Abstract

Under 980 nm excitation, unusual 3P23H6(~264 nm) and 3P23F4(~309 nm) emissions from Tm3+ ions were observed in hexagonal NaYF4:Yb3+(20%)/Tm3+(1.5%) microcrystals. In comparison with the strong emissions from 1D2 and 1I6, the emissions from 1G4 and 3H4 almost vanished due to the efficient cross-relaxation of 1G4+3H43F4+1D2(Tm3+). Double logarithmic plots of the upconversion emission intensity versus the excitation power are neither straight lines nor typical saturation curves. Theoretical analysis indicated that the complicated dependent relationships were mainly caused by phonon-assisted energy transfers and nonradiative relaxation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, and D. F. Wetch, "Laser diode pumped 106mW blue upconversion fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1815-1817 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Heer, K. Kömpe, H. U. Güdel, and M. Haase, "Highly Efficient Multicolour Upconversion Emission in Transparent Colloids of Lanthanide-Doped NaYF4 Nanocrystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2105 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

Y. G. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Aghahadi, G. Somesfalean, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Four-photon upconversion induced by infrared diode laser excitation in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 127-131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, L. B. Fan, "Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13611-13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Sivakumar, J. M. van Veggel, and S. May, "Near-Infrared (NIR) to Red and Green Up-Conversion Emission from Silica Sol-Gel Thin Films Made with La0.45Yb0.50Er0.05F3 Nanoparticles, Hetero-Looping-Enhanced Energy Transfer (Hetero-LEET): A New Up-Conversion Process," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 620-625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, "Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+:β-YF3, nanocrystals embedded glass ceramic," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051920-051922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

K. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. Güdel, M. Hehlen, and S. Lüthi, "Hexagonal Sodium Yttrium Fluoride Based Green and Blue Emitting Upconversion Phosphors," Chem. Mater. 16, 1244-1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Heer, K. Kömpe, H. U. Güdel, and M. Haase, "Highly Efficient Multicolour Upconversion Emission in Transparent Colloids of Lanthanide-Doped NaYF4 Nanocrystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. S. Qin, W. P, Qin, C. F. Wu, S. H. Huang, J. S. Zhang, S. Z. Lu, D. Zhao, and H. Q. Liu, "Enhancement of ultraviolet upconversion in Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 1-3 (2003).

G. S. He, J. M. Dai, T.C. Lin, P. P. Markowicz, and P. N. Prasad, "Ultrashort 1.5-mu laser excited upconverted stimulated emission based on simultaneous three-photon absorption," Opt. Lett. 28, 719-721(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T. C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, "Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation," Nature 415, 767-770 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

M. P. Hehlen, A. Kuditcher, A. L. Lenef, H. Ni, Q. Shu, S. C. Rand, J. Rai, and S. Rai, "Nonradiative dynamics of avalanche upconversion in Tm:LiYF4," Phys. Rev. B 61, 1116-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, and H. U. Güdel, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337-3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

1996

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science 273, 1185-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, and D. F. Wetch, "Laser diode pumped 106mW blue upconversion fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1815-1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedener, H. U. Güdel, G. C. Valley, and R. A. McFarlane, "Infrared to visible upconversion in Cs3Yb2Cl9:Tm3+," J. Lumin. 63, 327-337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, "Three-Dimensional Optical Storage Memory," Science 245, 843-845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, H. J. Guggenheim, T. Kushida, S. Singh, and L. G. Van Uitert, "Comments on Materials for Efficient Infrared Conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 48-50 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968

W. T. Carnall, R. Fields, and K. T. Rajnank, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aghahadi, B.

Y. G. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Aghahadi, G. Somesfalean, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Four-photon upconversion induced by infrared diode laser excitation in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 127-131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bai, X.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, L. B. Fan, "Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13611-13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biner, D.

K. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. Güdel, M. Hehlen, and S. Lüthi, "Hexagonal Sodium Yttrium Fluoride Based Green and Blue Emitting Upconversion Phosphors," Chem. Mater. 16, 1244-1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, C. Y.

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, R. Fields, and K. T. Rajnank, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Cheetham, A. K.

Chen, D. Q.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, "Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+:β-YF3, nanocrystals embedded glass ceramic," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051920-051922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. B.

Chen, Y. G.

Y. G. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Aghahadi, G. Somesfalean, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Four-photon upconversion induced by infrared diode laser excitation in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 127-131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Curley, M.

Dai, J. M.

Dai, Q. L.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, L. B. Fan, "Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13611-13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, B.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, L. B. Fan, "Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13611-13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science 273, 1185-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fan, L. B.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, L. B. Fan, "Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13611-13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fields, R.

W. T. Carnall, R. Fields, and K. T. Rajnank, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Frei, G.

K. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. Güdel, M. Hehlen, and S. Lüthi, "Hexagonal Sodium Yttrium Fluoride Based Green and Blue Emitting Upconversion Phosphors," Chem. Mater. 16, 1244-1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gamelin, D. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, and H. U. Güdel, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337-3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geusic, J. E.

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, H. J. Guggenheim, T. Kushida, S. Singh, and L. G. Van Uitert, "Comments on Materials for Efficient Infrared Conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 48-50 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H.

K. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. Güdel, M. Hehlen, and S. Lüthi, "Hexagonal Sodium Yttrium Fluoride Based Green and Blue Emitting Upconversion Phosphors," Chem. Mater. 16, 1244-1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H. U.

S. Heer, K. Kömpe, H. U. Güdel, and M. Haase, "Highly Efficient Multicolour Upconversion Emission in Transparent Colloids of Lanthanide-Doped NaYF4 Nanocrystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, and H. U. Güdel, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337-3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedener, H. U. Güdel, G. C. Valley, and R. A. McFarlane, "Infrared to visible upconversion in Cs3Yb2Cl9:Tm3+," J. Lumin. 63, 327-337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guggenheim, H. J.

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, H. J. Guggenheim, T. Kushida, S. Singh, and L. G. Van Uitert, "Comments on Materials for Efficient Infrared Conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 48-50 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Haase, M.

S. Heer, K. Kömpe, H. U. Güdel, and M. Haase, "Highly Efficient Multicolour Upconversion Emission in Transparent Colloids of Lanthanide-Doped NaYF4 Nanocrystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

Heer, S.

S. Heer, K. Kömpe, H. U. Güdel, and M. Haase, "Highly Efficient Multicolour Upconversion Emission in Transparent Colloids of Lanthanide-Doped NaYF4 Nanocrystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M.

K. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. Güdel, M. Hehlen, and S. Lüthi, "Hexagonal Sodium Yttrium Fluoride Based Green and Blue Emitting Upconversion Phosphors," Chem. Mater. 16, 1244-1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

M. P. Hehlen, A. Kuditcher, A. L. Lenef, H. Ni, Q. Shu, S. C. Rand, J. Rai, and S. Rai, "Nonradiative dynamics of avalanche upconversion in Tm:LiYF4," Phys. Rev. B 61, 1116-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science 273, 1185-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, "Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+:β-YF3, nanocrystals embedded glass ceramic," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051920-051922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jenssen, H. P.

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, H. J. Guggenheim, T. Kushida, S. Singh, and L. G. Van Uitert, "Comments on Materials for Efficient Infrared Conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 48-50 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kin, R. J.

Kömpe, K.

S. Heer, K. Kömpe, H. U. Güdel, and M. Haase, "Highly Efficient Multicolour Upconversion Emission in Transparent Colloids of Lanthanide-Doped NaYF4 Nanocrystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krämer, K.

K. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. Güdel, M. Hehlen, and S. Lüthi, "Hexagonal Sodium Yttrium Fluoride Based Green and Blue Emitting Upconversion Phosphors," Chem. Mater. 16, 1244-1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuditcher, A.

M. P. Hehlen, A. Kuditcher, A. L. Lenef, H. Ni, Q. Shu, S. C. Rand, J. Rai, and S. Rai, "Nonradiative dynamics of avalanche upconversion in Tm:LiYF4," Phys. Rev. B 61, 1116-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kushida, T.

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, H. J. Guggenheim, T. Kushida, S. Singh, and L. G. Van Uitert, "Comments on Materials for Efficient Infrared Conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 48-50 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lei, Y. Q.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, L. B. Fan, "Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13611-13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lenef, A. L.

M. P. Hehlen, A. Kuditcher, A. L. Lenef, H. Ni, Q. Shu, S. C. Rand, J. Rai, and S. Rai, "Nonradiative dynamics of avalanche upconversion in Tm:LiYF4," Phys. Rev. B 61, 1116-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. C.

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T. C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, "Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation," Nature 415, 767-770 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, T.C.

Liu, Y.

Y. G. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Aghahadi, G. Somesfalean, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Four-photon upconversion induced by infrared diode laser excitation in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 127-131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S. Z.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, L. B. Fan, "Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13611-13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lüthi, S.

K. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. Güdel, M. Hehlen, and S. Lüthi, "Hexagonal Sodium Yttrium Fluoride Based Green and Blue Emitting Upconversion Phosphors," Chem. Mater. 16, 1244-1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lüthi, S. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, and H. U. Güdel, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337-3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science 273, 1185-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Markowicz, P. P.

May, S.

S. Sivakumar, J. M. van Veggel, and S. May, "Near-Infrared (NIR) to Red and Green Up-Conversion Emission from Silica Sol-Gel Thin Films Made with La0.45Yb0.50Er0.05F3 Nanoparticles, Hetero-Looping-Enhanced Energy Transfer (Hetero-LEET): A New Up-Conversion Process," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 620-625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mcfarlane, R. A.

Mehuys, D. G.

S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, and D. F. Wetch, "Laser diode pumped 106mW blue upconversion fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1815-1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ni, H.

M. P. Hehlen, A. Kuditcher, A. L. Lenef, H. Ni, Q. Shu, S. C. Rand, J. Rai, and S. Rai, "Nonradiative dynamics of avalanche upconversion in Tm:LiYF4," Phys. Rev. B 61, 1116-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noginov, M. A.

Owen, J. J.

Pan, G. H.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, L. B. Fan, "Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13611-13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parthenopoulos, D. A.

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, "Three-Dimensional Optical Storage Memory," Science 245, 843-845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, and H. U. Güdel, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337-3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

Qin, G. S.

G. S. Qin, W. P, Qin, C. F. Wu, S. H. Huang, J. S. Zhang, S. Z. Lu, D. Zhao, and H. Q. Liu, "Enhancement of ultraviolet upconversion in Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 1-3 (2003).

Qin, W. P.

Rai, J.

M. P. Hehlen, A. Kuditcher, A. L. Lenef, H. Ni, Q. Shu, S. C. Rand, J. Rai, and S. Rai, "Nonradiative dynamics of avalanche upconversion in Tm:LiYF4," Phys. Rev. B 61, 1116-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rai, S.

M. P. Hehlen, A. Kuditcher, A. L. Lenef, H. Ni, Q. Shu, S. C. Rand, J. Rai, and S. Rai, "Nonradiative dynamics of avalanche upconversion in Tm:LiYF4," Phys. Rev. B 61, 1116-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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W. T. Carnall, R. Fields, and K. T. Rajnank, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science 273, 1185-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rand, S. C.

M. P. Hehlen, A. Kuditcher, A. L. Lenef, H. Ni, Q. Shu, S. C. Rand, J. Rai, and S. Rai, "Nonradiative dynamics of avalanche upconversion in Tm:LiYF4," Phys. Rev. B 61, 1116-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, L. B. Fan, "Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13611-13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, "Three-Dimensional Optical Storage Memory," Science 245, 843-845 (1989).
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T. Riedener, H. U. Güdel, G. C. Valley, and R. A. McFarlane, "Infrared to visible upconversion in Cs3Yb2Cl9:Tm3+," J. Lumin. 63, 327-337 (1995).
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S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, and D. F. Wetch, "Laser diode pumped 106mW blue upconversion fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1815-1817 (1995).
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M. P. Hehlen, A. Kuditcher, A. L. Lenef, H. Ni, Q. Shu, S. C. Rand, J. Rai, and S. Rai, "Nonradiative dynamics of avalanche upconversion in Tm:LiYF4," Phys. Rev. B 61, 1116-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, H. J. Guggenheim, T. Kushida, S. Singh, and L. G. Van Uitert, "Comments on Materials for Efficient Infrared Conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 48-50 (1969).
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S. Sivakumar, J. M. van Veggel, and S. May, "Near-Infrared (NIR) to Red and Green Up-Conversion Emission from Silica Sol-Gel Thin Films Made with La0.45Yb0.50Er0.05F3 Nanoparticles, Hetero-Looping-Enhanced Energy Transfer (Hetero-LEET): A New Up-Conversion Process," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 620-625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Somesfalean, G.

Y. G. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Aghahadi, G. Somesfalean, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Four-photon upconversion induced by infrared diode laser excitation in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 127-131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, H. W.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, L. B. Fan, "Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13611-13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, Z. F.

Sun, Q.

Y. G. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Aghahadi, G. Somesfalean, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Four-photon upconversion induced by infrared diode laser excitation in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 127-131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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T. Riedener, H. U. Güdel, G. C. Valley, and R. A. McFarlane, "Infrared to visible upconversion in Cs3Yb2Cl9:Tm3+," J. Lumin. 63, 327-337 (1995).
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L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, H. J. Guggenheim, T. Kushida, S. Singh, and L. G. Van Uitert, "Comments on Materials for Efficient Infrared Conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 48-50 (1969).
[CrossRef]

van Veggel, J. M.

S. Sivakumar, J. M. van Veggel, and S. May, "Near-Infrared (NIR) to Red and Green Up-Conversion Emission from Silica Sol-Gel Thin Films Made with La0.45Yb0.50Er0.05F3 Nanoparticles, Hetero-Looping-Enhanced Energy Transfer (Hetero-LEET): A New Up-Conversion Process," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 620-625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkateswarlu, P.

Waarts, R. G.

S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, and D. F. Wetch, "Laser diode pumped 106mW blue upconversion fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1815-1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F. P.

Y. G. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Aghahadi, G. Somesfalean, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Four-photon upconversion induced by infrared diode laser excitation in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 127-131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. F.

Wang, L. L.

Wang, T.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, L. B. Fan, "Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13611-13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Y. S.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, "Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+:β-YF3, nanocrystals embedded glass ceramic," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051920-051922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, G. D.

Wetch, D. F.

S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, and D. F. Wetch, "Laser diode pumped 106mW blue upconversion fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1815-1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Williams, A.

Yu, Y. L.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, "Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+:β-YF3, nanocrystals embedded glass ceramic," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051920-051922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. S.

Zhang, Z. G.

Y. G. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Aghahadi, G. Somesfalean, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Four-photon upconversion induced by infrared diode laser excitation in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 127-131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, P. F.

Adv. Mater.

S. Heer, K. Kömpe, H. U. Güdel, and M. Haase, "Highly Efficient Multicolour Upconversion Emission in Transparent Colloids of Lanthanide-Doped NaYF4 Nanocrystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, H. J. Guggenheim, T. Kushida, S. Singh, and L. G. Van Uitert, "Comments on Materials for Efficient Infrared Conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 48-50 (1969).
[CrossRef]

S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, and D. F. Wetch, "Laser diode pumped 106mW blue upconversion fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1815-1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, "Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+:β-YF3, nanocrystals embedded glass ceramic," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051920-051922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

K. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. Güdel, M. Hehlen, and S. Lüthi, "Hexagonal Sodium Yttrium Fluoride Based Green and Blue Emitting Upconversion Phosphors," Chem. Mater. 16, 1244-1251 (2004).
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Chem. Phys. Lett.

Y. G. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Aghahadi, G. Somesfalean, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Four-photon upconversion induced by infrared diode laser excitation in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 127-131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

S. Sivakumar, J. M. van Veggel, and S. May, "Near-Infrared (NIR) to Red and Green Up-Conversion Emission from Silica Sol-Gel Thin Films Made with La0.45Yb0.50Er0.05F3 Nanoparticles, Hetero-Looping-Enhanced Energy Transfer (Hetero-LEET): A New Up-Conversion Process," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 620-625 (2007).
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J. Appl. Phys.

G. S. Qin, W. P, Qin, C. F. Wu, S. H. Huang, J. S. Zhang, S. Z. Lu, D. Zhao, and H. Q. Liu, "Enhancement of ultraviolet upconversion in Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 1-3 (2003).

J. Chem. Phys.

W. T. Carnall, R. Fields, and K. T. Rajnank, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

T. Riedener, H. U. Güdel, G. C. Valley, and R. A. McFarlane, "Infrared to visible upconversion in Cs3Yb2Cl9:Tm3+," J. Lumin. 63, 327-337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. C

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, L. B. Fan, "Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13611-13617 (2007).
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G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T. C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, "Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation," Nature 415, 767-770 (2002).
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Phys. Rev. B

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, and H. U. Güdel, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337-3346 (2000).
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M. P. Hehlen, A. Kuditcher, A. L. Lenef, H. Ni, Q. Shu, S. C. Rand, J. Rai, and S. Rai, "Nonradiative dynamics of avalanche upconversion in Tm:LiYF4," Phys. Rev. B 61, 1116-1128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science 273, 1185-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, "Three-Dimensional Optical Storage Memory," Science 245, 843-845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Energy level diagrams of Yb3+ ions and Tm3+ ions and UC emission mechanism in NaYF4:Yb3+(20%)/Tm3+(1.5%) microcrystals.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

XRD pattern (a) and SEM image (b) of the NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystals.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

UC luminescence spectrum of NaYF4:Yb3+(20%)/Tm3+(1.5%) microcrystals under 980 nm excitation (320 W/cm2). Inset: magnification of the spectrum in the range of 430–850 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plots (log-log) of emission intensity versus excitation power.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dependence of UC luminescence spectra (normalized to 1D23F4 transition) on Tm3+ concentration (20% Yb3+): (a) 0.01%, (b) 0.1%, (c) 0.5%, (d) 1%, and (e) 1.5%.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

UC luminescence spectra (normalized to 1D23F4 transition) of NaYF4:Yb3+(20%)/Tm3+(1.5%) microcrystals under different excitation power density.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Experimental slopes (n) of the dependencies log(emission intensity) versus log(excitation power) for different emissions in NaYF4:Yb3+(20%)/Tm3+(1.5%) microcrystals under 980 nm excitation.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

W NR = W NR ( 0 ) ( 1 + < n > ) Δ E ћω
< n > = 1 exp ( ћω kT ) 1

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