Abstract

The third-order intermodulation product intercept (IP3) has become an important figure of interest for photodiodes in high-performance, externally modulated, analog links. With the desire for highly linear photodiodes comes the need to be able to accurately measure the device without additional variables. The purpose of this work is to redesign the current IP3 setup to accurately measure the third order intermodulation distortions of the photodiode and to also be able to measure the second order intercept point (IP2) using the same setup. The new setup will isolate equipment contributed nonlinearities by maintaining a small RF drive voltage amplitude on the modulators and by optically changing the photodiode input modulation depth while maintaining a constant input optical power to the photodiode. The goal is to measure a specific knee point where different slopes will indicate the change to photodiode dominated nonlinearity.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. B. Welstand, S. A. Pappert, C. K. Sun, J. T. Zhu, Y. Z. Liu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Dual-Function Electroabsorption Modulator/Detector for Optoelectronic Transceiver Applications," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 8, 1540-1542 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Ozeki and E. H. Hara, "Measurement of nonlinear distortion in photodiodes," Electon. Lett. 12, 80-81 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, "Measurement of intermodulation distortion in unitravelling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting-facet photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 375-377 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Ward III, L. T. Nichols, and R. D. Esman, "RF gain instability in photonic links due to bias drift in Ti:LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulators," OFC/IOOC'99. Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications, IEEE 2, 328-30 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. R. Hayes and D. L. Persechini, "Nonlinearity of p-i-n photodetectors,� IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 70-72 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. G. Kanaglekar, R. E. McIntosh, and W. E. Bryant, " Analysis of two-tone, third-order distortion in cascaded two-ports," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 36, 701-705 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Brost, "Addressing the requirements for RF photonics," Proc. SPIE 5554, 37-45 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004

G. Brost, "Addressing the requirements for RF photonics," Proc. SPIE 5554, 37-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, "Measurement of intermodulation distortion in unitravelling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting-facet photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 375-377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. B. Welstand, S. A. Pappert, C. K. Sun, J. T. Zhu, Y. Z. Liu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Dual-Function Electroabsorption Modulator/Detector for Optoelectronic Transceiver Applications," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 8, 1540-1542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. R. Hayes and D. L. Persechini, "Nonlinearity of p-i-n photodetectors,� IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 70-72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988

N. G. Kanaglekar, R. E. McIntosh, and W. E. Bryant, " Analysis of two-tone, third-order distortion in cascaded two-ports," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 36, 701-705 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1976

T. Ozeki and E. H. Hara, "Measurement of nonlinear distortion in photodiodes," Electon. Lett. 12, 80-81 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, F.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brock, J.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brost, G.

G. Brost, "Addressing the requirements for RF photonics," Proc. SPIE 5554, 37-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, W. E.

N. G. Kanaglekar, R. E. McIntosh, and W. E. Bryant, " Analysis of two-tone, third-order distortion in cascaded two-ports," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 36, 701-705 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Doi, Y.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, "Measurement of intermodulation distortion in unitravelling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting-facet photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 375-377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, J.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Everett, K.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Forbes, D.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fukano, H.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, "Measurement of intermodulation distortion in unitravelling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting-facet photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 375-377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hara, E. H.

T. Ozeki and E. H. Hara, "Measurement of nonlinear distortion in photodiodes," Electon. Lett. 12, 80-81 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, R. R.

R. R. Hayes and D. L. Persechini, "Nonlinearity of p-i-n photodetectors,� IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 70-72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, T.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, "Measurement of intermodulation distortion in unitravelling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting-facet photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 375-377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kanaglekar, N. G.

N. G. Kanaglekar, R. E. McIntosh, and W. E. Bryant, " Analysis of two-tone, third-order distortion in cascaded two-ports," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 36, 701-705 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Krispin, A.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, J.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lembo, L.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. L.

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. Z.

R. B. Welstand, S. A. Pappert, C. K. Sun, J. T. Zhu, Y. Z. Liu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Dual-Function Electroabsorption Modulator/Detector for Optoelectronic Transceiver Applications," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 8, 1540-1542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, R. E.

N. G. Kanaglekar, R. E. McIntosh, and W. E. Bryant, " Analysis of two-tone, third-order distortion in cascaded two-ports," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 36, 701-705 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Muramoto, Y.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, "Measurement of intermodulation distortion in unitravelling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting-facet photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 375-377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, T.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, "Measurement of intermodulation distortion in unitravelling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting-facet photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 375-377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozeki, T.

T. Ozeki and E. H. Hara, "Measurement of nonlinear distortion in photodiodes," Electon. Lett. 12, 80-81 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pappert, S. A.

R. B. Welstand, S. A. Pappert, C. K. Sun, J. T. Zhu, Y. Z. Liu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Dual-Function Electroabsorption Modulator/Detector for Optoelectronic Transceiver Applications," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 8, 1540-1542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Persechini, D. L.

R. R. Hayes and D. L. Persechini, "Nonlinearity of p-i-n photodetectors,� IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 70-72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Scott, D. C.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D. S.

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. K.

R. B. Welstand, S. A. Pappert, C. K. Sun, J. T. Zhu, Y. Z. Liu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Dual-Function Electroabsorption Modulator/Detector for Optoelectronic Transceiver Applications," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 8, 1540-1542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vang, T. A.

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Welstand, R. B.

R. B. Welstand, S. A. Pappert, C. K. Sun, J. T. Zhu, Y. Z. Liu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Dual-Function Electroabsorption Modulator/Detector for Optoelectronic Transceiver Applications," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 8, 1540-1542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimatsu, T.

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, "Measurement of intermodulation distortion in unitravelling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting-facet photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 375-377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P. K. L.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Welstand, S. A. Pappert, C. K. Sun, J. T. Zhu, Y. Z. Liu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Dual-Function Electroabsorption Modulator/Detector for Optoelectronic Transceiver Applications," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 8, 1540-1542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J. T.

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Welstand, S. A. Pappert, C. K. Sun, J. T. Zhu, Y. Z. Liu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Dual-Function Electroabsorption Modulator/Detector for Optoelectronic Transceiver Applications," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 8, 1540-1542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electon. Lett.

T. Ozeki and E. H. Hara, "Measurement of nonlinear distortion in photodiodes," Electon. Lett. 12, 80-81 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon Technol. Lett.

R. B. Welstand, S. A. Pappert, C. K. Sun, J. T. Zhu, Y. Z. Liu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Dual-Function Electroabsorption Modulator/Detector for Optoelectronic Transceiver Applications," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 8, 1540-1542 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, and P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodetector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Hayes and D. L. Persechini, "Nonlinearity of p-i-n photodetectors,� IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 70-72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohno, H. Fukano, Y. Muramoto, T. Ishibashi, T. Yoshimatsu, and Y. Doi, "Measurement of intermodulation distortion in unitravelling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting-facet photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 375-377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, and P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of IP3 in p-i-n photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for RF fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

N. G. Kanaglekar, R. E. McIntosh, and W. E. Bryant, " Analysis of two-tone, third-order distortion in cascaded two-ports," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 36, 701-705 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

G. Brost, "Addressing the requirements for RF photonics," Proc. SPIE 5554, 37-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Ward III, L. T. Nichols, and R. D. Esman, "RF gain instability in photonic links due to bias drift in Ti:LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulators," OFC/IOOC'99. Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications, IEEE 2, 328-30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Three laser IP3 Measurement Setup. “A” is a polarization rotator, “B” is an EDFA, “C” is a band pass filter, and “D” is a 50/50 optical coupler. ECL stands for external cavity laser, DVR for driver, PM for optical power meter, VOA for variable optical attenuator, PBC for polarizing beam combiner, DUT for device under test and ESA for electrical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measurement of OIP2 and OIP3 showing IMD contributions from MZM and DUT distinguished by fitted curves showing appropriate slopes for each.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measurement showing variation of input RF power to the MZM and the resulting change in IMD3.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Effects on IMD3 for MZM biasing test.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

RF out MZM = A x ( f x ) + B x ( 2 f x ) + C x ( 3 f x )
Δ IMD 3 MZM = [ B 1 ( B 1 Δ ) ] + [ A 2 ( A 2 Δ ) ] = 2 Δ
OIP 3 = 3 P f IMD 3 PD 2
OIP 2 = 2 P f IMD 2 PD
V ( t ) = V b + V RF sin ( ωt ) ,
T ( V ) = T ( V b ) + n = 1 1 n ! ( T n ) V RF n ,
IMD 3 MZM V RF 1 2 V RF 2 ,
IMD 3 Limit = NF ESA + IMD 3 MZM ,
P f = 10 log ( I ac 2 R L ) ,
I ac = [ γP IN T' ( V b ) η D η loss ] V RF ,

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