Abstract

Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a well-known powerful method allowing both the amplitude and phase of a specimen to be simultaneously observed. In order to obtain a reconstructed image from a hologram, numerous calculations for the Fresnel diffraction are required. The Fresnel diffraction can be accelerated by the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) algorithm. However, real-time reconstruction from a hologram is difficult even if we use a recent central processing unit (CPU) to calculate the Fresnel diffraction by the FFT algorithm. In this paper, we describe a real-time DHM system using a graphic processing unit (GPU) with many stream processors, which allows use as a highly parallel processor. The computational speed of the Fresnel diffraction using the GPU is faster than that of recent CPUs. The real-time DHM system can obtain reconstructed images from holograms whose size is 512×512 grids in 24 frames per second.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Masuda, T. Ito, T. Tanaka, A. Shiraki, and T. Sugie, "Computer generated holography using a graphics processing unit," Opt. Express 14, 587-592 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. NVIDIA, "NVIDIA CUDA Compute Unified Device Architecture Programming Guide Version 1.1," NVIDIA (2007).
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  10. T. Shimobaba, T. Ito, N. Masuda, Y. Abe, Y. Ichihashi, H. Nakayama, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, and T. Sugie, "Numerical calculation library for diffraction integrals using the graphic processing unit: the GPU-based wave optics library," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 075308 (2008), http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1464-4258/10/7/075308/.
    [CrossRef]
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  12. Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thread (computer science).
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2008 (3)

2006 (2)

1994 (1)

Abe, Y.

Y. Abe, N. Masuda, H. Wakabayashi, Y. Kazo, T. Ito, S. Satake, T. Kunugi, and K. Sato, "Special purpose computer system for flow visualization using holography technology," Opt. Express,  16, 7686-7692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimobaba, T. Ito, N. Masuda, Y. Abe, Y. Ichihashi, H. Nakayama, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, and T. Sugie, "Numerical calculation library for diffraction integrals using the graphic processing unit: the GPU-based wave optics library," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 075308 (2008), http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1464-4258/10/7/075308/.
[CrossRef]

Ahrenberg, L.

Benzie, P.

Ichihashi, Y.

T. Shimobaba, T. Ito, N. Masuda, Y. Abe, Y. Ichihashi, H. Nakayama, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, and T. Sugie, "Numerical calculation library for diffraction integrals using the graphic processing unit: the GPU-based wave optics library," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 075308 (2008), http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1464-4258/10/7/075308/.
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

Juptner, W.

Kayama, K.

Kazo, Y.

Kono, H.

Kunugi, T.

Magnor, M.

Masuda, N.

Nakayama, H.

T. Shimobaba, T. Ito, N. Masuda, Y. Abe, Y. Ichihashi, H. Nakayama, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, and T. Sugie, "Numerical calculation library for diffraction integrals using the graphic processing unit: the GPU-based wave optics library," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 075308 (2008), http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1464-4258/10/7/075308/.
[CrossRef]

Satake, S.

Sato, K.

Schnars, U.

Shimobaba, T.

T. Shimobaba, T. Ito, N. Masuda, Y. Abe, Y. Ichihashi, H. Nakayama, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, and T. Sugie, "Numerical calculation library for diffraction integrals using the graphic processing unit: the GPU-based wave optics library," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 075308 (2008), http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1464-4258/10/7/075308/.
[CrossRef]

Shiraki, A.

N. Masuda, T. Ito, T. Tanaka, A. Shiraki, and T. Sugie, "Computer generated holography using a graphics processing unit," Opt. Express 14, 587-592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimobaba, T. Ito, N. Masuda, Y. Abe, Y. Ichihashi, H. Nakayama, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, and T. Sugie, "Numerical calculation library for diffraction integrals using the graphic processing unit: the GPU-based wave optics library," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 075308 (2008), http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1464-4258/10/7/075308/.
[CrossRef]

Sugie, T.

T. Shimobaba, T. Ito, N. Masuda, Y. Abe, Y. Ichihashi, H. Nakayama, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, and T. Sugie, "Numerical calculation library for diffraction integrals using the graphic processing unit: the GPU-based wave optics library," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 075308 (2008), http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1464-4258/10/7/075308/.
[CrossRef]

N. Masuda, T. Ito, T. Tanaka, A. Shiraki, and T. Sugie, "Computer generated holography using a graphics processing unit," Opt. Express 14, 587-592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takada, N.

T. Shimobaba, T. Ito, N. Masuda, Y. Abe, Y. Ichihashi, H. Nakayama, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, and T. Sugie, "Numerical calculation library for diffraction integrals using the graphic processing unit: the GPU-based wave optics library," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 075308 (2008), http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1464-4258/10/7/075308/.
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

Wakabayashi, H.

Watson, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

T. Shimobaba, T. Ito, N. Masuda, Y. Abe, Y. Ichihashi, H. Nakayama, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, and T. Sugie, "Numerical calculation library for diffraction integrals using the graphic processing unit: the GPU-based wave optics library," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 075308 (2008), http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1464-4258/10/7/075308/.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Other (7)

NVIDIA, "NVIDIA CUDA Compute Unified Device Architecture Programming Guide Version 1.1," NVIDIA (2007).

NVIDIA, "CUDA FFT Library Version 1.1 Reference Documenta-tion," NVIDIA (2007).

The GWO library, http://sourceforge.net/projects/thegwolibrary/.

Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thread (computer science).

FFTW Home Page, http://www.fftw.org/.

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography - Digital Hologram Recording, Numerical Reconstruction, and Related Techniques (Springer 2005).

O. K. Ersoy, Diffraction, Fourier Optics And Imaging (Wiley-Interscience 2006).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (362 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1034 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Outline of the real-time DHM system using the GPU

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Parallel processing of the host computer and the GPU using the multiple-threading technique

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(362KB) Reconstruction image by CPU only. [Media 1]

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(1034KB) Reconstruction image by the GPU [Media 2]

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Reconstruction rate between the case of CPU only and that of the GPU.

Equations (3)

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u ( x , y ) = 1 i λ z exp ( i 2 π λ z ) + a ( ξ , η ) exp ( i π λ z ( ( x ξ ) 2 + ( y η ) 2 ) ) d ξ d η
u ( x , y ) = C + a ( ξ , η ) h ( x ξ , y η ) d ξ d η
= C × a ( x , y ) h ( x , y ) = C × F 1 [ F [ a ( x , y ) ] · F [ h ( x , y ) ] ]

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