Abstract

A reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM) structure based on using a custom-made fiber array and an Opto-VLSI processor is proposed and demonstrated. The fiber array consists of N pairs of angled fibers corresponding to N channels, each of which can independently perform add, drop, and thru functions through a reconfigurable Opto-VLSI beam steerer. Experimental results show that the ROADM structure can attain an average add, drop/thru insertion loss of 5.5 dB and a uniformity of 0.3 dB over a wide bandwidth from 1524 nm to 1576 nm, and a drop/thru crosstalk level as small as −40 dB.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, and S. Elby “Architectural Tradeoffs for Reconfigurable Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 615–626 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Allen, C. Liou, S. Melle, and V. Vusirikala, “Digital optical networks using photonic integrated circuits (PICs) address the challenges of reconfigurable optical networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine 46, 35–43 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Online Connection Provisioning in Metro Optical WDM Networks Using Reconfigurable OADMs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2893–2901 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Muha, B. Chiang, and R. Schleicher, “MEMS Based Channelized ROADM Platform,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2008).
  5. E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, S. Gabriel, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358–2360 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. B. P. Keyworth, “ROADM Subsystems & Technologies,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2005).
  7. R. Ryf, Y. Su, L. Moller, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, D. T. Neilson, and C. R. Giles, “Wavelength Blocking Filter With Flexible Data Rates and Channel Spacing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 54–61 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. Zong, X. Huang, T. Wang, P. Ji, O. Matsuda, and M. Cvijetic, “A Novel Tunable DeMUX/MUX Solution for WSS-Based ROADM and WXC Nodes,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007).
  9. M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, and J. Soole, “Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 313–322 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. Eldada, J. Fujita, A. Radojevic, T. Izuhara, R. Gerhardt, J. Shi, D. Pant, F. Wang, and A. Malek, “40-Channel Ultra-Low-Power Compact PLC-Based ROADM Subsystem,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006).
  11. I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, “Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for optical switches,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801–803 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. Allen, C. Liou, S. Melle, and V. Vusirikala, “Digital optical networks using photonic integrated circuits (PICs) address the challenges of reconfigurable optical networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine 46, 35–43 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

L. Zong, X. Huang, T. Wang, P. Ji, O. Matsuda, and M. Cvijetic, “A Novel Tunable DeMUX/MUX Solution for WSS-Based ROADM and WXC Nodes,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007).

2006 (1)

E. B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, and S. Elby “Architectural Tradeoffs for Reconfigurable Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 615–626 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, and J. Soole, “Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 313–322 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Online Connection Provisioning in Metro Optical WDM Networks Using Reconfigurable OADMs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2893–2901 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, S. Gabriel, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358–2360 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, Y. Su, L. Moller, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, D. T. Neilson, and C. R. Giles, “Wavelength Blocking Filter With Flexible Data Rates and Channel Spacing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 54–61 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, “Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for optical switches,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801–803 (2002).
[Crossref]

Allen, M.

M. Allen, C. Liou, S. Melle, and V. Vusirikala, “Digital optical networks using photonic integrated circuits (PICs) address the challenges of reconfigurable optical networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine 46, 35–43 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baker, N.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, S. Gabriel, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358–2360 (2005).
[Crossref]

Basch, E. B.

E. B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, and S. Elby “Architectural Tradeoffs for Reconfigurable Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 615–626 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cappuzzo, M.

M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, and J. Soole, “Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 313–322 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chen, E.

M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, and J. Soole, “Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 313–322 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chiang, B.

M. Muha, B. Chiang, and R. Schleicher, “MEMS Based Channelized ROADM Platform,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2008).

Crossland, W. A.

I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, “Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for optical switches,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801–803 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cvijetic, M.

L. Zong, X. Huang, T. Wang, P. Ji, O. Matsuda, and M. Cvijetic, “A Novel Tunable DeMUX/MUX Solution for WSS-Based ROADM and WXC Nodes,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007).

Driessen, A.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, S. Gabriel, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358–2360 (2005).
[Crossref]

Earnshaw, M. P.

M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, and J. Soole, “Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 313–322 (2005).
[Crossref]

Egorov, R.

E. B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, and S. Elby “Architectural Tradeoffs for Reconfigurable Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 615–626 (2006).
[Crossref]

Elby, S.

E. B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, and S. Elby “Architectural Tradeoffs for Reconfigurable Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 615–626 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada, J. Fujita, A. Radojevic, T. Izuhara, R. Gerhardt, J. Shi, D. Pant, F. Wang, and A. Malek, “40-Channel Ultra-Low-Power Compact PLC-Based ROADM Subsystem,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006).

Fujita, J.

L. Eldada, J. Fujita, A. Radojevic, T. Izuhara, R. Gerhardt, J. Shi, D. Pant, F. Wang, and A. Malek, “40-Channel Ultra-Low-Power Compact PLC-Based ROADM Subsystem,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006).

Gabriel, S.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, S. Gabriel, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358–2360 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gerhardt, R.

L. Eldada, J. Fujita, A. Radojevic, T. Izuhara, R. Gerhardt, J. Shi, D. Pant, F. Wang, and A. Malek, “40-Channel Ultra-Low-Power Compact PLC-Based ROADM Subsystem,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006).

Geuzebroek, D. H.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, S. Gabriel, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358–2360 (2005).
[Crossref]

Giles, C. R.

Gomez, L.

M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, and J. Soole, “Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 313–322 (2005).
[Crossref]

Griffin, A.

M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, and J. Soole, “Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 313–322 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gringeri, S.

E. B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, and S. Elby “Architectural Tradeoffs for Reconfigurable Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 615–626 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

L. Zong, X. Huang, T. Wang, P. Ji, O. Matsuda, and M. Cvijetic, “A Novel Tunable DeMUX/MUX Solution for WSS-Based ROADM and WXC Nodes,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007).

Izuhara, T.

L. Eldada, J. Fujita, A. Radojevic, T. Izuhara, R. Gerhardt, J. Shi, D. Pant, F. Wang, and A. Malek, “40-Channel Ultra-Low-Power Compact PLC-Based ROADM Subsystem,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006).

Ji, P.

L. Zong, X. Huang, T. Wang, P. Ji, O. Matsuda, and M. Cvijetic, “A Novel Tunable DeMUX/MUX Solution for WSS-Based ROADM and WXC Nodes,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007).

Kelderman, H.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, S. Gabriel, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358–2360 (2005).
[Crossref]

Keyworth, B. P.

B. P. Keyworth, “ROADM Subsystems & Technologies,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2005).

Klein, E. J.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, S. Gabriel, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358–2360 (2005).
[Crossref]

Laskowski, E.

M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, and J. Soole, “Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 313–322 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liou, C.

M. Allen, C. Liou, S. Melle, and V. Vusirikala, “Digital optical networks using photonic integrated circuits (PICs) address the challenges of reconfigurable optical networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine 46, 35–43 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Malek, A.

L. Eldada, J. Fujita, A. Radojevic, T. Izuhara, R. Gerhardt, J. Shi, D. Pant, F. Wang, and A. Malek, “40-Channel Ultra-Low-Power Compact PLC-Based ROADM Subsystem,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006).

Manolis, I. G.

I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, “Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for optical switches,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801–803 (2002).
[Crossref]

Matsuda, O.

L. Zong, X. Huang, T. Wang, P. Ji, O. Matsuda, and M. Cvijetic, “A Novel Tunable DeMUX/MUX Solution for WSS-Based ROADM and WXC Nodes,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007).

Melle, S.

M. Allen, C. Liou, S. Melle, and V. Vusirikala, “Digital optical networks using photonic integrated circuits (PICs) address the challenges of reconfigurable optical networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine 46, 35–43 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moller, L.

Muha, M.

M. Muha, B. Chiang, and R. Schleicher, “MEMS Based Channelized ROADM Platform,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2008).

Mukherjee, B.

Neilson, D. T.

Pant, D.

L. Eldada, J. Fujita, A. Radojevic, T. Izuhara, R. Gerhardt, J. Shi, D. Pant, F. Wang, and A. Malek, “40-Channel Ultra-Low-Power Compact PLC-Based ROADM Subsystem,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006).

Radojevic, A.

L. Eldada, J. Fujita, A. Radojevic, T. Izuhara, R. Gerhardt, J. Shi, D. Pant, F. Wang, and A. Malek, “40-Channel Ultra-Low-Power Compact PLC-Based ROADM Subsystem,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006).

Redmond, M. M.

I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, “Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for optical switches,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801–803 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ryf, R.

Schleicher, R.

M. Muha, B. Chiang, and R. Schleicher, “MEMS Based Channelized ROADM Platform,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2008).

Shi, J.

L. Eldada, J. Fujita, A. Radojevic, T. Izuhara, R. Gerhardt, J. Shi, D. Pant, F. Wang, and A. Malek, “40-Channel Ultra-Low-Power Compact PLC-Based ROADM Subsystem,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006).

Soole, J.

M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, and J. Soole, “Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 313–322 (2005).
[Crossref]

Su, Y.

Vusirikala, V.

M. Allen, C. Liou, S. Melle, and V. Vusirikala, “Digital optical networks using photonic integrated circuits (PICs) address the challenges of reconfigurable optical networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine 46, 35–43 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

L. Eldada, J. Fujita, A. Radojevic, T. Izuhara, R. Gerhardt, J. Shi, D. Pant, F. Wang, and A. Malek, “40-Channel Ultra-Low-Power Compact PLC-Based ROADM Subsystem,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006).

Wang, T.

L. Zong, X. Huang, T. Wang, P. Ji, O. Matsuda, and M. Cvijetic, “A Novel Tunable DeMUX/MUX Solution for WSS-Based ROADM and WXC Nodes,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007).

Wilkinson, T. D.

I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, “Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for optical switches,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801–803 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wong-Foy, A.

M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, and J. Soole, “Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 313–322 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhu, H.

Zong, L.

L. Zong, X. Huang, T. Wang, P. Ji, O. Matsuda, and M. Cvijetic, “A Novel Tunable DeMUX/MUX Solution for WSS-Based ROADM and WXC Nodes,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007).

IEEE Communications Magazine (1)

M. Allen, C. Liou, S. Melle, and V. Vusirikala, “Digital optical networks using photonic integrated circuits (PICs) address the challenges of reconfigurable optical networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine 46, 35–43 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, and J. Soole, “Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 313–322 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, and S. Elby “Architectural Tradeoffs for Reconfigurable Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 615–626 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, “Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for optical switches,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801–803 (2002).
[Crossref]

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, S. Gabriel, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358–2360 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Proc. OFC/NFOEC (1)

L. Zong, X. Huang, T. Wang, P. Ji, O. Matsuda, and M. Cvijetic, “A Novel Tunable DeMUX/MUX Solution for WSS-Based ROADM and WXC Nodes,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007).

Other (3)

L. Eldada, J. Fujita, A. Radojevic, T. Izuhara, R. Gerhardt, J. Shi, D. Pant, F. Wang, and A. Malek, “40-Channel Ultra-Low-Power Compact PLC-Based ROADM Subsystem,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006).

M. Muha, B. Chiang, and R. Schleicher, “MEMS Based Channelized ROADM Platform,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2008).

B. P. Keyworth, “ROADM Subsystems & Technologies,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Opto-VLSI processor structure

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Novel ROADM structure employing AWGs, a custom-made fiber array, and an Opto-VLSI processor for optical beam steering.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup for demonstrating the concept of the ROAD structure shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured transmission versus wavelength for drop operation, and phase hologram used for channel dropping. (b) Transmission and crosstalk versus wavelength for the thru operation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

A ROADM structure with multiple add/drop ports.

Equations (1)

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θ m = arcsin ( d )

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