Abstract

We report on the second harmonic generation of deep UV light in β-BaB2O4 (BBO) waveguides pumped by a frequency-doubled continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser. An output power of 0.32 mW at 266 nm has been achieved for an internal pump power of 670 mW. Optical channel waveguides in BBO crystals were produced by He+ ion implantation, lithographic masking and ion etching. The linear and nonlinear optical properties and the power handling capability of these waveguides are presented.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, "Optical, mechanical and thermal properties of barium borate," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968-83 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. N. Nikogosyan, "Beta barium borate (BBO)," Appl. Phys. A 52, 359-363 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Degl??Innocenti, A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, and P. G¨unter, "Second Harmonic generation of CW UV light and production of ® -BaB2O4 optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041103 (2006).
  4. R. Degl??Innocenti, A. Majkic, P. Vorburger, G. Poberaj, M. Doebeli, and P. G¨unter, "Ultraviolet electro-optic amplitude modulation in ® -BaB2O4 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051105 (2007).
  5. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Chen, X. Wang, and K. Wang, "Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review," Opt. Mat. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, "Helium ion-implanted planar waveguide in Y-cut and Z-cut ® -BBO (BaB2O4)," Opt. Mat. 14, 31 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, "Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, ® -BBO. and LBO) for frequency conversion," Opt. Mat. 18, 73-76 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Wang, F. Chen, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, and R. Nie, "Planar optical waveguides in ® -BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Wang, F. Chen, F. Lu, G. Fu, S. Li, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, H. Ma, and R. Nie, "Refractive index profiles of planar optical waveguides in ® -BBO produced by silicon ion implantation," Opt. Mat. 27, 459 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. K¨upfer, and P. G¨unter, "Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ionimplanted KNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748-75 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and V. Vivien," Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate planar waveguides," Opt. Lett. 24, 1299-1302 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Vincent, A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and V. Vivien, "Channel waveguides in Ca4GdO(BO3)3 fabricated by He+ implantation for blue-light generation," Opt. Lett. 28, 1025- 1027 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Ulrich and R. Torge,"Measurement of Thin Film Parameters with a Prism Coupler," Appl. Opt. 12, 2901-2908 (1973)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. J. Chandler and F. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Optica acta 32, 127-143 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. M. Davis, L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, "Planar and channel waveguide fabrication in LiB3O5 using MeV He+ ion implantation," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2863-2867 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, "A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum. Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 141, 242-246 (1994)
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. L. Bortz, L. A. Eyres, and M. M. Fejer, ??Depth profiling of the d33 nonlinear coefficient in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2012-14 (1993)
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofd, and H. Hsiung, "Loss of optical nonlinearity in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301-303 (1992)
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. Hsu, C. S. Willand, V. Gopalan, and M. C. Gupta,"Effect of proton exchange on the nonlinear optical properties of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2263-66 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, C. Herzog, and P. G¨unter, "Electro-optic and nonlinear optical properties of ion implanted waveguides in organic crystals," Opt. Express 16, 731-739 (2008)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

R. Degl??Innocenti, A. Majkic, P. Vorburger, G. Poberaj, M. Doebeli, and P. G¨unter, "Ultraviolet electro-optic amplitude modulation in ® -BaB2O4 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051105 (2007).

F. Chen, X. Wang, and K. Wang, "Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review," Opt. Mat. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. Degl??Innocenti, A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, and P. G¨unter, "Second Harmonic generation of CW UV light and production of ® -BaB2O4 optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041103 (2006).

2004 (2)

X. Wang, F. Chen, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, and R. Nie, "Planar optical waveguides in ® -BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, F. Chen, F. Lu, G. Fu, S. Li, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, H. Ma, and R. Nie, "Refractive index profiles of planar optical waveguides in ® -BBO produced by silicon ion implantation," Opt. Mat. 27, 459 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, "Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, ® -BBO. and LBO) for frequency conversion," Opt. Mat. 18, 73-76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, "Helium ion-implanted planar waveguide in Y-cut and Z-cut ® -BBO (BaB2O4)," Opt. Mat. 14, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

G. M. Davis, L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, "Planar and channel waveguide fabrication in LiB3O5 using MeV He+ ion implantation," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2863-2867 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. K¨upfer, and P. G¨unter, "Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ionimplanted KNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748-75 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, "A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum. Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 141, 242-246 (1994)
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. L. Bortz, L. A. Eyres, and M. M. Fejer, ??Depth profiling of the d33 nonlinear coefficient in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2012-14 (1993)
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofd, and H. Hsiung, "Loss of optical nonlinearity in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301-303 (1992)
[CrossRef]

W. Hsu, C. S. Willand, V. Gopalan, and M. C. Gupta,"Effect of proton exchange on the nonlinear optical properties of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2263-66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. N. Nikogosyan, "Beta barium borate (BBO)," Appl. Phys. A 52, 359-363 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, "Optical, mechanical and thermal properties of barium borate," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968-83 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. J. Chandler and F. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Optica acta 32, 127-143 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Aka, G.

Bakhouya, C.

C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, "Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, ® -BBO. and LBO) for frequency conversion," Opt. Mat. 18, 73-76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bortz, M. L.

M. L. Bortz, L. A. Eyres, and M. M. Fejer, ??Depth profiling of the d33 nonlinear coefficient in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2012-14 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Boudrioua, A.

B. Vincent, A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and V. Vivien, "Channel waveguides in Ca4GdO(BO3)3 fabricated by He+ implantation for blue-light generation," Opt. Lett. 28, 1025- 1027 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, "Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, ® -BBO. and LBO) for frequency conversion," Opt. Mat. 18, 73-76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, "Helium ion-implanted planar waveguide in Y-cut and Z-cut ® -BBO (BaB2O4)," Opt. Mat. 14, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and V. Vivien," Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate planar waveguides," Opt. Lett. 24, 1299-1302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, P. J.

G. M. Davis, L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, "Planar and channel waveguide fabrication in LiB3O5 using MeV He+ ion implantation," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2863-2867 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Chandler and F. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Optica acta 32, 127-143 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, X. Wang, and K. Wang, "Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review," Opt. Mat. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, F. Chen, F. Lu, G. Fu, S. Li, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, H. Ma, and R. Nie, "Refractive index profiles of planar optical waveguides in ® -BBO produced by silicon ion implantation," Opt. Mat. 27, 459 (2004)
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, F. Chen, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, and R. Nie, "Planar optical waveguides in ® -BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, G. M.

G. M. Davis, L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, "Planar and channel waveguide fabrication in LiB3O5 using MeV He+ ion implantation," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2863-2867 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Davis, L.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, "Optical, mechanical and thermal properties of barium borate," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968-83 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eimerl, D.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, "Optical, mechanical and thermal properties of barium borate," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968-83 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eyres, L. A.

M. L. Bortz, L. A. Eyres, and M. M. Fejer, ??Depth profiling of the d33 nonlinear coefficient in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2012-14 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

M. L. Bortz, L. A. Eyres, and M. M. Fejer, ??Depth profiling of the d33 nonlinear coefficient in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2012-14 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Fluck, D.

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. K¨upfer, and P. G¨unter, "Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ionimplanted KNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748-75 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fu, G.

X. Wang, F. Chen, F. Lu, G. Fu, S. Li, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, H. Ma, and R. Nie, "Refractive index profiles of planar optical waveguides in ® -BBO produced by silicon ion implantation," Opt. Mat. 27, 459 (2004)
[CrossRef]

G¨unter, P.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, C. Herzog, and P. G¨unter, "Electro-optic and nonlinear optical properties of ion implanted waveguides in organic crystals," Opt. Express 16, 731-739 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. K¨upfer, and P. G¨unter, "Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ionimplanted KNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748-75 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gopalan, V.

W. Hsu, C. S. Willand, V. Gopalan, and M. C. Gupta,"Effect of proton exchange on the nonlinear optical properties of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2263-66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Graham, E. K.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, "Optical, mechanical and thermal properties of barium borate," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968-83 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M. C.

W. Hsu, C. S. Willand, V. Gopalan, and M. C. Gupta,"Effect of proton exchange on the nonlinear optical properties of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2263-66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Herzog, C.

Hsiung, H.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofd, and H. Hsiung, "Loss of optical nonlinearity in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301-303 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Hsu, W.

W. Hsu, C. S. Willand, V. Gopalan, and M. C. Gupta,"Effect of proton exchange on the nonlinear optical properties of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2263-66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jacquier, B.

Jazbinsek, M.

K¨upfer, M.

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. K¨upfer, and P. G¨unter, "Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ionimplanted KNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748-75 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kremer, R.

C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, "Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, ® -BBO. and LBO) for frequency conversion," Opt. Mat. 18, 73-76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, J. P. R.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, "A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum. Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ladoucer, F.

F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 141, 242-246 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Lama, F.

P. J. Chandler and F. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Optica acta 32, 127-143 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofd, and H. Hsiung, "Loss of optical nonlinearity in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301-303 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

X. Wang, F. Chen, F. Lu, G. Fu, S. Li, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, H. Ma, and R. Nie, "Refractive index profiles of planar optical waveguides in ® -BBO produced by silicon ion implantation," Opt. Mat. 27, 459 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Loulergue, J. C.

B. Vincent, A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and V. Vivien, "Channel waveguides in Ca4GdO(BO3)3 fabricated by He+ implantation for blue-light generation," Opt. Lett. 28, 1025- 1027 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, "Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, ® -BBO. and LBO) for frequency conversion," Opt. Mat. 18, 73-76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, "Helium ion-implanted planar waveguide in Y-cut and Z-cut ® -BBO (BaB2O4)," Opt. Mat. 14, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and V. Vivien," Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate planar waveguides," Opt. Lett. 24, 1299-1302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 141, 242-246 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Lu, F.

X. Wang, F. Chen, F. Lu, G. Fu, S. Li, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, H. Ma, and R. Nie, "Refractive index profiles of planar optical waveguides in ® -BBO produced by silicon ion implantation," Opt. Mat. 27, 459 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q.

X. Wang, F. Chen, F. Lu, G. Fu, S. Li, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, H. Ma, and R. Nie, "Refractive index profiles of planar optical waveguides in ® -BBO produced by silicon ion implantation," Opt. Mat. 27, 459 (2004)
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, F. Chen, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, and R. Nie, "Planar optical waveguides in ® -BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

X. Wang, F. Chen, F. Lu, G. Fu, S. Li, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, H. Ma, and R. Nie, "Refractive index profiles of planar optical waveguides in ® -BBO produced by silicon ion implantation," Opt. Mat. 27, 459 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

B. Vincent, A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and V. Vivien, "Channel waveguides in Ca4GdO(BO3)3 fabricated by He+ implantation for blue-light generation," Opt. Lett. 28, 1025- 1027 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, "Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, ® -BBO. and LBO) for frequency conversion," Opt. Mat. 18, 73-76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, "Helium ion-implanted planar waveguide in Y-cut and Z-cut ® -BBO (BaB2O4)," Opt. Mat. 14, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and V. Vivien," Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate planar waveguides," Opt. Lett. 24, 1299-1302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mutter, L.

Nie, R.

X. Wang, F. Chen, F. Lu, G. Fu, S. Li, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, H. Ma, and R. Nie, "Refractive index profiles of planar optical waveguides in ® -BBO produced by silicon ion implantation," Opt. Mat. 27, 459 (2004)
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, F. Chen, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, and R. Nie, "Planar optical waveguides in ® -BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

D. N. Nikogosyan, "Beta barium borate (BBO)," Appl. Phys. A 52, 359-363 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Payne, F. P.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, "A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum. Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pliska, T.

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. K¨upfer, and P. G¨unter, "Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ionimplanted KNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748-75 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Polgar, K.

C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, "Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, ® -BBO. and LBO) for frequency conversion," Opt. Mat. 18, 73-76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, "Helium ion-implanted planar waveguide in Y-cut and Z-cut ® -BBO (BaB2O4)," Opt. Mat. 14, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roelofd, M. G.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofd, and H. Hsiung, "Loss of optical nonlinearity in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301-303 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Senden, T. J.

F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 141, 242-246 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

X. Wang, F. Chen, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, and R. Nie, "Planar optical waveguides in ® -BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, F. Chen, F. Lu, G. Fu, S. Li, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, H. Ma, and R. Nie, "Refractive index profiles of planar optical waveguides in ® -BBO produced by silicon ion implantation," Opt. Mat. 27, 459 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Tascu, S.

Torge, R.

Townsend, P. D.

G. M. Davis, L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, "Planar and channel waveguide fabrication in LiB3O5 using MeV He+ ion implantation," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2863-2867 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

Velsko, S.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, "Optical, mechanical and thermal properties of barium borate," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968-83 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, B.

Vivien, V.

Wang, K.

F. Chen, X. Wang, and K. Wang, "Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review," Opt. Mat. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, F. Chen, F. Lu, G. Fu, S. Li, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, H. Ma, and R. Nie, "Refractive index profiles of planar optical waveguides in ® -BBO produced by silicon ion implantation," Opt. Mat. 27, 459 (2004)
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, F. Chen, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, and R. Nie, "Planar optical waveguides in ® -BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

F. Chen, X. Wang, and K. Wang, "Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review," Opt. Mat. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, F. Chen, F. Lu, G. Fu, S. Li, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, H. Ma, and R. Nie, "Refractive index profiles of planar optical waveguides in ® -BBO produced by silicon ion implantation," Opt. Mat. 27, 459 (2004)
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, F. Chen, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, and R. Nie, "Planar optical waveguides in ® -BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Willand, C. S.

W. Hsu, C. S. Willand, V. Gopalan, and M. C. Gupta,"Effect of proton exchange on the nonlinear optical properties of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2263-66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zalkin, A.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, "Optical, mechanical and thermal properties of barium borate," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968-83 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

G. M. Davis, L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, "Planar and channel waveguide fabrication in LiB3O5 using MeV He+ ion implantation," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2863-2867 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

D. N. Nikogosyan, "Beta barium borate (BBO)," Appl. Phys. A 52, 359-363 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

R. Degl??Innocenti, A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, and P. G¨unter, "Second Harmonic generation of CW UV light and production of ® -BaB2O4 optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041103 (2006).

R. Degl??Innocenti, A. Majkic, P. Vorburger, G. Poberaj, M. Doebeli, and P. G¨unter, "Ultraviolet electro-optic amplitude modulation in ® -BaB2O4 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051105 (2007).

X. Wang, F. Chen, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, and R. Nie, "Planar optical waveguides in ® -BaB2O4 produced by oxygen ion implantation at low doses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bortz, L. A. Eyres, and M. M. Fejer, ??Depth profiling of the d33 nonlinear coefficient in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2012-14 (1993)
[CrossRef]

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofd, and H. Hsiung, "Loss of optical nonlinearity in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301-303 (1992)
[CrossRef]

W. Hsu, C. S. Willand, V. Gopalan, and M. C. Gupta,"Effect of proton exchange on the nonlinear optical properties of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2263-66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. K¨upfer, and P. G¨unter, "Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ionimplanted KNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748-75 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. M. Davis, L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, "Planar and channel waveguide fabrication in LiB3O5 using MeV He+ ion implantation," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2863-2867 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, "Optical, mechanical and thermal properties of barium borate," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968-83 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mat. (4)

X. Wang, F. Chen, F. Lu, G. Fu, S. Li, K. Wang, Q. Lu, D. Shen, H. Ma, and R. Nie, "Refractive index profiles of planar optical waveguides in ® -BBO produced by silicon ion implantation," Opt. Mat. 27, 459 (2004)
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. Wang, and K. Wang, "Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review," Opt. Mat. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, "Helium ion-implanted planar waveguide in Y-cut and Z-cut ® -BBO (BaB2O4)," Opt. Mat. 14, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Bakhouya, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, "Implanted waveguides in borate crystals (LTB, ® -BBO. and LBO) for frequency conversion," Opt. Mat. 18, 73-76 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum. Electron. (1)

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, "A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum. Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Optica acta (1)

P. J. Chandler and F. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Optica acta 32, 127-143 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Optoelectron. (1)

F. Ladoucer, J. D. Love, and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 141, 242-246 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Typical front view picture of the waveguides produced by lithography and etching, having widths varying from 3 to 5 μm, and a height of 1.7 μm. The guiding region and the implanted barrier are clearly distinguishable.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured transmission losses for TM polarized light at 532 nm in a channel waveguide with a height of 1.3 μm and a width of 5 μm, upon thermal annealing. The error bars originate from the indetermination of the optical elements in the end-fire coupling set-up. The BBO crystal was implanted with an energy of 2.2 MeV and a fluence of 1∙1016 ions/cm2

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Total propagation losses for TE00 mode at 532 nm in a waveguide with a height of 1.3 μm, as a function of the ridge width. The losses increase when the ridge width decreases because of the sidewall scattering.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental arrangement for the measurement of the nonlinear optical coefficient d22 in He+ implanted waveguides

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Reflected second harmonic signal from the wedged He+ implanted BBO crystal. Different regions of the implanted crystal are denoted as: 1-bulk material, 2-barrier region, 3-waveguiding region.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Second harmonic power at 266 nm generated in a BBO waveguide, as a function of the fundamental internal input power at 532 nm. Crystal temperature T = 32.1 °C. The dashed line represents the best curve which approximate the quadratic dependence of the second harmonic power data as a function of the internal fundamental wave power. In the inset is shown the crystal orientation for type I second harmonic generation in BBO waveguides: the propagation direction is along β = 2πNeff /λ where Neff is the effective index of the mode, and a, b, c are the main crystallographic axes.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ k = Δ k pm + ( Δ k T ) pm Δ T + = 0 + 4 π λ pm ( n o ω pm T n e ( θ ) 2 ω pm T ) Δ T +
1 n e ( θ ) = cos 2 ( θ ) n o 2 + sin 2 ( θ ) n e 2
ΔT L = 4 1.392 ( ∂Δk T ) pm

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