Abstract

A femtosecond fiber laser was applied to fabricate broadband directional couplers inside bulk glass for general power splitting application in the 1250 to 1650-nm wavelength telecom spectrum. The broadband response was optimized over the 400-nm bandwidth by tailoring the coupling strength and the waveguide interaction length to balance the differing wavelength dependence of the straight interaction and bent transition regions. High spatial finesse of the femtosecond-laser writing technique enabled close placement (~6 μm) of adjacent waveguides that underpinned the wavelength-flattened broadband response at any coupling ratio in the 0% to 100% range. The spectral responses were well-represented by coupled mode theory, permitting simple design and implementation of broadband couplers for bulk 3D optical circuit integration.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. K. Faerch and M. Svalgaard, "Symmetrical waveguide devices fabricated by direct UV writing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 173-175 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  31. P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ""Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 89, 127-132 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (4)

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Control of directional evanescent coupling in fs laser written waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 1579-1587 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Single-step writing of Bragg grating waveguides in fused silica with an externally modulated femtosecond fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 32, 2559-2561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ""Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 89, 127-132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Symmetric waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate) fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 291-297 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, V. Sharma, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, and Y. Nasu, "Characterization of symmetric [3 x 3] directional couplers fabricated by direct writing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Express 14, 2335-2343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-Band Directional Coupler Written With Femtosecond Fiber Laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, and L. Buhl, "Bending of a planar lightwave circuit 2 ? 2 directional coupler to desensitize it to wavelength, polarization, and fabrication changes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1211-1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kamata, M. Obara, R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, "Optical vibration sensor fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 051106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Kowalevicz, V. Sharma, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Minoshima, "Three-dimensional photonic devices fabricated in glass by use of a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 30, 1060-1062 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Olivero and M. Svalgaard, "Direct UV-written broadband directional planar waveguide couplers," Opt. Express 13, 8390-8399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. K. Kirkendall, and A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 197-216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, K. A. Winick, C. Inc, and M. I. Dexter, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

J. D. Love and V. V. Steblina, "Highly broadband buried channel couplers," Electron. Lett. 30, 1853-1855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Auger and S. Iraj Najafi, "New method to design directional coupler dual wavelength multi/demultiplexer with bends at both extremities," Opt. Commun. 111, 43-50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, "Wavelength characteristics of (2?2) optical channel-typedirectional couplers with symmetric or nonsymmetric coupling structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 735-746 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, "Design and fabrication of broad-band silica-based optical waveguide couplers with asymmetric structure," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 848-855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio," Electron. Lett. 26, 1326-1327 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. Hereth and G. Schiffner, "Broad-band optical directional couplers and polarization splitters," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 925-930 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, "Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1003-1010 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. B. Mortimore, "Wavelength-flattened fused couplers," Electron. Lett. 21, 742-743 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

C. M. Lawson, P. M. Kopera, T. Y. Hsu, and V. J. Tekippe, "In-line single-mode wavelength division multiplexer/demultiplexer," Electron. Lett. 20, 963-964 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919-933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-Band Directional Coupler Written With Femtosecond Fiber Laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ""Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Auger, P. L.

P. L. Auger and S. Iraj Najafi, "New method to design directional coupler dual wavelength multi/demultiplexer with bends at both extremities," Opt. Commun. 111, 43-50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bado, P.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, K. A. Winick, C. Inc, and M. I. Dexter, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Bovatsek, J.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ""Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bricchi, E.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ""Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, and L. Buhl, "Bending of a planar lightwave circuit 2 ? 2 directional coupler to desensitize it to wavelength, polarization, and fabrication changes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1211-1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 89, 127-132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cappuzzo, M.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, and L. Buhl, "Bending of a planar lightwave circuit 2 ? 2 directional coupler to desensitize it to wavelength, polarization, and fabrication changes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1211-1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cerami, L. R.

M. Kamata, M. Obara, R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, "Optical vibration sensor fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 051106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, E.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, and L. Buhl, "Bending of a planar lightwave circuit 2 ? 2 directional coupler to desensitize it to wavelength, polarization, and fabrication changes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1211-1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-Band Directional Coupler Written With Femtosecond Fiber Laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-J.

Chiodo, N.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

C. K. Kirkendall, and A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 197-216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Della Valle, G.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, M. I.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, K. A. Winick, C. Inc, and M. I. Dexter, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, and L. Buhl, "Bending of a planar lightwave circuit 2 ? 2 directional coupler to desensitize it to wavelength, polarization, and fabrication changes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1211-1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dreisow, F.

Eaton, S. M.

Faerch, K.

K. Faerch and M. Svalgaard, "Symmetrical waveguide devices fabricated by direct UV writing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 173-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Florea, C.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, K. A. Winick, C. Inc, and M. I. Dexter, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gattass, R. R.

M. Kamata, M. Obara, R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, "Optical vibration sensor fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 051106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, L.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, and L. Buhl, "Bending of a planar lightwave circuit 2 ? 2 directional coupler to desensitize it to wavelength, polarization, and fabrication changes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1211-1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, A.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, and L. Buhl, "Bending of a planar lightwave circuit 2 ? 2 directional coupler to desensitize it to wavelength, polarization, and fabrication changes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1211-1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hereth, R.

R. Hereth and G. Schiffner, "Broad-band optical directional couplers and polarization splitters," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 925-930 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ""Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, S.

Hsu, T. Y.

C. M. Lawson, P. M. Kopera, T. Y. Hsu, and V. J. Tekippe, "In-line single-mode wavelength division multiplexer/demultiplexer," Electron. Lett. 20, 963-964 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Inc, C.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, K. A. Winick, C. Inc, and M. I. Dexter, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E.

Ippen, E. P.

Iraj Najafi, S.

P. L. Auger and S. Iraj Najafi, "New method to design directional coupler dual wavelength multi/demultiplexer with bends at both extremities," Opt. Commun. 111, 43-50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Iyer, R.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-Band Directional Coupler Written With Femtosecond Fiber Laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Januar, I.

Jinguji, K.

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, "Wavelength characteristics of (2?2) optical channel-typedirectional couplers with symmetric or nonsymmetric coupling structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 735-746 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, "Design and fabrication of broad-band silica-based optical waveguide couplers with asymmetric structure," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 848-855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio," Electron. Lett. 26, 1326-1327 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, "Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1003-1010 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kamata, M.

M. Kamata, M. Obara, R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, "Optical vibration sensor fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 051106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, "Design and fabrication of broad-band silica-based optical waveguide couplers with asymmetric structure," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 848-855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, "Wavelength characteristics of (2?2) optical channel-typedirectional couplers with symmetric or nonsymmetric coupling structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 735-746 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio," Electron. Lett. 26, 1326-1327 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, "Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1003-1010 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ""Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Killi, A.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kirkendall, C. K.

C. K. Kirkendall, and A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 197-216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kopera, P. M.

C. M. Lawson, P. M. Kopera, T. Y. Hsu, and V. J. Tekippe, "In-line single-mode wavelength division multiplexer/demultiplexer," Electron. Lett. 20, 963-964 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kowalevicz, A.

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Laporta, P.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, C. M.

C. M. Lawson, P. M. Kopera, T. Y. Hsu, and V. J. Tekippe, "In-line single-mode wavelength division multiplexer/demultiplexer," Electron. Lett. 20, 963-964 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love and V. V. Steblina, "Highly broadband buried channel couplers," Electron. Lett. 30, 1853-1855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maynard, R.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, K. A. Winick, C. Inc, and M. I. Dexter, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

M. Kamata, M. Obara, R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, "Optical vibration sensor fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 051106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mickelson, A. R.

Minoshima, K.

Miura, K.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ""Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mortimore, D. B.

D. B. Mortimore, "Wavelength-flattened fused couplers," Electron. Lett. 21, 742-743 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nasu, Y.

Ng, M. L.

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Control of directional evanescent coupling in fs laser written waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 1579-1587 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 89, 127-132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

M. Kamata, M. Obara, R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, "Optical vibration sensor fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 051106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olivero, M.

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, K. A. Winick, C. Inc, and M. I. Dexter, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schiffner, G.

R. Hereth and G. Schiffner, "Broad-band optical directional couplers and polarization splitters," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 925-930 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, V.

Shimotsuma, Y.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ""Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sikorski, Y.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, K. A. Winick, C. Inc, and M. I. Dexter, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sowa, S.

Steblina, V. V.

J. D. Love and V. V. Steblina, "Highly broadband buried channel couplers," Electron. Lett. 30, 1853-1855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Streltsov, A. M.

Sugimoto, N.

Sugita, A.

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio," Electron. Lett. 26, 1326-1327 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

Svalgaard, M.

M. Olivero and M. Svalgaard, "Direct UV-written broadband directional planar waveguide couplers," Opt. Express 13, 8390-8399 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Faerch and M. Svalgaard, "Symmetrical waveguide devices fabricated by direct UV writing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 173-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Szameit, A.

Takagi, A.

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, "Design and fabrication of broad-band silica-based optical waveguide couplers with asymmetric structure," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 848-855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, "Wavelength characteristics of (2?2) optical channel-typedirectional couplers with symmetric or nonsymmetric coupling structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 735-746 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Takato, N.

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio," Electron. Lett. 26, 1326-1327 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, "Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1003-1010 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, T.

Tekippe, V. J.

C. M. Lawson, P. M. Kopera, T. Y. Hsu, and V. J. Tekippe, "In-line single-mode wavelength division multiplexer/demultiplexer," Electron. Lett. 20, 963-964 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Toba, H.

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, "Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1003-1010 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tuennermann, A.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 89, 127-132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Control of directional evanescent coupling in fs laser written waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 1579-1587 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winick, K. A.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, K. A. Winick, C. Inc, and M. I. Dexter, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wong-Foy, A.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, and L. Buhl, "Bending of a planar lightwave circuit 2 ? 2 directional coupler to desensitize it to wavelength, polarization, and fabrication changes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1211-1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ""Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919-933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Yasu, M.

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, "Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1003-1010 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, L.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-Band Directional Coupler Written With Femtosecond Fiber Laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (2)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 89, 127-132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ""Quill" writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kamata, M. Obara, R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, "Optical vibration sensor fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 051106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (5)

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, K. A. Winick, C. Inc, and M. I. Dexter, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Lawson, P. M. Kopera, T. Y. Hsu, and V. J. Tekippe, "In-line single-mode wavelength division multiplexer/demultiplexer," Electron. Lett. 20, 963-964 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Mortimore, "Wavelength-flattened fused couplers," Electron. Lett. 21, 742-743 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love and V. V. Steblina, "Highly broadband buried channel couplers," Electron. Lett. 30, 1853-1855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio," Electron. Lett. 26, 1326-1327 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919-933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, "Design and fabrication of broad-band silica-based optical waveguide couplers with asymmetric structure," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 848-855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, and L. Buhl, "Bending of a planar lightwave circuit 2 ? 2 directional coupler to desensitize it to wavelength, polarization, and fabrication changes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1211-1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-Band Directional Coupler Written With Femtosecond Fiber Laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Faerch and M. Svalgaard, "Symmetrical waveguide devices fabricated by direct UV writing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 173-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

R. Hereth and G. Schiffner, "Broad-band optical directional couplers and polarization splitters," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 925-930 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, "Wavelength characteristics of (2?2) optical channel-typedirectional couplers with symmetric or nonsymmetric coupling structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 735-746 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, "Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1003-1010 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

C. K. Kirkendall, and A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 197-216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. L. Auger and S. Iraj Najafi, "New method to design directional coupler dual wavelength multi/demultiplexer with bends at both extremities," Opt. Commun. 111, 43-50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (2)

R. Syms and J. Cozens, "Coupled mode devices," in Optical Guided Waves and Devices (McGraw-Hill International Ltd., 1992), pp. 1-31.

F. Ladouceur and J. Love, "Single-mode planar couplers," in Silica-based Buried Channel Waveguides and Devices (Chapman & Hall, 1996), pp. 145-162.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a directional coupler consisting of two waveguide arms written by a femtosecond laser. See text for definitions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Near-field mode profiles, MFD and IL measured at 1550-nm wavelength for waveguides formed at scan speeds of ν = 8, 10, 12, 15 and 20 mm/s. Scale shown applies to all mode profiles.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured coupling ratio versus wavelength for symmetric directional couplers with separation distance d = 6 μm and interaction lengths L = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 mm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The coupling ratio versus interaction length at 1310-nm (black) and 1550-nm (blue) wavelength for symmetric coupling at d = 6-μm separation. The lines are the least-squares-error sinusoidal curve representations of Eq. (3).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Coupling coefficient (solid lines) and extra phase (dashed lines) versus wavelength for symmetric couplers with separation distances of d = 6, 6.5, 7.5 and 10 μm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured coupling ratio versus wavelength for asymmetric directional couplers with separation distance d = 7.5 μm, second arm scan speed of ν2 = 20 mm/s and interaction lengths L = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 mm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The coupling ratio versus interaction length at 1310-nm (black) and 1550-nm (blue) wavelength for asymmetric coupling at d = 7.5-μm separation. The lines are the least-squares-error sinusoidal curve representations of Eq. (3).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Measured values of effective coupling coefficient F(λ) (solid lines) and bending phase ϕ(λ) (dotted lines) together with (b) peak coupling ratio A(λ) for asymmetric directional couplers (ν2 = 20 mm/s) at a waveguide separation distance of d = 7.5 μm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measured and interpolated responses of directional couplers with coupling ratios of r = 0, 10, 20, 35, 50, 60, 70, 90 and 100% based on design parameters in Table 1. Coupling ratio and flatness deviation are shown to the right of each graph.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Broadband directional couplers: design and performance (ν1 = 12 mm/s)

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r ( λ ) P 2 ( λ ) P 1 ( λ ) + P 2 ( λ ) = σ ( λ ) 2 sin 2 ( κ ( λ ) σ ( λ ) L )
σ ( λ ) = 1 1 + ( Δ β ( λ ) 2 κ ( λ ) ) 2 .
r ( λ ) = A ( λ ) sin 2 [ F ( λ ) L + ϕ ( λ ) ] .
F ( λ ) = k 0 ( λ ) 2 2 β 0 ( λ ) A 2 ( n 2 ( x , y , λ ) 2 n ( λ ) 2 ) u 1 ( x , y , λ ) u 2 ( x , y , λ ) dA ,
ϕ ( λ ) = 2 F ( z , λ ) dz .

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