Abstract

This paper proposes a novel method to detect transparent living cells in a transparent microfluidic chamber by optical diffraction of an aperture or an aperture array. Through the analysis of the far-field diffraction pattern, one of the parameters of the cells, including the size, refractive index, or position, can be extracted by the analysis software developed in this paper. Calculations are carried out to discuss the key issues of this MEMS device, and our simulation is verified by diffraction patterns of transparent microparticles on fabricated apertures, recorded via a digital camera

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. James and H. J. Tanke, Biomedical Light Microscopy (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991).
  2. M. Pluta, Advanced Light Microscopy Vol. 2. Specialized Methods (PWN-Polish Scientific Publishers, Warszawa, Poland, 1988).
  3. K. Chen, A. Kromin, M.P. Ulmer, B.W. Wessels, and V. Backman, "Nanoparticle sizing with a resolution beyond the diffraction limit using UV light scattering spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 228, 1-7 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, P. Nachman, G. Chen, R. K. Chang, M. W. Mayo, and G. L. Fernandez, "Aerosol-fluorescence spectrum analyzer: real-time measurement of emission spectra of airborne biological particles," Appl. Opt. 34, 7149-7155 (1995).
  5. Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Yang, J. H. Yeo, L. Jiang, and D. Jiang, "Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 995-1001 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Morhard, J. Pipper, R. Dahint, and M. Grunze, "Immobilization of antibodies in micropatterns for cell detection by optical diffraction," Sens. Actuatuators B. 70, 232-242 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. T. Williams, R. D. Bahuguna, H. Arteaga, and E. N. Le Joie, "Study of microbial growth I: By diffraction," Proc. SPIE 1332, 802-804 (1991).
  9. P. M. St. John, R. Davis, N. Cady, J. Czajka, C. A. Batt, and H. G. Craighead, "Diffraction-based cell detection using a microcontact printed antibody grating," Anal. Chem. 70, 1108-1111 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. D. King and S. E. Leblanc, "Method and Apparatus for particle measurement employing optical imaging," CA2487233 (2005).
  11. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, 1999).

2004 (1)

Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Yang, J. H. Yeo, L. Jiang, and D. Jiang, "Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 995-1001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Chen, A. Kromin, M.P. Ulmer, B.W. Wessels, and V. Backman, "Nanoparticle sizing with a resolution beyond the diffraction limit using UV light scattering spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 228, 1-7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

F. Morhard, J. Pipper, R. Dahint, and M. Grunze, "Immobilization of antibodies in micropatterns for cell detection by optical diffraction," Sens. Actuatuators B. 70, 232-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. M. St. John, R. Davis, N. Cady, J. Czajka, C. A. Batt, and H. G. Craighead, "Diffraction-based cell detection using a microcontact printed antibody grating," Anal. Chem. 70, 1108-1111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

G. T. Williams, R. D. Bahuguna, H. Arteaga, and E. N. Le Joie, "Study of microbial growth I: By diffraction," Proc. SPIE 1332, 802-804 (1991).

Alfano, R. R.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alimova, A.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arteaga, H.

G. T. Williams, R. D. Bahuguna, H. Arteaga, and E. N. Le Joie, "Study of microbial growth I: By diffraction," Proc. SPIE 1332, 802-804 (1991).

Backman, V.

K. Chen, A. Kromin, M.P. Ulmer, B.W. Wessels, and V. Backman, "Nanoparticle sizing with a resolution beyond the diffraction limit using UV light scattering spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 228, 1-7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bahuguna, R. D.

G. T. Williams, R. D. Bahuguna, H. Arteaga, and E. N. Le Joie, "Study of microbial growth I: By diffraction," Proc. SPIE 1332, 802-804 (1991).

Batt, C. A.

P. M. St. John, R. Davis, N. Cady, J. Czajka, C. A. Batt, and H. G. Craighead, "Diffraction-based cell detection using a microcontact printed antibody grating," Anal. Chem. 70, 1108-1111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cady, N.

P. M. St. John, R. Davis, N. Cady, J. Czajka, C. A. Batt, and H. G. Craighead, "Diffraction-based cell detection using a microcontact printed antibody grating," Anal. Chem. 70, 1108-1111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

Chen, G.

Chen, K.

K. Chen, A. Kromin, M.P. Ulmer, B.W. Wessels, and V. Backman, "Nanoparticle sizing with a resolution beyond the diffraction limit using UV light scattering spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 228, 1-7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Craighead, H. G.

P. M. St. John, R. Davis, N. Cady, J. Czajka, C. A. Batt, and H. G. Craighead, "Diffraction-based cell detection using a microcontact printed antibody grating," Anal. Chem. 70, 1108-1111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Czajka, J.

P. M. St. John, R. Davis, N. Cady, J. Czajka, C. A. Batt, and H. G. Craighead, "Diffraction-based cell detection using a microcontact printed antibody grating," Anal. Chem. 70, 1108-1111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dahint, R.

F. Morhard, J. Pipper, R. Dahint, and M. Grunze, "Immobilization of antibodies in micropatterns for cell detection by optical diffraction," Sens. Actuatuators B. 70, 232-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R.

P. M. St. John, R. Davis, N. Cady, J. Czajka, C. A. Batt, and H. G. Craighead, "Diffraction-based cell detection using a microcontact printed antibody grating," Anal. Chem. 70, 1108-1111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, G. L.

Grunze, M.

F. Morhard, J. Pipper, R. Dahint, and M. Grunze, "Immobilization of antibodies in micropatterns for cell detection by optical diffraction," Sens. Actuatuators B. 70, 232-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. C.

Jiang, D.

Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Yang, J. H. Yeo, L. Jiang, and D. Jiang, "Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 995-1001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Yang, J. H. Yeo, L. Jiang, and D. Jiang, "Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 995-1001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Katz, A.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

King, F. D.

F. D. King and S. E. Leblanc, "Method and Apparatus for particle measurement employing optical imaging," CA2487233 (2005).

Kromin, A.

K. Chen, A. Kromin, M.P. Ulmer, B.W. Wessels, and V. Backman, "Nanoparticle sizing with a resolution beyond the diffraction limit using UV light scattering spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 228, 1-7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Le Joie, E. N.

G. T. Williams, R. D. Bahuguna, H. Arteaga, and E. N. Le Joie, "Study of microbial growth I: By diffraction," Proc. SPIE 1332, 802-804 (1991).

Leblanc, S. E.

F. D. King and S. E. Leblanc, "Method and Apparatus for particle measurement employing optical imaging," CA2487233 (2005).

Mayo, M. W.

McCormick, S. A.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morhard, F.

F. Morhard, J. Pipper, R. Dahint, and M. Grunze, "Immobilization of antibodies in micropatterns for cell detection by optical diffraction," Sens. Actuatuators B. 70, 232-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nachman, P.

Pinnick, R. G.

Pipper, J.

F. Morhard, J. Pipper, R. Dahint, and M. Grunze, "Immobilization of antibodies in micropatterns for cell detection by optical diffraction," Sens. Actuatuators B. 70, 232-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, R. B.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, E.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Savage, H. E.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shah, M. K.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

St. John, P. M.

P. M. St. John, R. Davis, N. Cady, J. Czajka, C. A. Batt, and H. G. Craighead, "Diffraction-based cell detection using a microcontact printed antibody grating," Anal. Chem. 70, 1108-1111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ulmer, M.P.

K. Chen, A. Kromin, M.P. Ulmer, B.W. Wessels, and V. Backman, "Nanoparticle sizing with a resolution beyond the diffraction limit using UV light scattering spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 228, 1-7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, B.W.

K. Chen, A. Kromin, M.P. Ulmer, B.W. Wessels, and V. Backman, "Nanoparticle sizing with a resolution beyond the diffraction limit using UV light scattering spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 228, 1-7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. T.

G. T. Williams, R. D. Bahuguna, H. Arteaga, and E. N. Le Joie, "Study of microbial growth I: By diffraction," Proc. SPIE 1332, 802-804 (1991).

Xu, M.

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Yang, J. H. Yeo, L. Jiang, and D. Jiang, "Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 995-1001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Yang, J. H. Yeo, L. Jiang, and D. Jiang, "Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 995-1001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yeo, J. H.

Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Yang, J. H. Yeo, L. Jiang, and D. Jiang, "Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 995-1001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Yang, J. H. Yeo, L. Jiang, and D. Jiang, "Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 995-1001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

P. M. St. John, R. Davis, N. Cady, J. Czajka, C. A. Batt, and H. G. Craighead, "Diffraction-based cell detection using a microcontact printed antibody grating," Anal. Chem. 70, 1108-1111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Katz, A. Alimova, M. Xu, E. Rudolph, M. K. Shah, H. E. Savage, R. B. Rosen, S. A. McCormick, and R. R. Alfano, "Bacteria size determination by elastic light scattering," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 277-287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Y. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Yang, J. H. Yeo, L. Jiang, and D. Jiang, "Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 995-1001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Chen, A. Kromin, M.P. Ulmer, B.W. Wessels, and V. Backman, "Nanoparticle sizing with a resolution beyond the diffraction limit using UV light scattering spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 228, 1-7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. T. Williams, R. D. Bahuguna, H. Arteaga, and E. N. Le Joie, "Study of microbial growth I: By diffraction," Proc. SPIE 1332, 802-804 (1991).

Sens. Actuatuators B. (1)

F. Morhard, J. Pipper, R. Dahint, and M. Grunze, "Immobilization of antibodies in micropatterns for cell detection by optical diffraction," Sens. Actuatuators B. 70, 232-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

F. D. King and S. E. Leblanc, "Method and Apparatus for particle measurement employing optical imaging," CA2487233 (2005).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, 1999).

J. James and H. J. Tanke, Biomedical Light Microscopy (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991).

M. Pluta, Advanced Light Microscopy Vol. 2. Specialized Methods (PWN-Polish Scientific Publishers, Warszawa, Poland, 1988).

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