Abstract

The nonlinear absorption in nanostructured Ni-Ti alloys, fabricated by electrochemical deposition, was investigated at 532 and 1064 nm. The type of nonlinear absorption (saturable or reverse saturable absorption) was observed to depend on the laser intensity as well as on the nanoparticle size. The nanostructured Ni-Ti alloys comprising particle mean diameters of 20 and 30 nm exhibited large three-photon absorption (3PA coefficient ~ 106 cm3/GW2) and large two-photon absorption (2PA coefficient ~ 105 cm/GW) at 532 nm, respectively. The observed change over from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption at high peak intensities has qualitatively been analyzed by the excited-state theory of conduction electrons.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Hughes, G. Spruce, B. S. Wherrett, K. R. Welford, and A.D. Lloyd, "The saturation limit to picosecond, induced absorption in dyes," Opt. Commun. 100, 113�??117 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Qu, C. Zhao, X. Jiang, G. Fang, Y. Gao, H. Zeng, Y. Song, J. Qiu, C. Zhu, and K. Hirao, "Optical nonlinearities of space selectively precipitated Au nanoparticles inside glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 352�??358 (2003).
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  19. D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, "Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6200�??6205 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2007

N. Venkatram, R. Sathyavathi, and D. Narayana Rao, "Size dependent multiphoton absorption and refraction of CdSe nanoparticles," Opt. Express,  15, 12258�??12263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. P. Costes, J. F. Lame`re, C. Lepetit, P. G. Lacroix, and F. Dahan "Synthesis, Crystal Structures, and Nonlinear Optical (NLO) Properties of New Schiff-Base Nickel (II) Complexes. Toward a New Type of Molecular Switch," Inorg. Chem. 44, 1973�??1982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sugita, K. Yokoi, S. Aoshim, and S. Tasaka, "Electrical and optical properties of organic-titanium hybrid polymer, poly (2,3-dicyanophenyl bis-2,4-pentanedionate titanium alkoxide)," Chem. Phys. Lett. 416, 79�??82 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Z. Tian, W. Huang, D. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Wu, Q. Gong, W. Yang, and J. Yao, "Enhanced and size-tunable third-order nonlinearity of nanoparticles from an azo metal chelate," Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 283-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, H. Du, W. Huang, S. Zhang, and M. Hu, "TiNi-based thin films in MEMS applications: a review" Sensors Actuat. A 112, 395�??408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. West, Y. Wang, and T. Goodson, "Nonlinear Absorption Properties in Novel Gold Nanostructured Topologies," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 3419�??3426 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, V. Ramakrishnan, M. Umadevi, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, "Nonlinear optical absorption in silver nanosol," J. Phys. D 36, 1242�??1245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Qu, C. Zhao, X. Jiang, G. Fang, Y. Gao, H. Zeng, Y. Song, J. Qiu, C. Zhu, and K. Hirao, "Optical nonlinearities of space selectively precipitated Au nanoparticles inside glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 352�??358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

N. D. Fatti and F. Vallee, "Ultrafast optical nonlinear properties of metal nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 73, 383�??390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, "Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6200�??6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. Sutapun, M. Tabib-Azar, and M. A. Huff, "Applications of shape memory alloys in optics" Appl. Opt. 37, 6811�??6815 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehry, G. L. Fischery, and J. E. Sipe, "Nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposite materials," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 505�??512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Hughes, and B. Wherrett, "Multilevel rate-equation analysis to explain the recent observations of limitations to optical limiting dyes," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3546�??3552 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, B. S. Wherrett, K. R. Welford, and A.D. Lloyd, "The saturation limit to picosecond, induced absorption in dyes," Opt. Commun. 100, 113�??117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760�??769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aoshim, S.

A. Sugita, K. Yokoi, S. Aoshim, and S. Tasaka, "Electrical and optical properties of organic-titanium hybrid polymer, poly (2,3-dicyanophenyl bis-2,4-pentanedionate titanium alkoxide)," Chem. Phys. Lett. 416, 79�??82 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baker, L. A.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, "Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6200�??6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, "Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6200�??6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehry, G. L. Fischery, and J. E. Sipe, "Nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposite materials," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 505�??512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. K.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, "Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6200�??6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Costes, J. P.

J. P. Costes, J. F. Lame`re, C. Lepetit, P. G. Lacroix, and F. Dahan "Synthesis, Crystal Structures, and Nonlinear Optical (NLO) Properties of New Schiff-Base Nickel (II) Complexes. Toward a New Type of Molecular Switch," Inorg. Chem. 44, 1973�??1982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crooks, R. M.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, "Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6200�??6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dahan, F.

J. P. Costes, J. F. Lame`re, C. Lepetit, P. G. Lacroix, and F. Dahan "Synthesis, Crystal Structures, and Nonlinear Optical (NLO) Properties of New Schiff-Base Nickel (II) Complexes. Toward a New Type of Molecular Switch," Inorg. Chem. 44, 1973�??1982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, H.

Y. Fu, H. Du, W. Huang, S. Zhang, and M. Hu, "TiNi-based thin films in MEMS applications: a review" Sensors Actuat. A 112, 395�??408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, G.

S. Qu, C. Zhao, X. Jiang, G. Fang, Y. Gao, H. Zeng, Y. Song, J. Qiu, C. Zhu, and K. Hirao, "Optical nonlinearities of space selectively precipitated Au nanoparticles inside glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 352�??358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fatti, N. D.

N. D. Fatti and F. Vallee, "Ultrafast optical nonlinear properties of metal nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 73, 383�??390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fischery, G. L.

R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehry, G. L. Fischery, and J. E. Sipe, "Nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposite materials," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 505�??512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu, H. Du, W. Huang, S. Zhang, and M. Hu, "TiNi-based thin films in MEMS applications: a review" Sensors Actuat. A 112, 395�??408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

S. Qu, C. Zhao, X. Jiang, G. Fang, Y. Gao, H. Zeng, Y. Song, J. Qiu, C. Zhu, and K. Hirao, "Optical nonlinearities of space selectively precipitated Au nanoparticles inside glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 352�??358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gehry, R. J.

R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehry, G. L. Fischery, and J. E. Sipe, "Nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposite materials," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 505�??512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

George, M.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, "Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6200�??6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

Z. Tian, W. Huang, D. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Wu, Q. Gong, W. Yang, and J. Yao, "Enhanced and size-tunable third-order nonlinearity of nanoparticles from an azo metal chelate," Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 283-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goodson, T.

R. West, Y. Wang, and T. Goodson, "Nonlinear Absorption Properties in Novel Gold Nanostructured Topologies," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 3419�??3426 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760�??769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

S. Qu, C. Zhao, X. Jiang, G. Fang, Y. Gao, H. Zeng, Y. Song, J. Qiu, C. Zhu, and K. Hirao, "Optical nonlinearities of space selectively precipitated Au nanoparticles inside glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 352�??358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, M.

Y. Fu, H. Du, W. Huang, S. Zhang, and M. Hu, "TiNi-based thin films in MEMS applications: a review" Sensors Actuat. A 112, 395�??408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

Y. Fu, H. Du, W. Huang, S. Zhang, and M. Hu, "TiNi-based thin films in MEMS applications: a review" Sensors Actuat. A 112, 395�??408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, W. Huang, D. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Wu, Q. Gong, W. Yang, and J. Yao, "Enhanced and size-tunable third-order nonlinearity of nanoparticles from an azo metal chelate," Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 283-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huff, M. A.

B. Sutapun, M. Tabib-Azar, and M. A. Huff, "Applications of shape memory alloys in optics" Appl. Opt. 37, 6811�??6815 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, S.

S. Hughes, and B. Wherrett, "Multilevel rate-equation analysis to explain the recent observations of limitations to optical limiting dyes," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3546�??3552 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, B. S. Wherrett, K. R. Welford, and A.D. Lloyd, "The saturation limit to picosecond, induced absorption in dyes," Opt. Commun. 100, 113�??117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

S. Qu, C. Zhao, X. Jiang, G. Fang, Y. Gao, H. Zeng, Y. Song, J. Qiu, C. Zhu, and K. Hirao, "Optical nonlinearities of space selectively precipitated Au nanoparticles inside glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 352�??358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, P. G.

J. P. Costes, J. F. Lame`re, C. Lepetit, P. G. Lacroix, and F. Dahan "Synthesis, Crystal Structures, and Nonlinear Optical (NLO) Properties of New Schiff-Base Nickel (II) Complexes. Toward a New Type of Molecular Switch," Inorg. Chem. 44, 1973�??1982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lame`re, J. F.

J. P. Costes, J. F. Lame`re, C. Lepetit, P. G. Lacroix, and F. Dahan "Synthesis, Crystal Structures, and Nonlinear Optical (NLO) Properties of New Schiff-Base Nickel (II) Complexes. Toward a New Type of Molecular Switch," Inorg. Chem. 44, 1973�??1982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lepetit, C.

J. P. Costes, J. F. Lame`re, C. Lepetit, P. G. Lacroix, and F. Dahan "Synthesis, Crystal Structures, and Nonlinear Optical (NLO) Properties of New Schiff-Base Nickel (II) Complexes. Toward a New Type of Molecular Switch," Inorg. Chem. 44, 1973�??1982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lloyd, A.D.

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, B. S. Wherrett, K. R. Welford, and A.D. Lloyd, "The saturation limit to picosecond, induced absorption in dyes," Opt. Commun. 100, 113�??117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nampoori, V. P. N.

K. P. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, V. Ramakrishnan, M. Umadevi, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, "Nonlinear optical absorption in silver nanosol," J. Phys. D 36, 1242�??1245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Narayana Rao, D.

N. Venkatram, R. Sathyavathi, and D. Narayana Rao, "Size dependent multiphoton absorption and refraction of CdSe nanoparticles," Opt. Express,  15, 12258�??12263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

S. Qu, C. Zhao, X. Jiang, G. Fang, Y. Gao, H. Zeng, Y. Song, J. Qiu, C. Zhu, and K. Hirao, "Optical nonlinearities of space selectively precipitated Au nanoparticles inside glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 352�??358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qu, S.

S. Qu, C. Zhao, X. Jiang, G. Fang, Y. Gao, H. Zeng, Y. Song, J. Qiu, C. Zhu, and K. Hirao, "Optical nonlinearities of space selectively precipitated Au nanoparticles inside glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 352�??358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramakrishnan, V.

K. P. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, V. Ramakrishnan, M. Umadevi, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, "Nonlinear optical absorption in silver nanosol," J. Phys. D 36, 1242�??1245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760�??769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sathyavathi, R.

N. Venkatram, R. Sathyavathi, and D. Narayana Rao, "Size dependent multiphoton absorption and refraction of CdSe nanoparticles," Opt. Express,  15, 12258�??12263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760�??769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehry, G. L. Fischery, and J. E. Sipe, "Nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposite materials," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 505�??512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. D.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, "Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6200�??6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

S. Qu, C. Zhao, X. Jiang, G. Fang, Y. Gao, H. Zeng, Y. Song, J. Qiu, C. Zhu, and K. Hirao, "Optical nonlinearities of space selectively precipitated Au nanoparticles inside glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 352�??358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spruce, G.

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, B. S. Wherrett, K. R. Welford, and A.D. Lloyd, "The saturation limit to picosecond, induced absorption in dyes," Opt. Commun. 100, 113�??117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sugita, A.

A. Sugita, K. Yokoi, S. Aoshim, and S. Tasaka, "Electrical and optical properties of organic-titanium hybrid polymer, poly (2,3-dicyanophenyl bis-2,4-pentanedionate titanium alkoxide)," Chem. Phys. Lett. 416, 79�??82 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sutapun, B.

B. Sutapun, M. Tabib-Azar, and M. A. Huff, "Applications of shape memory alloys in optics" Appl. Opt. 37, 6811�??6815 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tabib-Azar, M.

B. Sutapun, M. Tabib-Azar, and M. A. Huff, "Applications of shape memory alloys in optics" Appl. Opt. 37, 6811�??6815 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tasaka, S.

A. Sugita, K. Yokoi, S. Aoshim, and S. Tasaka, "Electrical and optical properties of organic-titanium hybrid polymer, poly (2,3-dicyanophenyl bis-2,4-pentanedionate titanium alkoxide)," Chem. Phys. Lett. 416, 79�??82 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z.

Z. Tian, W. Huang, D. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Wu, Q. Gong, W. Yang, and J. Yao, "Enhanced and size-tunable third-order nonlinearity of nanoparticles from an azo metal chelate," Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 283-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Umadevi, M.

K. P. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, V. Ramakrishnan, M. Umadevi, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, "Nonlinear optical absorption in silver nanosol," J. Phys. D 36, 1242�??1245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Unnikrishnan, K. P.

K. P. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, V. Ramakrishnan, M. Umadevi, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, "Nonlinear optical absorption in silver nanosol," J. Phys. D 36, 1242�??1245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vallabhan, C. P. G.

K. P. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, V. Ramakrishnan, M. Umadevi, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, "Nonlinear optical absorption in silver nanosol," J. Phys. D 36, 1242�??1245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, F.

N. D. Fatti and F. Vallee, "Ultrafast optical nonlinear properties of metal nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 73, 383�??390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760�??769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Venkatram, N.

N. Venkatram, R. Sathyavathi, and D. Narayana Rao, "Size dependent multiphoton absorption and refraction of CdSe nanoparticles," Opt. Express,  15, 12258�??12263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Z. Tian, W. Huang, D. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Wu, Q. Gong, W. Yang, and J. Yao, "Enhanced and size-tunable third-order nonlinearity of nanoparticles from an azo metal chelate," Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 283-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

R. West, Y. Wang, and T. Goodson, "Nonlinear Absorption Properties in Novel Gold Nanostructured Topologies," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 3419�??3426 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760�??769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Welford, K. R.

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, B. S. Wherrett, K. R. Welford, and A.D. Lloyd, "The saturation limit to picosecond, induced absorption in dyes," Opt. Commun. 100, 113�??117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

West, R.

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[CrossRef]

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S. Hughes, and B. Wherrett, "Multilevel rate-equation analysis to explain the recent observations of limitations to optical limiting dyes," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3546�??3552 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wherrett, B. S.

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, B. S. Wherrett, K. R. Welford, and A.D. Lloyd, "The saturation limit to picosecond, induced absorption in dyes," Opt. Commun. 100, 113�??117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Z. Tian, W. Huang, D. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Wu, Q. Gong, W. Yang, and J. Yao, "Enhanced and size-tunable third-order nonlinearity of nanoparticles from an azo metal chelate," Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 283-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, D.

Z. Tian, W. Huang, D. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Wu, Q. Gong, W. Yang, and J. Yao, "Enhanced and size-tunable third-order nonlinearity of nanoparticles from an azo metal chelate," Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 283-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

Z. Tian, W. Huang, D. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Wu, Q. Gong, W. Yang, and J. Yao, "Enhanced and size-tunable third-order nonlinearity of nanoparticles from an azo metal chelate," Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 283-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Z. Tian, W. Huang, D. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Wu, Q. Gong, W. Yang, and J. Yao, "Enhanced and size-tunable third-order nonlinearity of nanoparticles from an azo metal chelate," Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 283-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yokoi, K.

A. Sugita, K. Yokoi, S. Aoshim, and S. Tasaka, "Electrical and optical properties of organic-titanium hybrid polymer, poly (2,3-dicyanophenyl bis-2,4-pentanedionate titanium alkoxide)," Chem. Phys. Lett. 416, 79�??82 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, "Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6200�??6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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S. Qu, C. Zhao, X. Jiang, G. Fang, Y. Gao, H. Zeng, Y. Song, J. Qiu, C. Zhu, and K. Hirao, "Optical nonlinearities of space selectively precipitated Au nanoparticles inside glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 352�??358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Fu, H. Du, W. Huang, S. Zhang, and M. Hu, "TiNi-based thin films in MEMS applications: a review" Sensors Actuat. A 112, 395�??408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.

S. Qu, C. Zhao, X. Jiang, G. Fang, Y. Gao, H. Zeng, Y. Song, J. Qiu, C. Zhu, and K. Hirao, "Optical nonlinearities of space selectively precipitated Au nanoparticles inside glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 352�??358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C.

S. Qu, C. Zhao, X. Jiang, G. Fang, Y. Gao, H. Zeng, Y. Song, J. Qiu, C. Zhu, and K. Hirao, "Optical nonlinearities of space selectively precipitated Au nanoparticles inside glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 352�??358 (2003).
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Appl. Opt.

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[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

A. Sugita, K. Yokoi, S. Aoshim, and S. Tasaka, "Electrical and optical properties of organic-titanium hybrid polymer, poly (2,3-dicyanophenyl bis-2,4-pentanedionate titanium alkoxide)," Chem. Phys. Lett. 416, 79�??82 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, W. Huang, D. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Wu, Q. Gong, W. Yang, and J. Yao, "Enhanced and size-tunable third-order nonlinearity of nanoparticles from an azo metal chelate," Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 283-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Qu, C. Zhao, X. Jiang, G. Fang, Y. Gao, H. Zeng, Y. Song, J. Qiu, C. Zhu, and K. Hirao, "Optical nonlinearities of space selectively precipitated Au nanoparticles inside glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 352�??358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760�??769 (1990).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, "Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6200�??6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

R. West, Y. Wang, and T. Goodson, "Nonlinear Absorption Properties in Novel Gold Nanostructured Topologies," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 3419�??3426 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

K. P. Unnikrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, V. Ramakrishnan, M. Umadevi, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, "Nonlinear optical absorption in silver nanosol," J. Phys. D 36, 1242�??1245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, B. S. Wherrett, K. R. Welford, and A.D. Lloyd, "The saturation limit to picosecond, induced absorption in dyes," Opt. Commun. 100, 113�??117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

N. Venkatram, R. Sathyavathi, and D. Narayana Rao, "Size dependent multiphoton absorption and refraction of CdSe nanoparticles," Opt. Express,  15, 12258�??12263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

S. Hughes, and B. Wherrett, "Multilevel rate-equation analysis to explain the recent observations of limitations to optical limiting dyes," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3546�??3552 (1996).
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Sensors Actuat. A

Y. Fu, H. Du, W. Huang, S. Zhang, and M. Hu, "TiNi-based thin films in MEMS applications: a review" Sensors Actuat. A 112, 395�??408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. K. Mahapatra, Hae Min Lee, and C. K. Kim, Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443 749, Korea, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Size-control of nanostructured Ni-Ti alloy by variation of the electrolyte concentration."

R. L. Sutherland with contributions by D. G. McLean and S. Kirkpatrick, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded (New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, 2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Han, D.-J. Chen, S. Ding, H.-J. Zhou, Y.-B. Han, G.-G. Xiong, and Q.-Q. Wang, "Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films," J. Appl. Phys.  99, 023526-1�??023526-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, W. Chen, Y. P. Feng, W. Jia, and J. Linb, "Optical limiting properties of metal nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett.  88, 223106-1�??223106-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM images of NT1 (a), NT2 (b) and NT3 (c). NT1 and NT2 have particles of mean diameter of 20 nm with different film thicknesses. NT1 and NT3 have comparable film thicknesses, but different particle mean diameters of 20 and 35 nm, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Linear absorption spectra for NT1, NT2, and NT3. The surface plasmon resonance absorption peaks are denoted.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Open aperture z-scan curves for NT1 at 532 nm. Saturable absorption occurred at higher intensities than those corresponding to reverse saturable absorption. Solid lines are fit of data to Eqs. (1) and (2). Dotted line indicates theoretical fit of data with Eq. (1) assuming only 2PA.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Open aperture z-scan curves for NT2. Change of RSA to SA was observed with increasing intensity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Open aperture z-scan curves for NT3 at different input intensities. Solid line is a fit of data to Eq. (1) assuming 2PA. Saturable absorption was not observed in NT3 in the same intensity range used for the other two samples.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Single-beam transmission versus incident fluence for NT1. Reverse saturable absorption appeared for lower input fluences and saturable absorption for higher fluences.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Energy-level model used for the rate equation analysis of excited electrons.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Nonlinear absorption curves for NT1 and NT3 at 1064 nm. The data can be fitted well with 2PA process using Eq. (1).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Nonlinear absorption coefficients of NT1, NT2 and NT3 at 532 nm.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T ( z ) = 1 [ 1 + α 2 L eff ( I 0 1 + ( z z 0 ) 2 ) 2 ]
T ( z ) = 1 [ 1 + 2 α 3 L eff ( I 0 1 + ( z z 0 ) 2 ) 2 ] 1 2
N 0 z t t = σ 01 N 0 I z t + N 1 τ 10 ,
N 1 z t t = σ 01 N 0 I z t ( σ 12 I z t + 1 τ 10 ) N 1 + N 2 τ 21 ,
N 2 z t t = σ 12 N 1 I z t ( σ 23 I z t + 1 τ 21 ) N 2 + N 3 τ 32 ,
N 3 z t t = σ 23 N 2 I z t N 3 τ 32 ,
I z = αI = ( σ 01 N 0 + σ 12 N 1 + σ 23 N 2 ) I
α = α 0 ( ( I I s 1 ) K 1 + 1 + K 2 ( I 2 I s 1 I s 2 ) ( I I s 1 ) + 1 + ( I 2 I s 1 I s 2 ) )
( K 2 K 1 I s 1 2 I 2 ) + 2 ( K 2 1 I s 1 ) I + I s 2 I s 1 ( K 1 1 ) = 0
I c = ( K 2 1 ) [ ( K 2 1 ) 2 I s 2 I s 1 ( K 1 1 ) ( K 2 K 1 ) ] 1 2 K 2 K 1 I s 1

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