Abstract

We demonstrate a holographic lithography for the fabrication of diverse metamaterial structures by using an optical prism. Cylindrical nanoshells, U-shaped resonator arrays, and double-split ring arrays are obtained experimentally by real time modulating the phase relation of the interference beams. This easy-to-use method may provide a roadway for the design and fabrication of future metamaterials requiring diverse structures for effectively manipulating electromagnetic properties at optical frequencies.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J , Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Physics: negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Fang, H. S. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. B. Pendry, Phys. "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padila, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 -4187(2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, "Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, "Lasing spaser," Nat. Photonics 2, 351-354 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A.V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 434-438 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. P. Wang, C. Tan, Y. Yi, and H. Shan, "Holography for one-step fabrication of three-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals with a single continuous wavelength laser beam," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2155-2161 (2003).
  21. Y. Yang, G. P. Wang, J. Xie, and S. Zhang, "Metal nanoparticles-embedded three-dimensional microstructures created by single-beam holography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 173108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. Wu, Y. C. Zhong, C. T. Chan, K. S. Wong, and G. P. Wang, "Fabrication of large area two- and three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Yang, S. Zhang, and G. P. Wang, "Fabrication of two-dimensional metallodielectric quaiscrystals by single-beam holography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Yang and G. P. Wang, "Realization of periodic and quasiperiodic microstructures with sub-diffraction-limit feature sizes by far-field holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, and R. G. Denning, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, "Lasing spaser," Nat. Photonics 2, 351-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, "Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Physics: negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 434-438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, S. Zhang, and G. P. Wang, "Fabrication of two-dimensional metallodielectric quaiscrystals by single-beam holography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang and G. P. Wang, "Realization of periodic and quasiperiodic microstructures with sub-diffraction-limit feature sizes by far-field holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (8)

Y. Yang, G. P. Wang, J. Xie, and S. Zhang, "Metal nanoparticles-embedded three-dimensional microstructures created by single-beam holography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 173108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Wu, Y. C. Zhong, C. T. Chan, K. S. Wong, and G. P. Wang, "Fabrication of large area two- and three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. S. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A.V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. P. Wang, C. Tan, Y. Yi, and H. Shan, "Holography for one-step fabrication of three-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals with a single continuous wavelength laser beam," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2155-2161 (2003).

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

J. B. Pendry, Phys. "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padila, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 -4187(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, and R. G. Denning, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J , Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 434-438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burger, S.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, and R. G. Denning, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, C. T.

L. Wu, Y. C. Zhong, C. T. Chan, K. S. Wong, and G. P. Wang, "Fabrication of large area two- and three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denning, R. G.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, and R. G. Denning, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolling, G.

Drachev, V. P.

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 434-438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. S. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedotov, V. A.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, "Lasing spaser," Nat. Photonics 2, 351-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, "Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frauenglass, A.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, M. T.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, and R. G. Denning, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J , Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A.V.

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koschny, Th.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H. S.

N. Fang, H. S. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Physics: negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 434-438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minhas, B. K.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padila, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 -4187(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 434-438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padila, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padila, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 -4187(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 434-438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papasimakis, N.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, "Lasing spaser," Nat. Photonics 2, 351-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, "Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J , Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, "Lasing spaser," Nat. Photonics 2, 351-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, "Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J , Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rose, M.

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, "Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schmidt, F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padila, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 -4187(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shan, H.

G. P. Wang, C. Tan, Y. Yi, and H. Shan, "Holography for one-step fabrication of three-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals with a single continuous wavelength laser beam," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2155-2161 (2003).

Sharp, D. N.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, and R. G. Denning, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padila, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 -4187(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Physics: negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J , Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. S. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, C.

G. P. Wang, C. Tan, Y. Yi, and H. Shan, "Holography for one-step fabrication of three-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals with a single continuous wavelength laser beam," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2155-2161 (2003).

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padila, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 -4187(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G. P.

Y. Yang and G. P. Wang, "Realization of periodic and quasiperiodic microstructures with sub-diffraction-limit feature sizes by far-field holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, S. Zhang, and G. P. Wang, "Fabrication of two-dimensional metallodielectric quaiscrystals by single-beam holography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Wu, Y. C. Zhong, C. T. Chan, K. S. Wong, and G. P. Wang, "Fabrication of large area two- and three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. P. Wang, J. Xie, and S. Zhang, "Metal nanoparticles-embedded three-dimensional microstructures created by single-beam holography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 173108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wang, C. Tan, Y. Yi, and H. Shan, "Holography for one-step fabrication of three-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals with a single continuous wavelength laser beam," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2155-2161 (2003).

Wegener, M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Physics: negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, K. S.

L. Wu, Y. C. Zhong, C. T. Chan, K. S. Wong, and G. P. Wang, "Fabrication of large area two- and three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.

L. Wu, Y. C. Zhong, C. T. Chan, K. S. Wong, and G. P. Wang, "Fabrication of large area two- and three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.

Y. Yang, G. P. Wang, J. Xie, and S. Zhang, "Metal nanoparticles-embedded three-dimensional microstructures created by single-beam holography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 173108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, S. Zhang, and G. P. Wang, "Fabrication of two-dimensional metallodielectric quaiscrystals by single-beam holography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang and G. P. Wang, "Realization of periodic and quasiperiodic microstructures with sub-diffraction-limit feature sizes by far-field holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. P. Wang, J. Xie, and S. Zhang, "Metal nanoparticles-embedded three-dimensional microstructures created by single-beam holography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 173108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, Y.

G. P. Wang, C. Tan, Y. Yi, and H. Shan, "Holography for one-step fabrication of three-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals with a single continuous wavelength laser beam," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2155-2161 (2003).

Yuan, H. K.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 434-438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, S. Zhang, and G. P. Wang, "Fabrication of two-dimensional metallodielectric quaiscrystals by single-beam holography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. P. Wang, J. Xie, and S. Zhang, "Metal nanoparticles-embedded three-dimensional microstructures created by single-beam holography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 173108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

N. Fang, H. S. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, "Lasing spaser," Nat. Photonics 2, 351-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, "Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, Y. C.

L. Wu, Y. C. Zhong, C. T. Chan, K. S. Wong, and G. P. Wang, "Fabrication of large area two- and three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zschiedrich, L.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. Yang, G. P. Wang, J. Xie, and S. Zhang, "Metal nanoparticles-embedded three-dimensional microstructures created by single-beam holography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 173108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Wu, Y. C. Zhong, C. T. Chan, K. S. Wong, and G. P. Wang, "Fabrication of large area two- and three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, S. Zhang, and G. P. Wang, "Fabrication of two-dimensional metallodielectric quaiscrystals by single-beam holography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang and G. P. Wang, "Realization of periodic and quasiperiodic microstructures with sub-diffraction-limit feature sizes by far-field holographic lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J , Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

G. P. Wang, C. Tan, Y. Yi, and H. Shan, "Holography for one-step fabrication of three-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals with a single continuous wavelength laser beam," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2155-2161 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, "Lasing spaser," Nat. Photonics 2, 351-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, and R. G. Denning, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padila, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 -4187(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, "Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Lett. (1)

J. B. Pendry, Phys. "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (7)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Physics: negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. S. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure of TCHP (left) and the wavevectors of K 0 -K 6 (right) under the bottom of the TCHP.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated interference pattern under the bottom of TCHP by beams (a) K 1- K 6 and (b) K 1 - K 6 plus the auxiliary K 0 . (c) Conversion of (b) into the positive photoresist films. d is the lattice constant. (d) SEM image of nanoshells with oblique view. Bar, 1μm . Inset: Normal view. Bar, 4μm (e) Magnified view of a portion of (d). Bar, 500nm .

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated interference patterns under the bottom of TCHP by beams (a) K 1 - K 6 and (b) K 1 - K 6 plus the auxiliary K 0 . (c) Conversion of (b) into the positive photoresist films. d is the lattice constant. (d) SEM image of U-shaped arrays with oblique view. Bar, 1μm . Inset: Normal view. Bar, 4μm (e) Magnified view of a portion of (d). Bar, 500nm .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulated interference patterns under the bottom of TCHP by (a) beams K 1 -K 6 and (b) K 1 -K 6 plus the auxiliary K 0 . (c) Conversion of (b) into the positive photoresist films. d is the lattice constant. (d) SEM image of U-shaped arrays with oblique view. Bar, 1μm . Inset: Normal view. Bar, 4μm (e) Magnified view of a portion of (d). Bar, 500nm .

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