Abstract

Polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion, as well as the conversion of return-to-zero (RZ) ON-OFF keying (RZ-OOK) to RZ binary phase-shift keying (RZ-BPSK), has been simultaneously achieved at 40 Gb/s for the first time by cross-phase modulation (XPM) in a highly birefringent, nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF). A 10−9-BER receiver sensitivity conversion penalty of < 3 dB was achieved for a polarization scrambled, 40 Gb/s 25%-RZ-OOK pump, when the 40 Gb/s RZ probe was launched at 45° with respect to the birefringence axes of the PCF and when the pump-probe detuning was greater than about 6 nm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Mishina, A. Maruta, S. Mitani, T. Miyahara, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Hatta, K. Motoshima, and K.-I. Kitayama, "NRZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation-format conversion using SOA-MZI wavelength converter," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3751-3758 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, "Performance of DBPSK in a 5 �? 10 Gb/s mixed modulation format Raman/EDFA WDM system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2766-2768 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Astar and G. M. Carter, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK format conversion using SOA and synchronous pulse carver" Electron. Lett. 44, 369 -370 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Mishina, S. Kitagawa, and A. Maruta, "All-optical modulation format conversion from on-off-keying to multiple-level phase-shift-keying based on nonlinearity in optical fiber," Opt. Express 15, 8444-8453 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-15-13-8444.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. D. Poole, "Measurement of polarization-mode dispersion in single-mode fibers with random mode coupling," Opt. Lett. 14, 523-525 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, C. Peurecheret, and A. Bjarklev, "Fully dispersion controlled triangular-core nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," in Conf. Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication (OFC),2003, paper PD2-1.
  7. A. S. Lenihan, R. Salem, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, "All-optical 80-Gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1329-1331 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. L. Heffner, "Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1066-1068 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, and A. Bjarklev, "Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 624-626 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Inoue, "Polarization independent wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two orthogonal pump lights of different frequencies," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1916-1920 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Tanemura, J. Suzuki, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion using cross-phase modulation in twisted fiber and optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1052-1054 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Oda, "Polarization independent frequency conversion by fiber four-wave mixing with a polarization diversity technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 947-949 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Yang, C. Shu, and C. Lin, "Depolarization technique for wavelength conversion using four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 13, 5409-5415 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-14-5409.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, "Polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s using birefringent nonlinear fiber," in Conf. Proc. of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO),2007, paper CThAA2.
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Kumar, A. Selvarajan, and G. Anand, "Nonlinear propagation of two optical pulses of two different frequencies in birefringent fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 810-817 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001), pp. 238-277.
  18. C. R. Menyuk, "Nonlinear pulse-propagation in birefringent optical fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 174-176 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. J. Winzer, and H. Kim, "Degradations in Balanced DPSK Receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282-1284 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, and K. Taira and K. Kikuchi, "Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 W-1km-1," in Conf. Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication (OFC),2003, paper PDP26.

2008 (1)

W. Astar and G. M. Carter, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK format conversion using SOA and synchronous pulse carver" Electron. Lett. 44, 369 -370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

K. Mishina, A. Maruta, S. Mitani, T. Miyahara, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Hatta, K. Motoshima, and K.-I. Kitayama, "NRZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation-format conversion using SOA-MZI wavelength converter," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3751-3758 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Lenihan, R. Salem, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, "All-optical 80-Gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1329-1331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, and A. Bjarklev, "Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 624-626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, "Performance of DBPSK in a 5 �? 10 Gb/s mixed modulation format Raman/EDFA WDM system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2766-2768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanemura, J. Suzuki, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion using cross-phase modulation in twisted fiber and optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1052-1054 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yang, C. Shu, and C. Lin, "Depolarization technique for wavelength conversion using four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 13, 5409-5415 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-14-5409.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

P. J. Winzer, and H. Kim, "Degradations in Balanced DPSK Receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282-1284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

K. Inoue, "Polarization independent wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two orthogonal pump lights of different frequencies," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1916-1920 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, A. Selvarajan, and G. Anand, "Nonlinear propagation of two optical pulses of two different frequencies in birefringent fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 810-817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Oda, "Polarization independent frequency conversion by fiber four-wave mixing with a polarization diversity technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 947-949 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

B. L. Heffner, "Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1066-1068 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

C. R. Menyuk, "Nonlinear pulse-propagation in birefringent optical fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 174-176 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Anand, G.

Astar, W.

W. Astar and G. M. Carter, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK format conversion using SOA and synchronous pulse carver" Electron. Lett. 44, 369 -370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, "Performance of DBPSK in a 5 �? 10 Gb/s mixed modulation format Raman/EDFA WDM system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2766-2768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Belardi, W.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, and A. Bjarklev, "Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 624-626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

W. Astar and G. M. Carter, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK format conversion using SOA and synchronous pulse carver" Electron. Lett. 44, 369 -370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Lenihan, R. Salem, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, "All-optical 80-Gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1329-1331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, "Performance of DBPSK in a 5 �? 10 Gb/s mixed modulation format Raman/EDFA WDM system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2766-2768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chow, K. K.

K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, and A. Bjarklev, "Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 624-626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, K.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Oda, "Polarization independent frequency conversion by fiber four-wave mixing with a polarization diversity technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 947-949 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hatta, T.

Heffner, B. L.

B. L. Heffner, "Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1066-1068 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, "Polarization independent wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two orthogonal pump lights of different frequencies," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1916-1920 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Oda, "Polarization independent frequency conversion by fiber four-wave mixing with a polarization diversity technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 947-949 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, K.

Katoh, K.

T. Tanemura, J. Suzuki, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion using cross-phase modulation in twisted fiber and optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1052-1054 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

T. Tanemura, J. Suzuki, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion using cross-phase modulation in twisted fiber and optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1052-1054 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

P. J. Winzer, and H. Kim, "Degradations in Balanced DPSK Receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282-1284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kitagawa, S.

Kitayama, K.-I.

Kumar, S.

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lenihan, A. S.

A. S. Lenihan, R. Salem, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, "All-optical 80-Gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1329-1331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, "Performance of DBPSK in a 5 �? 10 Gb/s mixed modulation format Raman/EDFA WDM system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2766-2768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, and A. Bjarklev, "Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 624-626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yang, C. Shu, and C. Lin, "Depolarization technique for wavelength conversion using four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 13, 5409-5415 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-14-5409.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maruta, A.

Menyuk, C. R.

C. R. Menyuk, "Nonlinear pulse-propagation in birefringent optical fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 174-176 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, K.

Mitani, S.

Miyahara, T.

Monro, T. M.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Motoshima, K.

Murphy, T. E.

A. S. Lenihan, R. Salem, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, "All-optical 80-Gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1329-1331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oda, K.

T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Oda, "Polarization independent frequency conversion by fiber four-wave mixing with a polarization diversity technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 947-949 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poole, C. D.

Richardson, D. J.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salem, R.

A. S. Lenihan, R. Salem, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, "All-optical 80-Gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1329-1331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Selvarajan, A.

Shimizu, K.

Shu, C.

T. Yang, C. Shu, and C. Lin, "Depolarization technique for wavelength conversion using four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 13, 5409-5415 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-14-5409.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, and A. Bjarklev, "Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 624-626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, J.

T. Tanemura, J. Suzuki, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion using cross-phase modulation in twisted fiber and optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1052-1054 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanemura, T.

T. Tanemura, J. Suzuki, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion using cross-phase modulation in twisted fiber and optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1052-1054 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer, and H. Kim, "Degradations in Balanced DPSK Receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282-1284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T.

Yusoff, Z.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

W. Astar and G. M. Carter, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK format conversion using SOA and synchronous pulse carver" Electron. Lett. 44, 369 -370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. R. Menyuk, "Nonlinear pulse-propagation in birefringent optical fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 174-176 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (8)

P. J. Winzer, and H. Kim, "Degradations in Balanced DPSK Receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282-1284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Lenihan, R. Salem, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, "All-optical 80-Gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1329-1331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Heffner, "Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1066-1068 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, and A. Bjarklev, "Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 624-626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanemura, J. Suzuki, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion using cross-phase modulation in twisted fiber and optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1052-1054 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, and K. Oda, "Polarization independent frequency conversion by fiber four-wave mixing with a polarization diversity technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 947-949 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, "Performance of DBPSK in a 5 �? 10 Gb/s mixed modulation format Raman/EDFA WDM system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2766-2768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

K. Mishina, A. Maruta, S. Mitani, T. Miyahara, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Hatta, K. Motoshima, and K.-I. Kitayama, "NRZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation-format conversion using SOA-MZI wavelength converter," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3751-3758 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, "Polarization independent wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two orthogonal pump lights of different frequencies," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1916-1920 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, C. Peurecheret, and A. Bjarklev, "Fully dispersion controlled triangular-core nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," in Conf. Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication (OFC),2003, paper PD2-1.

A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, "Polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s using birefringent nonlinear fiber," in Conf. Proc. of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO),2007, paper CThAA2.
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001), pp. 238-277.

N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, and K. Taira and K. Kikuchi, "Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 W-1km-1," in Conf. Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication (OFC),2003, paper PDP26.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fixed-analyzer transmission spectrum showing periodic behaviour, and indicating that the PCF is in the short coupling length regime.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured group-index birefringence (×105) of PCF using the Jones Matrix Eigenanalysis Method.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

RZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK format conversion experimental set-up (HPA: high-power amplifier; VOA: variable optical attenuator; PRX: receiver power; CR: clock recovery; AMZI: asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer, BPD: balanced photodetector; TIA: transimpedance amplifier; ED: error detector).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Power fluctuation observed in the probe spectrum as a function of PPD.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Receiver sensitivity measurement results for 6 nm PPD.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

RZ-BPSK probe eye-diagrms for PPD of 6 nm and OSNR of 18.5 dB/1nm: (a) Pump scrambled (45o probe launch); (b) Pump scrambled (probe on an axis); (c) Same as (b) but with unscrambled pump aligned to probe.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Spectra obtained at a resolution bandwidth of 0.05 nm, and for a PPD of >10 nm. The traces have been offset relative to each other for clarity.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

AMZI output port eye-diagrams for a PPD of 6 nm, OSNR of 18.5 dB/1nm, and pump and probe aligned to same birefringent axis: (a) Alternate mark inversion signal; (b) Duobinary signal.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d A 2 x dz = ( 2 A 1 x 2 + 2 3 A 1 y 2 ) A 2 x + 2 3 A 1 x * A 1 y A 2 y exp [ i z c Σ ( ω B ) ] + 2 3 A 1 x A 1 y * A 2 y exp [ i z c Δ ( ωB ) ]
d A 2 y dz = ( 2 A 1 y 2 + 2 3 A 1 x 2 ) A 2 y + 2 3 A 1 y * A 1 x A 2 x exp [ i z c Σ ( ωB ) ] + 2 3 A 1 y A 1 x * A 2 x exp [ i z c Δ ( ωB ) ]
Σ ( ωB ) = ω 1 B 1 + ω 2 B 2
Δ ( ωB ) = ω 1 B 2 ω 2 B 2 .
{ B = 1 ω G ( Ω ) d Ω G ( Ω ) = α G + β G 2 πc Ω .
ω j B j L c = 2 π L L Bj > 2 π ,
ω 1 B 1 ω 2 B 2 . L c = 2 π L L B 1 L L B 2 > 2 π
( ω 1 ω 2 ) α G β G ln ( ω 1 ω 2 ) 2 π c > 2 πc L
α G Δ ( 1 λ ) β G ln ( λ 2 λ 1 ) > 1 L .
Δλ > 1 L · ( α G λ 1 2 β G λ 1 ) 1
A 2 L t = ( P 2 0 t 2 ) 1 2 { x e i φ 2 x exp [ 2 iγL ( P 1 x 0 t + 1 3 P 1 y 0 t ) ] + y e i φ 2 y exp [ 2 iγL ( P 1 y 0 t + 1 3 P 1 x 0 t ) ] }
A 1 L t = x e i φ 1 x P 1 x 0 t + y e i φ 1 y P 1 y 0 t = P 10 ( x e i φ 1 x cos ψ 1 + y e i φ 1 y sin ψ 1 ) .

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