Abstract

A continuous-wave beam was wavefront-split by a prism and propagated through separate paths before being coupled into a long, graded-index fiber. Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) was generated in the fiber and the phase of the reflection was compared to that of the pump using lateral shearing interferometers immediately after reflection and also after propagating back through the separate paths. To analyze the phase conjugating properties of SBS in the fiber, one of the paths included a path-length oscillation. It was found that SBS from the long, graded-index fiber did not conjugate the phase of the pump. SBS formed a phase-locked beam immediately after reflection from the fiber, but did not lock the phases of the two beams after recombination as would be expected from a phase conjugate reflection.

©2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. A. Kuzin, M. P. Petrov, and B. E. Davydenko, “Phase conjugation in an optical fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 17, 393–397 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. J. Eichler, J. Kunde, and B. Liu, “Quartz fibre phase conjugators with high fidelity and reflectivity,” Opt. Commun. 139, 327–334 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Heuer, C. Hänisch, and R. Menzel, “Low-power phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 34–36 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. V. Pashinin, V. Sturm, V. Tumorin, and R. Noll, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering of Q-switched laser pulses in large-core optical fibres,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 617–622 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, and M. Nakatsuka, “Optical damage threshold due to stimulated Brillouin scattering reflection with multimode optical fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 42, 2735–2736 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. Lombard, A. Brignon, J. P. Huignard, E. Lallier, and P. Georges, “Beam cleanup in a self-aligned gradient-index Brillouin cavity for high-power multimode fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 31, 158–160 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. R. W. Hellwarth, “Theory of phase conjugation by stimulated scattering in a waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1050 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. M. Massey, J. B. Spring, and T. H. Russell, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation in step-index fiber optics,” Opt. Express, Accepted (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. G. Harrison, V. I. Kovalev, W. Lu, and D. Yu, “SBS self-phase conjugation of CW Nd: YAG laser radiation in an optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 163, 208–211 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  10. V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, “Continuous wave stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers: new results and applications for high power lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5975, 59750L (2006).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Mocofanescu and K. D. Shaw, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugating properties of long multimode optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 266, 307–316 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, “Temporally stable continuous-wave phase conjugation by stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber with cavity feedback,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1375–1377 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. K. C. Brown, T. H. Russell, T. G. Alley, and W. B. Roh, “Passive combination of multiple beams in an optical fiber via stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1047–1049 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. Bruesselbach, “Beam cleanup using stimulated Brillouin scattering in multimode fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 1993), pp. 424–426.
  15. T. H. Russell, B. W. Grime, T. G. Alley, and W. B. Roh, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering beam cleanup and combining in optical fiber,” in Nonlinear Optics and Applications, H. A. Abdeldayem and a. D. O. Frazier, ed. (Research Signpost, Kerala, India, 2007), pp. 179–206.
  16. B. C. Rodgers, T. H. Russell, and W. B. Roh, “Laser beam combining and cleanup by stimulated Brillouin scattering in a multimode optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1124–1126 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  17. T. Russell, W. Roh, and J. Marciante, “Incoherent beam combining using stimulated Brillouin scattering in multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 8, 246–254 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. S. M. Massey, “Continuous wave stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation in optical fiber,” in Solid State and Diode Laser Technology Review, I. McKinnie, ed. (Directed Energy Professional Society, Albuquerque, NM, 2008).
  19. N. G. Basov, I. G. Zubarev, A. B. Mironov, S. I. Mikhailov, and A. Y. Okulov, Sov. Phys. JETP52 (1980).

2008 (1)

S. M. Massey, J. B. Spring, and T. H. Russell, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation in step-index fiber optics,” Opt. Express, Accepted (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, “Continuous wave stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers: new results and applications for high power lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5975, 59750L (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Mocofanescu and K. D. Shaw, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugating properties of long multimode optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 266, 307–316 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Lombard, A. Brignon, J. P. Huignard, E. Lallier, and P. Georges, “Beam cleanup in a self-aligned gradient-index Brillouin cavity for high-power multimode fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 31, 158–160 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, and M. Nakatsuka, “Optical damage threshold due to stimulated Brillouin scattering reflection with multimode optical fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 42, 2735–2736 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Heuer, C. Hänisch, and R. Menzel, “Low-power phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 34–36 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

V. Pashinin, V. Sturm, V. Tumorin, and R. Noll, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering of Q-switched laser pulses in large-core optical fibres,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 617–622 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Russell, W. Roh, and J. Marciante, “Incoherent beam combining using stimulated Brillouin scattering in multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 8, 246–254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

B. C. Rodgers, T. H. Russell, and W. B. Roh, “Laser beam combining and cleanup by stimulated Brillouin scattering in a multimode optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1124–1126 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. G. Harrison, V. I. Kovalev, W. Lu, and D. Yu, “SBS self-phase conjugation of CW Nd: YAG laser radiation in an optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 163, 208–211 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H. J. Eichler, J. Kunde, and B. Liu, “Quartz fibre phase conjugators with high fidelity and reflectivity,” Opt. Commun. 139, 327–334 (1997).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

E. A. Kuzin, M. P. Petrov, and B. E. Davydenko, “Phase conjugation in an optical fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 17, 393–397 (1985).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

Alley, T. G.

K. C. Brown, T. H. Russell, T. G. Alley, and W. B. Roh, “Passive combination of multiple beams in an optical fiber via stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1047–1049 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Russell, B. W. Grime, T. G. Alley, and W. B. Roh, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering beam cleanup and combining in optical fiber,” in Nonlinear Optics and Applications, H. A. Abdeldayem and a. D. O. Frazier, ed. (Research Signpost, Kerala, India, 2007), pp. 179–206.

Basov, N. G.

N. G. Basov, I. G. Zubarev, A. B. Mironov, S. I. Mikhailov, and A. Y. Okulov, Sov. Phys. JETP52 (1980).

Brignon, A.

Brown, K. C.

Bruesselbach, H.

H. Bruesselbach, “Beam cleanup using stimulated Brillouin scattering in multimode fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 1993), pp. 424–426.

Davydenko, B. E.

E. A. Kuzin, M. P. Petrov, and B. E. Davydenko, “Phase conjugation in an optical fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 17, 393–397 (1985).
[Crossref]

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, J. Kunde, and B. Liu, “Quartz fibre phase conjugators with high fidelity and reflectivity,” Opt. Commun. 139, 327–334 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fujita, H.

H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, and M. Nakatsuka, “Optical damage threshold due to stimulated Brillouin scattering reflection with multimode optical fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 42, 2735–2736 (2003).
[Crossref]

Georges, P.

Grime, B. W.

T. H. Russell, B. W. Grime, T. G. Alley, and W. B. Roh, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering beam cleanup and combining in optical fiber,” in Nonlinear Optics and Applications, H. A. Abdeldayem and a. D. O. Frazier, ed. (Research Signpost, Kerala, India, 2007), pp. 179–206.

Hänisch, C.

Harrison, R. G.

V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, “Continuous wave stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers: new results and applications for high power lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5975, 59750L (2006).
[Crossref]

V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, “Temporally stable continuous-wave phase conjugation by stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber with cavity feedback,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1375–1377 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. Harrison, V. I. Kovalev, W. Lu, and D. Yu, “SBS self-phase conjugation of CW Nd: YAG laser radiation in an optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 163, 208–211 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hellwarth, R. W.

Heuer, A.

Huignard, J. P.

Kovalev, V. I.

V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, “Continuous wave stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers: new results and applications for high power lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5975, 59750L (2006).
[Crossref]

V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, “Temporally stable continuous-wave phase conjugation by stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber with cavity feedback,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1375–1377 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. Harrison, V. I. Kovalev, W. Lu, and D. Yu, “SBS self-phase conjugation of CW Nd: YAG laser radiation in an optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 163, 208–211 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kunde, J.

H. J. Eichler, J. Kunde, and B. Liu, “Quartz fibre phase conjugators with high fidelity and reflectivity,” Opt. Commun. 139, 327–334 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kuzin, E. A.

E. A. Kuzin, M. P. Petrov, and B. E. Davydenko, “Phase conjugation in an optical fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 17, 393–397 (1985).
[Crossref]

Lallier, E.

Liu, B.

H. J. Eichler, J. Kunde, and B. Liu, “Quartz fibre phase conjugators with high fidelity and reflectivity,” Opt. Commun. 139, 327–334 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lombard, L.

Lu, W.

R. G. Harrison, V. I. Kovalev, W. Lu, and D. Yu, “SBS self-phase conjugation of CW Nd: YAG laser radiation in an optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 163, 208–211 (1999).
[Crossref]

Marciante, J.

Massey, S. M.

S. M. Massey, J. B. Spring, and T. H. Russell, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation in step-index fiber optics,” Opt. Express, Accepted (2008).
[Crossref]

S. M. Massey, “Continuous wave stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation in optical fiber,” in Solid State and Diode Laser Technology Review, I. McKinnie, ed. (Directed Energy Professional Society, Albuquerque, NM, 2008).

Menzel, R.

Mikhailov, S. I.

N. G. Basov, I. G. Zubarev, A. B. Mironov, S. I. Mikhailov, and A. Y. Okulov, Sov. Phys. JETP52 (1980).

Mironov, A. B.

N. G. Basov, I. G. Zubarev, A. B. Mironov, S. I. Mikhailov, and A. Y. Okulov, Sov. Phys. JETP52 (1980).

Mocofanescu, A.

A. Mocofanescu and K. D. Shaw, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugating properties of long multimode optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 266, 307–316 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakatsuka, M.

H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, and M. Nakatsuka, “Optical damage threshold due to stimulated Brillouin scattering reflection with multimode optical fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 42, 2735–2736 (2003).
[Crossref]

Noll, R.

V. Pashinin, V. Sturm, V. Tumorin, and R. Noll, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering of Q-switched laser pulses in large-core optical fibres,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 617–622 (2001).
[Crossref]

Okulov, A. Y.

N. G. Basov, I. G. Zubarev, A. B. Mironov, S. I. Mikhailov, and A. Y. Okulov, Sov. Phys. JETP52 (1980).

Pashinin, V.

V. Pashinin, V. Sturm, V. Tumorin, and R. Noll, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering of Q-switched laser pulses in large-core optical fibres,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 617–622 (2001).
[Crossref]

Petrov, M. P.

E. A. Kuzin, M. P. Petrov, and B. E. Davydenko, “Phase conjugation in an optical fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 17, 393–397 (1985).
[Crossref]

Rodgers, B. C.

Roh, W.

Roh, W. B.

K. C. Brown, T. H. Russell, T. G. Alley, and W. B. Roh, “Passive combination of multiple beams in an optical fiber via stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1047–1049 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Rodgers, T. H. Russell, and W. B. Roh, “Laser beam combining and cleanup by stimulated Brillouin scattering in a multimode optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1124–1126 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. H. Russell, B. W. Grime, T. G. Alley, and W. B. Roh, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering beam cleanup and combining in optical fiber,” in Nonlinear Optics and Applications, H. A. Abdeldayem and a. D. O. Frazier, ed. (Research Signpost, Kerala, India, 2007), pp. 179–206.

Russell, T.

Russell, T. H.

S. M. Massey, J. B. Spring, and T. H. Russell, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation in step-index fiber optics,” Opt. Express, Accepted (2008).
[Crossref]

K. C. Brown, T. H. Russell, T. G. Alley, and W. B. Roh, “Passive combination of multiple beams in an optical fiber via stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1047–1049 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Rodgers, T. H. Russell, and W. B. Roh, “Laser beam combining and cleanup by stimulated Brillouin scattering in a multimode optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1124–1126 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. H. Russell, B. W. Grime, T. G. Alley, and W. B. Roh, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering beam cleanup and combining in optical fiber,” in Nonlinear Optics and Applications, H. A. Abdeldayem and a. D. O. Frazier, ed. (Research Signpost, Kerala, India, 2007), pp. 179–206.

Shaw, K. D.

A. Mocofanescu and K. D. Shaw, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugating properties of long multimode optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 266, 307–316 (2006).
[Crossref]

Spring, J. B.

S. M. Massey, J. B. Spring, and T. H. Russell, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation in step-index fiber optics,” Opt. Express, Accepted (2008).
[Crossref]

Sturm, V.

V. Pashinin, V. Sturm, V. Tumorin, and R. Noll, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering of Q-switched laser pulses in large-core optical fibres,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 617–622 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tumorin, V.

V. Pashinin, V. Sturm, V. Tumorin, and R. Noll, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering of Q-switched laser pulses in large-core optical fibres,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 617–622 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, H.

H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, and M. Nakatsuka, “Optical damage threshold due to stimulated Brillouin scattering reflection with multimode optical fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 42, 2735–2736 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yu, D.

R. G. Harrison, V. I. Kovalev, W. Lu, and D. Yu, “SBS self-phase conjugation of CW Nd: YAG laser radiation in an optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 163, 208–211 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zubarev, I. G.

N. G. Basov, I. G. Zubarev, A. B. Mironov, S. I. Mikhailov, and A. Y. Okulov, Sov. Phys. JETP52 (1980).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys (1)

H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, and M. Nakatsuka, “Optical damage threshold due to stimulated Brillouin scattering reflection with multimode optical fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 42, 2735–2736 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

H. J. Eichler, J. Kunde, and B. Liu, “Quartz fibre phase conjugators with high fidelity and reflectivity,” Opt. Commun. 139, 327–334 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Mocofanescu and K. D. Shaw, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugating properties of long multimode optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 266, 307–316 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. G. Harrison, V. I. Kovalev, W. Lu, and D. Yu, “SBS self-phase conjugation of CW Nd: YAG laser radiation in an optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 163, 208–211 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Express, (1)

S. M. Massey, J. B. Spring, and T. H. Russell, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation in step-index fiber optics,” Opt. Express, Accepted (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

V. Pashinin, V. Sturm, V. Tumorin, and R. Noll, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering of Q-switched laser pulses in large-core optical fibres,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 617–622 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. A. Kuzin, M. P. Petrov, and B. E. Davydenko, “Phase conjugation in an optical fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 17, 393–397 (1985).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, “Continuous wave stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers: new results and applications for high power lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5975, 59750L (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

S. M. Massey, “Continuous wave stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation in optical fiber,” in Solid State and Diode Laser Technology Review, I. McKinnie, ed. (Directed Energy Professional Society, Albuquerque, NM, 2008).

N. G. Basov, I. G. Zubarev, A. B. Mironov, S. I. Mikhailov, and A. Y. Okulov, Sov. Phys. JETP52 (1980).

H. Bruesselbach, “Beam cleanup using stimulated Brillouin scattering in multimode fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 1993), pp. 424–426.

T. H. Russell, B. W. Grime, T. G. Alley, and W. B. Roh, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering beam cleanup and combining in optical fiber,” in Nonlinear Optics and Applications, H. A. Abdeldayem and a. D. O. Frazier, ed. (Research Signpost, Kerala, India, 2007), pp. 179–206.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Apparatus diagram displaying 2-stage, narrow-linewidth fiber amplifier, phase aberration consisting of two optical paths with variable length adjustment on one path, and a 2.5-km, graded-index optical fiber where SBS was generated. LSI: lateral shearing interferometer, HR: high reflecting mirror, Cam: camera.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Diagram of the beam irradiance cross-section and interference zones created by an LSI. With (a) two semicircular beams tiled together, the LSI forms (b) three interference zones consisting of self-interference zones (1 and 3) and mutual interference in zone 2. With (c) a single beam incident on the LSI, (d) a single interference zone exists.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Shown at Position 1, without interference from the LSI, are (a) the source beam irradiance image and contour plot, (b) the reflection from the HR mirror in front of the fiber, and (c) the SBS reflection.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Sample images of the beam after transmission through the long, graded-index fiber.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. At Position 1, interference images are shown from LSI 1 of (a) the source beam, (b) the beam reflected by the mirror in front of the fiber, and (c) the SBS reflection.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. At Position 1 with the vibration of Prism 3 activated, interference images are shown of (a) the source beam, (b) the beam as reflected from the mirror in front of the fiber, and (c) the SBS reflection.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. At Position 2, without interference from the LSI, are shown (a) the source beam after passing through the two channels, (b) the typical SBS reflection from the fiber including a contour plot, and (c) a second SBS reflection from the fiber which was generated periodically, also including a contour plot.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. At Position 2, with interference from LSI 2, are shown (a) the beam reflected from a mirror in front of the fiber, (b) the typical SBS reflection from the fiber, and (c) a periodically-generated SBS reflection from the fiber.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. At position 2, with interference from LSI 2 and Prism 3 vibration activated, are shown (a) the source beam, (b-c) the source beam with one channel blocked to show self-interference fringes only, and (d) the SBS reflection.

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