi, N. Takeuchi, and S. Adachi, "Novel technique to improve spatial resolution in Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1910-1912 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Fellay, L. Thevenaz, M. Facchini, M. Nikles, and P. Robert, "Distributed sensing using stimulated Brillouin scattering: towards ultimate resolution," Proc. 12th Intern. Conf. Optical Fiber Sensors, 324-327 (1997).
  11. K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, "Measurement of Brillouin gain spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique - proposal, experiment and simulation," IEICE Trans. Electron. E 83-C, 405-412 (2000).
  12. K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, "Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-based continuous-wave technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 197-199 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Y. Song, Z. He, and K. Hotate, "Distributed strain measurement with millimeter-order spatial resolution based on Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis," Opt. Lett. 31, 2526-2528 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, California, 1995).
  15. K. Hotate, "Application of synthesized coherence function to distributed optical sensing," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1746-1755 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Hotate and Z. He, "Synthesis of optical-coherence function and its applications in distributed and multiplexed optical sensing," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2541-2557 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. Koyamada, "Proposal and simulation of double-pulse Brillouin optical time-domain analysis for measuring distributed strain and temperature with cm spatial resolution in km-long fiber," IEICE Trans. Commun. E 90-B, 1810-1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koyamada, Y. Sakairi, N. Takeuchi, and S. Adachi, "Novel technique to improve spatial resolution in Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1910-1912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

A. W. Brown, B. G. Colpitts, and K. Brown, "Distributed sensor based on dark-pulse Brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1501-1503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "150-km-range distributed temperature sensor based on coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin backscatter and in-line Raman amplification," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 1321-1324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, "Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-based continuous-wave technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 197-199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate, "Application of synthesized coherence function to distributed optical sensing," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1746-1755 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, "Measurement of Brillouin gain spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique - proposal, experiment and simulation," IEICE Trans. Electron. E 83-C, 405-412 (2000).

1996 (1)

1993 (2)

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, and Y. Koyamada, "Brillouin optical-fiber time domain reflectometry," IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76-B, 382-390 (1993).

X. Bao, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, "32-km distributed temperature sensor using Brillouin loss in optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 1561-1563 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, and M. Tateda, "A technique to measure distributed strain in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 352-354 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

T. Horiguchi and M. Tateda, "BOTDA-nondestructive measurement of single-mode optical fiber attenuation characteristics using Brillouin interaction: theory," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1170-1176 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

Y. Koyamada, Y. Sakairi, N. Takeuchi, and S. Adachi, "Novel technique to improve spatial resolution in Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1910-1912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alahbabi, M. N.

M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "150-km-range distributed temperature sensor based on coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin backscatter and in-line Raman amplification," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 1321-1324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

Brown, A. W.

A. W. Brown, B. G. Colpitts, and K. Brown, "Distributed sensor based on dark-pulse Brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1501-1503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, K.

A. W. Brown, B. G. Colpitts, and K. Brown, "Distributed sensor based on dark-pulse Brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1501-1503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y. T.

M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "150-km-range distributed temperature sensor based on coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin backscatter and in-line Raman amplification," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 1321-1324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Colpitts, B. G.

A. W. Brown, B. G. Colpitts, and K. Brown, "Distributed sensor based on dark-pulse Brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1501-1503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, S.

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, and Y. Koyamada, "Brillouin optical-fiber time domain reflectometry," IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76-B, 382-390 (1993).

Hasegawa, T.

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, "Measurement of Brillouin gain spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique - proposal, experiment and simulation," IEICE Trans. Electron. E 83-C, 405-412 (2000).

He, Z.

Horiguchi, T.

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, and Y. Koyamada, "Brillouin optical-fiber time domain reflectometry," IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76-B, 382-390 (1993).

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, and M. Tateda, "A technique to measure distributed strain in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 352-354 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Horiguchi and M. Tateda, "BOTDA-nondestructive measurement of single-mode optical fiber attenuation characteristics using Brillouin interaction: theory," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1170-1176 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hotate, K.

K. Y. Song, Z. He, and K. Hotate, "Distributed strain measurement with millimeter-order spatial resolution based on Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis," Opt. Lett. 31, 2526-2528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hotate and Z. He, "Synthesis of optical-coherence function and its applications in distributed and multiplexed optical sensing," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2541-2557 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, "Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-based continuous-wave technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 197-199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate, "Application of synthesized coherence function to distributed optical sensing," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1746-1755 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, "Measurement of Brillouin gain spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique - proposal, experiment and simulation," IEICE Trans. Electron. E 83-C, 405-412 (2000).

Izumita, H.

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, and Y. Koyamada, "Brillouin optical-fiber time domain reflectometry," IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76-B, 382-390 (1993).

Jackson, D. A.

Koyamada, Y.

Y. Koyamada, Y. Sakairi, N. Takeuchi, and S. Adachi, "Novel technique to improve spatial resolution in Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1910-1912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koyamada, "Proposal and simulation of double-pulse Brillouin optical time-domain analysis for measuring distributed strain and temperature with cm spatial resolution in km-long fiber," IEICE Trans. Commun. E 90-B, 1810-1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, and Y. Koyamada, "Brillouin optical-fiber time domain reflectometry," IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76-B, 382-390 (1993).

Kurashima, T.

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, and Y. Koyamada, "Brillouin optical-fiber time domain reflectometry," IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76-B, 382-390 (1993).

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, and M. Tateda, "A technique to measure distributed strain in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 352-354 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Newson, T. P.

M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "150-km-range distributed temperature sensor based on coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin backscatter and in-line Raman amplification," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 1321-1324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nikles, M.

Robert, P.

Sakairi, Y.

Y. Koyamada, Y. Sakairi, N. Takeuchi, and S. Adachi, "Novel technique to improve spatial resolution in Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1910-1912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, K. Y.

Takeuchi, N.

Y. Koyamada, Y. Sakairi, N. Takeuchi, and S. Adachi, "Novel technique to improve spatial resolution in Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1910-1912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, "Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-based continuous-wave technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 197-199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tateda, M.

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, and M. Tateda, "A technique to measure distributed strain in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 352-354 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Horiguchi and M. Tateda, "BOTDA-nondestructive measurement of single-mode optical fiber attenuation characteristics using Brillouin interaction: theory," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1170-1176 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thevenaz, L.

Webb, D. J.

E (3)

Y. Koyamada, "Proposal and simulation of double-pulse Brillouin optical time-domain analysis for measuring distributed strain and temperature with cm spatial resolution in km-long fiber," IEICE Trans. Commun. E 90-B, 1810-1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, and Y. Koyamada, "Brillouin optical-fiber time domain reflectometry," IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76-B, 382-390 (1993).

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, "Measurement of Brillouin gain spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique - proposal, experiment and simulation," IEICE Trans. Electron. E 83-C, 405-412 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, "Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-based continuous-wave technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 197-199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, and M. Tateda, "A technique to measure distributed strain in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 352-354 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koyamada, Y. Sakairi, N. Takeuchi, and S. Adachi, "Novel technique to improve spatial resolution in Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1910-1912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Brown, B. G. Colpitts, and K. Brown, "Distributed sensor based on dark-pulse Brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1501-1503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

K. Hotate and Z. He, "Synthesis of optical-coherence function and its applications in distributed and multiplexed optical sensing," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2541-2557 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Horiguchi and M. Tateda, "BOTDA-nondestructive measurement of single-mode optical fiber attenuation characteristics using Brillouin interaction: theory," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1170-1176 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "150-km-range distributed temperature sensor based on coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin backscatter and in-line Raman amplification," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 1321-1324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Hotate, "Application of synthesized coherence function to distributed optical sensing," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1746-1755 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

A. Fellay, L. Thevenaz, M. Facchini, M. Nikles, and P. Robert, "Distributed sensing using stimulated Brillouin scattering: towards ultimate resolution," Proc. 12th Intern. Conf. Optical Fiber Sensors, 324-327 (1997).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, California, 1995).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Conceptual schematic of BOCDR system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup of BOCDR system.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Structure of the FUT.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Distribution of the BGS along the FUT.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Distribution of the BFS (peak of the BGS) along the FUT.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematics of (a) optical spectra of the reference light and the reflected light when the frequency of the light source is modulated with the amplitude Δf, (b) electrical spectra with sufficiently small Δf, and (c) electrical spectra with large Δf.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured BGS when Δf is 5.4 GHz, 5.5 GHz, and 5.6 GHz.

Equations (2)

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Δz = V g Δν B 2 πf m Δf
d m = V g 2 f m

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