Abstract

A chiral optical negative-index metamaterial design of doubly periodic construction for the near-infrared spectrum is presented. The chirality is realized by incorporating sub-wavelength planar silver-alumina-silver resonators and arranging them in a left-handed helical (i.e., stair-step) configuration as a wave propagates through the metamaterial. An effective material parameter retrieval procedure is developed for general bi-isotropic metamaterials. A numerical design example is presented and the retrieved effective material parameters exhibiting a negative index of refraction are provided.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. V. Lindell, A. H. Sihvola, S. A. Tretyakov, and A. J. Viitanen, Electromagnetic Waves in Chiral and Bi-Isotropic Media (Artech House, Boston, 1994).
  2. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Near-infrared double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Express 13, 4922–4930 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 mm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32, 53–55 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H.-K. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813nm and single negative at 772nm,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1671–1673 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306, 1353–1355 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. Yannopapas, “Negative index of refraction in artificial chiral materials,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 6883–6890 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Svirko, N. Zheludev, and M. Osipov, “Layered chiral metallic microstructures with inductive coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 498–500 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Plum, J. Dong, J. Zhou, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “3D-chiral metamaterial showing artificial magnetic response and negative refraction,” arXiv:0806.0823v1 (2008).
  12. E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Decker, M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Circular dichroism of planar chiral magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 32, 856–858 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. V. Kildishev and U. K. Chettiar, “Cascading optical negative index metamaterials,” Appl. Comput. Electrom. 22, 172–183 (2007).
  16. M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D.-H. Kwon, P. L. Werner, and D. H. Werner, “Optical planar chiral metamaterial designs for strong circular dichroism and polarization rotation,” Opt. Express 16, 11802–11807 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. L. Volakis, A. Chatterjee, and L. C. Kempel, Finite Element Method for Electromagnetics (IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic Press, Boston, 1991).
  21. B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023811 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (6)

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 mm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32, 53–55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Circular dichroism of planar chiral magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 32, 856–858 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H.-K. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813nm and single negative at 772nm,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1671–1673 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev and U. K. Chettiar, “Cascading optical negative index metamaterials,” Appl. Comput. Electrom. 22, 172–183 (2007).

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Yannopapas, “Negative index of refraction in artificial chiral materials,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 6883–6890 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Near-infrared double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Express 13, 4922–4930 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306, 1353–1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Y. Svirko, N. Zheludev, and M. Osipov, “Layered chiral metallic microstructures with inductive coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 498–500 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bai, B.

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

Cai, W.

Chatterjee, A.

J. L. Volakis, A. Chatterjee, and L. C. Kempel, Finite Element Method for Electromagnetics (IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M.

Dolling, G.

Dong, J.

E. Plum, J. Dong, J. Zhou, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “3D-chiral metamaterial showing artificial magnetic response and negative refraction,” arXiv:0806.0823v1 (2008).

Drachev, V. P.

Fan, W.

Fedotov, V. A.

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, J. Dong, J. Zhou, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “3D-chiral metamaterial showing artificial magnetic response and negative refraction,” arXiv:0806.0823v1 (2008).

Ino, Y.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jefimovs, K.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kauranen, M.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kempel, L. C.

J. L. Volakis, A. Chatterjee, and L. C. Kempel, Finite Element Method for Electromagnetics (IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Klein, M. W.

Koschny, T.

E. Plum, J. Dong, J. Zhou, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “3D-chiral metamaterial showing artificial magnetic response and negative refraction,” arXiv:0806.0823v1 (2008).

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, D.-H.

Lindell, I. V.

I. V. Lindell, A. H. Sihvola, S. A. Tretyakov, and A. J. Viitanen, Electromagnetic Waves in Chiral and Bi-Isotropic Media (Artech House, Boston, 1994).

Linden, S.

Malloy, K. J.

Markoš, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

Osipov, M.

Y. Svirko, N. Zheludev, and M. Osipov, “Layered chiral metallic microstructures with inductive coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 498–500 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306, 1353–1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plum, E.

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Dong, J. Zhou, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “3D-chiral metamaterial showing artificial magnetic response and negative refraction,” arXiv:0806.0823v1 (2008).

Rogacheva, A. V.

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, N.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwanecke, A. S.

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sihvola, A. H.

I. V. Lindell, A. H. Sihvola, S. A. Tretyakov, and A. J. Viitanen, Electromagnetic Waves in Chiral and Bi-Isotropic Media (Artech House, Boston, 1994).

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 mm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32, 53–55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Dong, J. Zhou, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “3D-chiral metamaterial showing artificial magnetic response and negative refraction,” arXiv:0806.0823v1 (2008).

Svirko, Y.

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Svirko, N. Zheludev, and M. Osipov, “Layered chiral metallic microstructures with inductive coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 498–500 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tretyakov, S. A.

I. V. Lindell, A. H. Sihvola, S. A. Tretyakov, and A. J. Viitanen, Electromagnetic Waves in Chiral and Bi-Isotropic Media (Artech House, Boston, 1994).

Turunen, J.

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallius, T.

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viitanen, A. J.

I. V. Lindell, A. H. Sihvola, S. A. Tretyakov, and A. J. Viitanen, Electromagnetic Waves in Chiral and Bi-Isotropic Media (Artech House, Boston, 1994).

Volakis, J. L.

J. L. Volakis, A. Chatterjee, and L. C. Kempel, Finite Element Method for Electromagnetics (IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

Werner, D. H.

Werner, P. L.

Xiao, S.

Yannopapas, V.

V. Yannopapas, “Negative index of refraction in artificial chiral materials,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 6883–6890 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H.-K.

Zhang, S.

Zheludev, N.

Y. Svirko, N. Zheludev, and M. Osipov, “Layered chiral metallic microstructures with inductive coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 498–500 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, J. Dong, J. Zhou, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “3D-chiral metamaterial showing artificial magnetic response and negative refraction,” arXiv:0806.0823v1 (2008).

Zhou, J.

E. Plum, J. Dong, J. Zhou, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “3D-chiral metamaterial showing artificial magnetic response and negative refraction,” arXiv:0806.0823v1 (2008).

Appl. Comput. Electrom. (1)

A. V. Kildishev and U. K. Chettiar, “Cascading optical negative index metamaterials,” Appl. Comput. Electrom. 22, 172–183 (2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Svirko, N. Zheludev, and M. Osipov, “Layered chiral metallic microstructures with inductive coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 498–500 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

V. Yannopapas, “Negative index of refraction in artificial chiral materials,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 6883–6890 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

B. Bai, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and T. Vallius, “Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306, 1353–1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

I. V. Lindell, A. H. Sihvola, S. A. Tretyakov, and A. J. Viitanen, Electromagnetic Waves in Chiral and Bi-Isotropic Media (Artech House, Boston, 1994).

J. L. Volakis, A. Chatterjee, and L. C. Kempel, Finite Element Method for Electromagnetics (IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Dong, J. Zhou, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “3D-chiral metamaterial showing artificial magnetic response and negative refraction,” arXiv:0806.0823v1 (2008).

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic Press, Boston, 1991).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Color online) A BI slab under illumination by a circularly-polarized plane wave.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Color online) Construction of the unit cell of a doubly-periodic optical chiral meta-material: (a) A quadrant, (b) The spacer layer geometry of a quadrant, (c) The unit cell.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Color online) The spectra and material parameters of the chiral optical metamaterial: (a) R ± and T ± (reflectance and transmittance), (b) z ±, (c) n ±, (d) κ, (e) ε ±, and (f)μ ±.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D = ε E + ( χ + i κ ) μ 0 ε 0 H ,
B = ( χ i κ ) μ 0 ε 0 E + μ H ,
1 + r 0 ± = t 1 ± + r 1 ± ,
1 r 0 ± z 0 = t 1 ± z ± r 1 ± z .
t 1 ± e i k ± d + r 1 ± e i k d = t 2 ± ,
t 1 ± e i k ± d z ± r 1 ± e i k d z = t 2 ± z 2 .
e i k ± d = ( 1 r 0 + ) z 0 ± ( 1 + r 0 + ) z t 2+ ( 1 z 2 ± 1 z ) ,
e i k d = ( 1 r 0 ) z 0 ± ( 1 + r 0 ) z ± t 2− ( 1 z 2 ± 1 z ± ) ,
[ ( 1 + r 0 + ) ( 1 + r 0 ) t 2 + t 2 ] ( 1 z ± ) 2 + 2 ( r 0 ± r 0 ) z 0 ( 1 z ± ) ( 1 r 0 + ) ( 1 r 0 ) z 0 2 + t 2 + t 2 z 2 2 = 0 ,
cos k ± d = 1 2 [ ( 1 r 0 ± ) z 0 + ( 1 + r 0 ± ) z t 2 ± ( 1 z 2 + 1 z ) + ( 1 r 0 ) z 0 ( 1 + r 0 ) z t 2 ( 1 z 2 1 z ) ] .
z = z + z , n = ( n + + n ) z z + + z , χ = n z + z i 2 z , κ = n + n 2 .
E t x = x ̂ t x x + y ̂ t y x ,
E t y = x ̂ t x y + y ̂ t y y .
E t R = ( x ̂ · u ̂ R ) E t x + ( y ̂ · u ̂ R ) E t y = x ̂ t x x + i t x y 2 + y ̂ t y x + i t y y 2 = x ̂ t x x i t y x 2 + y ̂ t y x + i t x x 2 ,
E t L = ( x ̂ · u ̂ L ) E t x + ( y ̂ · u ̂ L ) E t y = x ̂ t x x i t x y 2 + y ̂ t y x i t y y 2 = x ̂ t x x + i t y x 2 + y ̂ t y x i t x x 2 .

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