Abstract

We demonstrate germanium photodetectors integrated on submicron silicon waveguides fabricated with a low temperature (≤ 400°C) wafer bonding and ion-cut process. The devices shows a low dark current of ∼100 nA, a fiber accessed responsivity of > 0.4 A/W and an estimated quantum efficiency of above 90%.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  5. A. Fang, H.  Park, O.  Cohen, R.  Jones, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express  14, 9203-9210 (2006).
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2007 (6)

2006 (3)

L. Colace, G. Masini A. Altieri, and G. Assanto, "Waveguide photodetectors for the near-infrared in polycrystalline germanium on silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1094-1096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Fang, H.  Park, O.  Cohen, R.  Jones, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express  14, 9203-9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, "Effective dark current suppression with asymmetric MSM photodetectors in group IV semiconductors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1585-1587 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, "Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 1377-1379 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, "Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510-1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M.  Rouvière, M.  Halbwax, J-L.  Cercus, E.  Cassan, L.  Vivien, D.  Pascal, M.  Heitzmann, J-M.  Hartmann, and S.  Laval, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng.  44, 75402-75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, "High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

D. A. B. Miller, "Optical interconnects to silicon," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312-1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Tong, L. Huang, and U. Gosele, "Transfer of semiconductor and oxide films by wafer bonding and layer cutting," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 928-932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Almeida, V. R.

Beals, M.

Berroth, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, "Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510-1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a Silicon-On-Insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Express 15, 9843-9848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Rouvière, M.  Halbwax, J-L.  Cercus, E.  Cassan, L.  Vivien, D.  Pascal, M.  Heitzmann, J-M.  Hartmann, and S.  Laval, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng.  44, 75402-75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cercus, J-L.

M.  Rouvière, M.  Halbwax, J-L.  Cercus, E.  Cassan, L.  Vivien, D.  Pascal, M.  Heitzmann, J-M.  Hartmann, and S.  Laval, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng.  44, 75402-75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chu, J. O.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, "High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chui, C. O.

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, "Effective dark current suppression with asymmetric MSM photodetectors in group IV semiconductors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1585-1587 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Sysak, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 6044-6052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fang, H.  Park, O.  Cohen, R.  Jones, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express  14, 9203-9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, R.

Colace, L.

L. Colace, G. Masini A. Altieri, and G. Assanto, "Waveguide photodetectors for the near-infrared in polycrystalline germanium on silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1094-1096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Damlencourt, J.

Dehlinger, G.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, "High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

A. Fang, H.  Park, O.  Cohen, R.  Jones, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express  14, 9203-9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, A. W.

Fédéli, J.

Giziewicz, W.

Gosele, U.

Q. Tong, L. Huang, and U. Gosele, "Transfer of semiconductor and oxide films by wafer bonding and layer cutting," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 928-932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grill, A.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, "High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halbwax, M.

M.  Rouvière, M.  Halbwax, J-L.  Cercus, E.  Cassan, L.  Vivien, D.  Pascal, M.  Heitzmann, J-M.  Hartmann, and S.  Laval, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng.  44, 75402-75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harke, A.

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, "Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 1377-1379 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J-M.

M.  Rouvière, M.  Halbwax, J-L.  Cercus, E.  Cassan, L.  Vivien, D.  Pascal, M.  Heitzmann, J-M.  Hartmann, and S.  Laval, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng.  44, 75402-75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heitzmann, M.

M.  Rouvière, M.  Halbwax, J-L.  Cercus, E.  Cassan, L.  Vivien, D.  Pascal, M.  Heitzmann, J-M.  Hartmann, and S.  Laval, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng.  44, 75402-75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.

Huang, L.

Q. Tong, L. Huang, and U. Gosele, "Transfer of semiconductor and oxide films by wafer bonding and layer cutting," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 928-932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Sysak, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 6044-6052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fang, H.  Park, O.  Cohen, R.  Jones, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express  14, 9203-9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jutzi, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, "Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510-1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kasper, E.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, "Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510-1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Koester, S. J.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, "High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krause, M.

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, "Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 1377-1379 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a Silicon-On-Insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Express 15, 9843-9848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Rouvière, M.  Halbwax, J-L.  Cercus, E.  Cassan, L.  Vivien, D.  Pascal, M.  Heitzmann, J-M.  Hartmann, and S.  Laval, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng.  44, 75402-75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, D. R.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Mangeney, J.

Marris-Morini, D.

Melhaoui, L.

Michel, J.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, "Optical interconnects to silicon," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312-1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M.

Mueller, J.

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, "Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 1377-1379 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oehme, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, "Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510-1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okyay, A. K.

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, "Effective dark current suppression with asymmetric MSM photodetectors in group IV semiconductors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1585-1587 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, Q. C.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, "High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Paniccia, M.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Sysak, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 6044-6052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fang, H.  Park, O.  Cohen, R.  Jones, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express  14, 9203-9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.

Pascal, D.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a Silicon-On-Insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Express 15, 9843-9848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Rouvière, M.  Halbwax, J-L.  Cercus, E.  Cassan, L.  Vivien, D.  Pascal, M.  Heitzmann, J-M.  Hartmann, and S.  Laval, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng.  44, 75402-75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preston, K.

Raday, O.

Rong, H.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rouvière, M.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a Silicon-On-Insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Express 15, 9843-9848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of (a) the integrated Ge photodetector on a silicon waveguide, and (b) the device cross section. (c) TE mode profiles of the input silicon waveguide and the two modes excited in the photodetector region.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fabrication process flow for our Ge photodetectors. (a-c) Prior processing on the Ge wafer, including SiO2 deposition, hydrogen implantation, and SiO2 removal with HF. The red dotted line indicates implantation depth. (d-f) Prior processing on the SOI wafer, including patterning of Si waveguides, SiO2 deposition, and then SiO2 CMP planarization. (g-i) are wafer bonding, layer splitting, and then Ge CMP. (j-l) include patterning of Ge, SiO2 deposition, via etch and metal deposition.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) SEM top view image of the silicon waveguide without cladding. (b) SEM cross sectional image of the ion-cut Ge layer. (c) SEM top view image of the Ge pad with tapers on top of the silicon waveguide. The relatively low contrast between the silicon and SiO2 trenches is caused by the 40 nm SiO2 cladding layer on top of silicon. The Ge pad still has E-beam resist left. (d) Optical image of the fabricated Ge photodetector before contact pads.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured dark current and photocurrent. (b) Spectrum of the measured fiber-accessed responsivity.

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