Abstract

A new type of solid-state variable focal length lens is described. It is based on shape changes in an elastomeric membrane driven by compression of a reservoir of a polymer gel. A novel fabrication process based on individual lens components allows for customization of lens power based on the desired application. The lens shape as a function of applied compressive strain is measured using direct surface profile measurements. The focal length of a solid state lens was reversibly changed by a factor of 1.9. Calculated back focal lengths of the lens were consistent with experimental measurements.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. F. Land, and D.-E. Nilsson, Animal Eyes (Oxford University Press, Oxford; New York, 2002).
  2. H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. W. Ren, D. W. Fox, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability and low operating voltage," Opt. Express 15, 11328-11335 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. J. Smith, C. M. Taylor, E. M. McCabe, D. R. Selviah, S. E. Day, and L. G. Commander, "Switchable fiber coupling using variable-focal-length microlenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3132-3134 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Raighne, T. Scharf, and E. M. McCabe, "Emerging light fields from liquid crystal microlenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 055103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. H. Jeong, G. L. Liu, N. Chronis, and L. P. Lee, "Tunable microdoublet lens array," Opt. Express 12, 2494-2500 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive zoom lens with high zoom ratio and widely tunable field of view," Opt Commun 249, 175-182 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171-3172 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. W. Lee, and S. S. Lee, "Focal tunable liquid lens integrated with an electromagnetic actuator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121129 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. W. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor," Opt. Express 14, 8031-8036 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. W. Ren, and S. T. Wu, "Variable-focus liquid lens," Opt. Express 15, 5931-5936 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Berge, and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, "Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems," Opt. Rev. 12, 255-259 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Kuiper, and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. L. Glebov, L. D. Huang, S. Aoki, M. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, "Planar hybrid polymer-silica microlenses with tunable beamwidth and focal length," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1107-1109 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. N. Lee, H. W. Tung, W. C. Chen, and W. L. Fang, "Thermal actuated solid tunable lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2191-2193 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Bass, Optical Society of America Handbook of Optics, Volume II, Devices, measurements, and properties (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).
  20. M. J. Wiggins, J. M. Anderson, and A. Hiltner, "Biodegradation of polyurethane under fatigue loading," J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 65, 524-535 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2007

2006

H. W. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor," Opt. Express 14, 8031-8036 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Lee, H. W. Tung, W. C. Chen, and W. L. Fang, "Thermal actuated solid tunable lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2191-2193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Raighne, T. Scharf, and E. M. McCabe, "Emerging light fields from liquid crystal microlenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 055103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive zoom lens with high zoom ratio and widely tunable field of view," Opt Commun 249, 175-182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, "Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems," Opt. Rev. 12, 255-259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper, and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Glebov, L. D. Huang, S. Aoki, M. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, "Planar hybrid polymer-silica microlenses with tunable beamwidth and focal length," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1107-1109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Jeong, G. L. Liu, N. Chronis, and L. P. Lee, "Tunable microdoublet lens array," Opt. Express 12, 2494-2500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. J. Wiggins, J. M. Anderson, and A. Hiltner, "Biodegradation of polyurethane under fatigue loading," J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 65, 524-535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171-3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. J. Smith, C. M. Taylor, E. M. McCabe, D. R. Selviah, S. E. Day, and L. G. Commander, "Switchable fiber coupling using variable-focal-length microlenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3132-3134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. Berge, and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. M.

M. J. Wiggins, J. M. Anderson, and A. Hiltner, "Biodegradation of polyurethane under fatigue loading," J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 65, 524-535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, P. A.

Aoki, S.

A. L. Glebov, L. D. Huang, S. Aoki, M. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, "Planar hybrid polymer-silica microlenses with tunable beamwidth and focal length," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1107-1109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berdichevsky, Y.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171-3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berge, B.

B. Berge, and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chan, M. L.

P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. C.

S. N. Lee, H. W. Tung, W. C. Chen, and W. L. Fang, "Thermal actuated solid tunable lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2191-2193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171-3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chronis, N.

Commander, L. G.

P. J. Smith, C. M. Taylor, E. M. McCabe, D. R. Selviah, S. E. Day, and L. G. Commander, "Switchable fiber coupling using variable-focal-length microlenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3132-3134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Day, S. E.

P. J. Smith, C. M. Taylor, E. M. McCabe, D. R. Selviah, S. E. Day, and L. G. Commander, "Switchable fiber coupling using variable-focal-length microlenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3132-3134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dharmatilleke, S.

P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. H.

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, W. L.

S. N. Lee, H. W. Tung, W. C. Chen, and W. L. Fang, "Thermal actuated solid tunable lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2191-2193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fox, D.

Fox, D. W.

Gauza, S.

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, A. L.

A. L. Glebov, L. D. Huang, S. Aoki, M. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, "Planar hybrid polymer-silica microlenses with tunable beamwidth and focal length," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1107-1109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, "Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems," Opt. Rev. 12, 255-259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper, and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hiltner, A.

M. J. Wiggins, J. M. Anderson, and A. Hiltner, "Biodegradation of polyurethane under fatigue loading," J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 65, 524-535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L. D.

A. L. Glebov, L. D. Huang, S. Aoki, M. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, "Planar hybrid polymer-silica microlenses with tunable beamwidth and focal length," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1107-1109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, K. H.

Justis, N.

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive zoom lens with high zoom ratio and widely tunable field of view," Opt Commun 249, 175-182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khaw, A. H.

P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krupenkin, T.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, S.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, "Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems," Opt. Rev. 12, 255-259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper, and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

Lee, M.

A. L. Glebov, L. D. Huang, S. Aoki, M. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, "Planar hybrid polymer-silica microlenses with tunable beamwidth and focal length," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1107-1109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. N.

S. N. Lee, H. W. Tung, W. C. Chen, and W. L. Fang, "Thermal actuated solid tunable lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2191-2193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

S. W. Lee, and S. S. Lee, "Focal tunable liquid lens integrated with an electromagnetic actuator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. W.

S. W. Lee, and S. S. Lee, "Focal tunable liquid lens integrated with an electromagnetic actuator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lien, V.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171-3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. L.

Lo, Y. H.

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive zoom lens with high zoom ratio and widely tunable field of view," Opt Commun 249, 175-182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171-3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mach, P.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McCabe, E. M.

A. Raighne, T. Scharf, and E. M. McCabe, "Emerging light fields from liquid crystal microlenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 055103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Smith, C. M. Taylor, E. M. McCabe, D. R. Selviah, S. E. Day, and L. G. Commander, "Switchable fiber coupling using variable-focal-length microlenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3132-3134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moran, P. M.

P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peseux, J.

B. Berge, and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Raighne, A.

A. Raighne, T. Scharf, and E. M. McCabe, "Emerging light fields from liquid crystal microlenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 055103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H. W.

Renders, C. A.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, "Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems," Opt. Rev. 12, 255-259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, I.

P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scharf, T.

A. Raighne, T. Scharf, and E. M. McCabe, "Emerging light fields from liquid crystal microlenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 055103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Selviah, D. R.

P. J. Smith, C. M. Taylor, E. M. McCabe, D. R. Selviah, S. E. Day, and L. G. Commander, "Switchable fiber coupling using variable-focal-length microlenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3132-3134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. J.

P. J. Smith, C. M. Taylor, E. M. McCabe, D. R. Selviah, S. E. Day, and L. G. Commander, "Switchable fiber coupling using variable-focal-length microlenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3132-3134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tan, K. W.

P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, C. M.

P. J. Smith, C. M. Taylor, E. M. McCabe, D. R. Selviah, S. E. Day, and L. G. Commander, "Switchable fiber coupling using variable-focal-length microlenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3132-3134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tukker, T. W.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, "Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems," Opt. Rev. 12, 255-259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tung, H. W.

S. N. Lee, H. W. Tung, W. C. Chen, and W. L. Fang, "Thermal actuated solid tunable lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2191-2193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van As, M. A. J.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, "Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems," Opt. Rev. 12, 255-259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wiggins, M. J.

M. J. Wiggins, J. M. Anderson, and A. Hiltner, "Biodegradation of polyurethane under fatigue loading," J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 65, 524-535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

Wu, S. T.

Yang, S.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yokouchi, K.

A. L. Glebov, L. D. Huang, S. Aoki, M. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, "Planar hybrid polymer-silica microlenses with tunable beamwidth and focal length," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1107-1109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. Y.

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive zoom lens with high zoom ratio and widely tunable field of view," Opt Commun 249, 175-182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171-3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171-3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee, and S. S. Lee, "Focal tunable liquid lens integrated with an electromagnetic actuator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper, and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. E

B. Berge, and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. L. Glebov, L. D. Huang, S. Aoki, M. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, "Planar hybrid polymer-silica microlenses with tunable beamwidth and focal length," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1107-1109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Lee, H. W. Tung, W. C. Chen, and W. L. Fang, "Thermal actuated solid tunable lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2191-2193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A

M. J. Wiggins, J. M. Anderson, and A. Hiltner, "Biodegradation of polyurethane under fatigue loading," J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 65, 524-535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt Commun

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive zoom lens with high zoom ratio and widely tunable field of view," Opt Commun 249, 175-182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Rev.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, "Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems," Opt. Rev. 12, 255-259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

P. J. Smith, C. M. Taylor, E. M. McCabe, D. R. Selviah, S. E. Day, and L. G. Commander, "Switchable fiber coupling using variable-focal-length microlenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3132-3134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Raighne, T. Scharf, and E. M. McCabe, "Emerging light fields from liquid crystal microlenses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 055103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. F. Land, and D.-E. Nilsson, Animal Eyes (Oxford University Press, Oxford; New York, 2002).

M. Bass, Optical Society of America Handbook of Optics, Volume II, Devices, measurements, and properties (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics