Abstract

We present experimental results on photonic crystal/photonic wire micro-cavity structures that demonstrate further enhancement of the quality-factor (Q-factor) - up to approximately 149,000 - in the fibre telecommunications wavelength range. The Q-values and the useful transmission levels achieved are due, in particular, to the combination of both tapering within and outside the micro-cavity, with carefully designed hole diameters and non-periodic hole placement within the tapered section. Our 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulation approach shows good agreement with the experimental results.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultra compact corner-mirrors and T branches in silicon-on- insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14,no 1, January, 2002.
  2. F. Ohno, T. Fukuzawa and T. Baba,"Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Composed of μ-Bends and μ-Branches in a Si Photonic Wire Waveguide,"Jpn.J.Appl.Phys. 44, No. 7A, 2005, pp. 5322-5323.
    [CrossRef]
  3. Richard De La Rue, Harold Chong, Marco Gnan, Nigel Johnson, Iraklis Ntakis, Pierre Pottier, Marc Sorel, Ahmad Md Zain, Hua Zhang, Edilson Camargo, Chongjun Jin, Mario Armenise and Caterina Ciminell �??Photonic crystal and photonic wire nano-photonics based on silicon-on-insulator,"New J. Phys,  8, (2006) 256.
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. A. Camargo, H. M. H. Chong, and R. M. De La Rue, "Highly compact asymmetric Mach-Zehnder device based on channel guides in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Opt.,45, pp. 6507-6510, 1st Sept (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E.A.  Camargo, H.M.H.  Chong and R.M.  De La Rue, "Four-port coupled channel-guide device based on 2D photonic crystal structure," Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals andApplications, 2 (3), pp 207-213, December (2004).
  6. Hua Zhang, M.  Gnan, N.P. Johnson and R.M. De La Rue, "Ultra-Small Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Devices in Thin Silicon-on-Insulator," Integrated Photonics Research and Applications (IPRA), Uncasville, Conn., USA, April (2006).
  7. H. M. H. Chong and R. M. De La Rue, "Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermooptic effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  16, no. 6, pp. 1528-1530, Jun. 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 16, no. 11, pp. 2514-2516, Nov. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Photonic crystals in the optical regime�??Past, present and future," Progress Quantum Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 51-96, Mar. 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D.S. Macintyre, R.M. De La Rue and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett.,  44 (2), 115 - 116, 17th Jan (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Gnan, D.S. Macintyre, M. Sorel, R.M. De La Rue, and S. Thoms, "Enhanced stitching for the fabrication of photonic structures by electron beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B,  25, pp. 2034, 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, HenryI. Smith & E. P. Ippen, �??Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,"Nature 390, 143 (1997)
  13. P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Bloch-wave engineering for high-Q, small-V microcavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  39, no. 11, pp. 1430-1438, Nov. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Sauvan, G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, "Modal reflectivity enhancement by geometry tuning in photonic crystal micro-cavities," Opt. Express,  3, no. 1, pp. 245-255, Jan. 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Asano, B.S. Song, S. Noda," Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities,"Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Velha, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, J. C. Rodier, P. Lalanne and D. Peyrade, "Ultra-High Q/V Fabry-Perot microcavity on SOI substrate," Opt. Express,  15 (24), 16090-16096, 26th November (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Velha, J. C. Rodier, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, D. Peyrade, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, and E. Hadji, "Ultra high reflectivity photonic bandgap mirrors in a ridge SOI waveguide,' New J. Phys. (IOP), 8, no. 204, pp. 1-13, Sep. 2006.
  18. Ahmad Rifqi Md Zain, Marco Gnan, Harold M. H. Chong, Marc Sorel and Richard M. De La Rue, "Tapered Photonic Crystal Microcavities Embedded in Photonic Wire Waveguides with Large Resonance Quality-Factor and High Transmission," IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett.20(1), 6 - 8, 1st January (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B.S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane,"Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,"Nature materials 4, March 2005.

2007 (1)

M. Gnan, D.S. Macintyre, M. Sorel, R.M. De La Rue, and S. Thoms, "Enhanced stitching for the fabrication of photonic structures by electron beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B,  25, pp. 2034, 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

T. Asano, B.S. Song, S. Noda," Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities,"Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richard De La Rue, Harold Chong, Marco Gnan, Nigel Johnson, Iraklis Ntakis, Pierre Pottier, Marc Sorel, Ahmad Md Zain, Hua Zhang, Edilson Camargo, Chongjun Jin, Mario Armenise and Caterina Ciminell �??Photonic crystal and photonic wire nano-photonics based on silicon-on-insulator,"New J. Phys,  8, (2006) 256.
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

F. Ohno, T. Fukuzawa and T. Baba,"Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Composed of μ-Bends and μ-Branches in a Si Photonic Wire Waveguide,"Jpn.J.Appl.Phys. 44, No. 7A, 2005, pp. 5322-5323.
[CrossRef]

B.S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane,"Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,"Nature materials 4, March 2005.

2002 (1)

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultra compact corner-mirrors and T branches in silicon-on- insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14,no 1, January, 2002.

1999 (1)

T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Photonic crystals in the optical regime�??Past, present and future," Progress Quantum Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 51-96, Mar. 1999.
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, HenryI. Smith & E. P. Ippen, �??Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,"Nature 390, 143 (1997)

Ahmad, R. U.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultra compact corner-mirrors and T branches in silicon-on- insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14,no 1, January, 2002.

Akahane, Y.

B.S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane,"Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,"Nature materials 4, March 2005.

Asano, T.

T. Asano, B.S. Song, S. Noda," Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities,"Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane,"Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,"Nature materials 4, March 2005.

Baba, T.

F. Ohno, T. Fukuzawa and T. Baba,"Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Composed of μ-Bends and μ-Branches in a Si Photonic Wire Waveguide,"Jpn.J.Appl.Phys. 44, No. 7A, 2005, pp. 5322-5323.
[CrossRef]

Camarda, G. S.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultra compact corner-mirrors and T branches in silicon-on- insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14,no 1, January, 2002.

De La Rue, R. M.

T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Photonic crystals in the optical regime�??Past, present and future," Progress Quantum Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 51-96, Mar. 1999.
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R.M.

M. Gnan, D.S. Macintyre, M. Sorel, R.M. De La Rue, and S. Thoms, "Enhanced stitching for the fabrication of photonic structures by electron beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B,  25, pp. 2034, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Espinola, R. L.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultra compact corner-mirrors and T branches in silicon-on- insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14,no 1, January, 2002.

Fan, S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, HenryI. Smith & E. P. Ippen, �??Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,"Nature 390, 143 (1997)

Ferrera, J.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, HenryI. Smith & E. P. Ippen, �??Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,"Nature 390, 143 (1997)

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, HenryI. Smith & E. P. Ippen, �??Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,"Nature 390, 143 (1997)

Fukuzawa, T.

F. Ohno, T. Fukuzawa and T. Baba,"Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Composed of μ-Bends and μ-Branches in a Si Photonic Wire Waveguide,"Jpn.J.Appl.Phys. 44, No. 7A, 2005, pp. 5322-5323.
[CrossRef]

Gnan, M.

M. Gnan, D.S. Macintyre, M. Sorel, R.M. De La Rue, and S. Thoms, "Enhanced stitching for the fabrication of photonic structures by electron beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B,  25, pp. 2034, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Henry, L. C.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, HenryI. Smith & E. P. Ippen, �??Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,"Nature 390, 143 (1997)

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, HenryI. Smith & E. P. Ippen, �??Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,"Nature 390, 143 (1997)

Kimerling, L. C.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, HenryI. Smith & E. P. Ippen, �??Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,"Nature 390, 143 (1997)

Krauss, T. F.

T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Photonic crystals in the optical regime�??Past, present and future," Progress Quantum Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 51-96, Mar. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Macintyre, D.S.

M. Gnan, D.S. Macintyre, M. Sorel, R.M. De La Rue, and S. Thoms, "Enhanced stitching for the fabrication of photonic structures by electron beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B,  25, pp. 2034, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

T. Asano, B.S. Song, S. Noda," Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities,"Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane,"Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,"Nature materials 4, March 2005.

Ohno, F.

F. Ohno, T. Fukuzawa and T. Baba,"Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Composed of μ-Bends and μ-Branches in a Si Photonic Wire Waveguide,"Jpn.J.Appl.Phys. 44, No. 7A, 2005, pp. 5322-5323.
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultra compact corner-mirrors and T branches in silicon-on- insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14,no 1, January, 2002.

Pizzuto, F.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultra compact corner-mirrors and T branches in silicon-on- insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14,no 1, January, 2002.

Rao, H.

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultra compact corner-mirrors and T branches in silicon-on- insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14,no 1, January, 2002.

Song, B.S.

T. Asano, B.S. Song, S. Noda," Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities,"Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane,"Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,"Nature materials 4, March 2005.

Sorel, M.

M. Gnan, D.S. Macintyre, M. Sorel, R.M. De La Rue, and S. Thoms, "Enhanced stitching for the fabrication of photonic structures by electron beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B,  25, pp. 2034, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, HenryI. Smith & E. P. Ippen, �??Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,"Nature 390, 143 (1997)

Thoen, E. R.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, HenryI. Smith & E. P. Ippen, �??Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,"Nature 390, 143 (1997)

Thoms, S.

M. Gnan, D.S. Macintyre, M. Sorel, R.M. De La Rue, and S. Thoms, "Enhanced stitching for the fabrication of photonic structures by electron beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B,  25, pp. 2034, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, HenryI. Smith & E. P. Ippen, �??Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,"Nature 390, 143 (1997)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R.U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultra compact corner-mirrors and T branches in silicon-on- insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14,no 1, January, 2002.

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. Gnan, D.S. Macintyre, M. Sorel, R.M. De La Rue, and S. Thoms, "Enhanced stitching for the fabrication of photonic structures by electron beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B,  25, pp. 2034, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Jpn.J.Appl.Phys. (1)

F. Ohno, T. Fukuzawa and T. Baba,"Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Composed of μ-Bends and μ-Branches in a Si Photonic Wire Waveguide,"Jpn.J.Appl.Phys. 44, No. 7A, 2005, pp. 5322-5323.
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, HenryI. Smith & E. P. Ippen, �??Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,"Nature 390, 143 (1997)

Nature materials (1)

B.S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane,"Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,"Nature materials 4, March 2005.

New J. Phys (1)

Richard De La Rue, Harold Chong, Marco Gnan, Nigel Johnson, Iraklis Ntakis, Pierre Pottier, Marc Sorel, Ahmad Md Zain, Hua Zhang, Edilson Camargo, Chongjun Jin, Mario Armenise and Caterina Ciminell �??Photonic crystal and photonic wire nano-photonics based on silicon-on-insulator,"New J. Phys,  8, (2006) 256.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Progress Quantum Electron. (1)

T. F. Krauss and R. M. De La Rue, "Photonic crystals in the optical regime�??Past, present and future," Progress Quantum Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 51-96, Mar. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D.S. Macintyre, R.M. De La Rue and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett.,  44 (2), 115 - 116, 17th Jan (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Bloch-wave engineering for high-Q, small-V microcavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  39, no. 11, pp. 1430-1438, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

C. Sauvan, G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, "Modal reflectivity enhancement by geometry tuning in photonic crystal micro-cavities," Opt. Express,  3, no. 1, pp. 245-255, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

P. Velha, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, J. C. Rodier, P. Lalanne and D. Peyrade, "Ultra-High Q/V Fabry-Perot microcavity on SOI substrate," Opt. Express,  15 (24), 16090-16096, 26th November (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Velha, J. C. Rodier, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, D. Peyrade, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, and E. Hadji, "Ultra high reflectivity photonic bandgap mirrors in a ridge SOI waveguide,' New J. Phys. (IOP), 8, no. 204, pp. 1-13, Sep. 2006.

Ahmad Rifqi Md Zain, Marco Gnan, Harold M. H. Chong, Marc Sorel and Richard M. De La Rue, "Tapered Photonic Crystal Microcavities Embedded in Photonic Wire Waveguides with Large Resonance Quality-Factor and High Transmission," IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett.20(1), 6 - 8, 1st January (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Camargo, H. M. H. Chong, and R. M. De La Rue, "Highly compact asymmetric Mach-Zehnder device based on channel guides in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Opt.,45, pp. 6507-6510, 1st Sept (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E.A.  Camargo, H.M.H.  Chong and R.M.  De La Rue, "Four-port coupled channel-guide device based on 2D photonic crystal structure," Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals andApplications, 2 (3), pp 207-213, December (2004).

Hua Zhang, M.  Gnan, N.P. Johnson and R.M. De La Rue, "Ultra-Small Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Devices in Thin Silicon-on-Insulator," Integrated Photonics Research and Applications (IPRA), Uncasville, Conn., USA, April (2006).

H. M. H. Chong and R. M. De La Rue, "Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermooptic effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  16, no. 6, pp. 1528-1530, Jun. 2004.
[CrossRef]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 16, no. 11, pp. 2514-2516, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) image of the tapered PhC micro cavities embedded in PhW waveguide with N number of periodic mirrors, cavity length, c (inside length of the two hole in the middle of the periodic mirrors) and aperiodic mirrors forming the tapered section where NTI is the number of hole for tapered within cavity section and NTO is the number of hole outside the cavity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectra for N = 5 with NTI = 4 and NTO= 3 using 2D FDTD approach with Q of approximately 177 000 at resonance frequency of 1483.54 nm at cavity length, c of 425 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectra for N = 4 and NTI = 4 with (a) NTO=1 (b) NTO=2 (c) NTO=3 – with a cavity length, c = 450 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured transmission spectra for N = 5 with NTI = 4 and NTO= 3 corresponded to simulation result in Fig. 2 with Q of approximately 147 000 at resonance frequency of 1479.705 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of Simulated and Experimental value of different taper outside cavity, NTO for N=5 and NTI=4

Metrics