Abstract

This paper reports an integrated optical buffer consisting of a low loss silicon waveguide delay line and a silicon evanescent gate matrix switch. The integrated device demonstrates an error free operation at 40 Gb/s data rate with a packet delay of 1.1 ns. This demonstration also highlights the silicon evanescent device platform to realize new types of photonic integrated devices by combining the low loss silicon passive components with the silicon evanescent photonic active devices.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Davanco, A. M. Xing, J. Raring, E. L. Hu, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Detailed characterization of slow and dispersive propagation near a mini-stop-band of an InP photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 4931-4938 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Ogashiwa, H. Harai, N. Wada, F. Kubota, and Y. Shinoda, "Multi-stage fiber delay line buffer in photonic packet switch for asynchronously arriving variable-length packets," IEICE Transactions on CommunicationsE 88b, 258-265 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. F. Burmeister, J. P. Mack, H. N. Poulsen, J. Klamkin, L. A. Coldren, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, "SOA Gate Array Recirculating Buffer for Optical Packet Switching," Proc. OFC, OWE4, (2008).
  5. E. F. Burmeister, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, "A comparison of optical buffering technologies," Opt. Switching Networking 6, 10-18 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An Electrically Pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. F. Burmeister and J. E. Bowers, "Integrated gate matrix switch for optical packet buffering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 18, 103-105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Park, Y. -H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 13539-13546 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, "Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122-154 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-optic communication systems, 3rd ed. (New York: Wiley-Interscience, 2002).
  11. J. P. Mack, H. N. Poulsen, and D. J. Blumenthal, "40 Gb/s Autonomous Optical Packet Synchronizer," Proc. OFC, OTuD3, (2008).

2008 (1)

E. F. Burmeister, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, "A comparison of optical buffering technologies," Opt. Switching Networking 6, 10-18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An Electrically Pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, Y. -H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 13539-13546 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

E. F. Burmeister and J. E. Bowers, "Integrated gate matrix switch for optical packet buffering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 18, 103-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Davanco, A. M. Xing, J. Raring, E. L. Hu, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Detailed characterization of slow and dispersive propagation near a mini-stop-band of an InP photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 4931-4938 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ogashiwa, H. Harai, N. Wada, F. Kubota, and Y. Shinoda, "Multi-stage fiber delay line buffer in photonic packet switch for asynchronously arriving variable-length packets," IEICE Transactions on CommunicationsE 88b, 258-265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, "Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122-154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baney, D. M.

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, "Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122-154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

E. F. Burmeister, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, "A comparison of optical buffering technologies," Opt. Switching Networking 6, 10-18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Davanco, A. M. Xing, J. Raring, E. L. Hu, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Detailed characterization of slow and dispersive propagation near a mini-stop-band of an InP photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 4931-4938 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowers, J. E.

E. F. Burmeister, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, "A comparison of optical buffering technologies," Opt. Switching Networking 6, 10-18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, Y. -H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 13539-13546 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An Electrically Pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Burmeister and J. E. Bowers, "Integrated gate matrix switch for optical packet buffering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 18, 103-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burmeister, E. F.

E. F. Burmeister, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, "A comparison of optical buffering technologies," Opt. Switching Networking 6, 10-18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Burmeister and J. E. Bowers, "Integrated gate matrix switch for optical packet buffering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 18, 103-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An Electrically Pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, Y. -H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 13539-13546 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davanco, M.

M. Davanco, A. M. Xing, J. Raring, E. L. Hu, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Detailed characterization of slow and dispersive propagation near a mini-stop-band of an InP photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 4931-4938 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, A. W.

H. Park, Y. -H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 13539-13546 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An Electrically Pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gallion, P.

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, "Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122-154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harai, H.

N. Ogashiwa, H. Harai, N. Wada, F. Kubota, and Y. Shinoda, "Multi-stage fiber delay line buffer in photonic packet switch for asynchronously arriving variable-length packets," IEICE Transactions on CommunicationsE 88b, 258-265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

M. Davanco, A. M. Xing, J. Raring, E. L. Hu, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Detailed characterization of slow and dispersive propagation near a mini-stop-band of an InP photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 4931-4938 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An Electrically Pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, Y. -H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 13539-13546 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubota, F.

N. Ogashiwa, H. Harai, N. Wada, F. Kubota, and Y. Shinoda, "Multi-stage fiber delay line buffer in photonic packet switch for asynchronously arriving variable-length packets," IEICE Transactions on CommunicationsE 88b, 258-265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y. -H.

H. Park, Y. -H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 13539-13546 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogashiwa, N.

N. Ogashiwa, H. Harai, N. Wada, F. Kubota, and Y. Shinoda, "Multi-stage fiber delay line buffer in photonic packet switch for asynchronously arriving variable-length packets," IEICE Transactions on CommunicationsE 88b, 258-265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

H. Park, Y. -H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 13539-13546 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An Electrically Pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An Electrically Pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, Y. -H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 13539-13546 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raring, J.

M. Davanco, A. M. Xing, J. Raring, E. L. Hu, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Detailed characterization of slow and dispersive propagation near a mini-stop-band of an InP photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 4931-4938 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekaric, L.

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shinoda, Y.

N. Ogashiwa, H. Harai, N. Wada, F. Kubota, and Y. Shinoda, "Multi-stage fiber delay line buffer in photonic packet switch for asynchronously arriving variable-length packets," IEICE Transactions on CommunicationsE 88b, 258-265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, "Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122-154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y.

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wada, N.

N. Ogashiwa, H. Harai, N. Wada, F. Kubota, and Y. Shinoda, "Multi-stage fiber delay line buffer in photonic packet switch for asynchronously arriving variable-length packets," IEICE Transactions on CommunicationsE 88b, 258-265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F. N.

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xing, A. M.

M. Davanco, A. M. Xing, J. Raring, E. L. Hu, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Detailed characterization of slow and dispersive propagation near a mini-stop-band of an InP photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 4931-4938 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E (1)

N. Ogashiwa, H. Harai, N. Wada, F. Kubota, and Y. Shinoda, "Multi-stage fiber delay line buffer in photonic packet switch for asynchronously arriving variable-length packets," IEICE Transactions on CommunicationsE 88b, 258-265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett (1)

E. F. Burmeister and J. E. Bowers, "Integrated gate matrix switch for optical packet buffering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 18, 103-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An Electrically Pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (1)

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

M. Davanco, A. M. Xing, J. Raring, E. L. Hu, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Detailed characterization of slow and dispersive propagation near a mini-stop-band of an InP photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 4931-4938 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Park, Y. -H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 13539-13546 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, "Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122-154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Switching Networking (1)

E. F. Burmeister, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, "A comparison of optical buffering technologies," Opt. Switching Networking 6, 10-18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-optic communication systems, 3rd ed. (New York: Wiley-Interscience, 2002).

J. P. Mack, H. N. Poulsen, and D. J. Blumenthal, "40 Gb/s Autonomous Optical Packet Synchronizer," Proc. OFC, OTuD3, (2008).

E. F. Burmeister, J. P. Mack, H. N. Poulsen, J. Klamkin, L. A. Coldren, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, "SOA Gate Array Recirculating Buffer for Optical Packet Switching," Proc. OFC, OWE4, (2008).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Device layout (a) integrated buffer (b) gate matrix switch. The cross-over operation is illustrated as an example.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Device process flow.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). SEM image of 8 integrated silicon evanescent amplifiers (b) Microscope image of the 4 integrated buffers mounted on an AlN carrier.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured chip gain of the amplifiers.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic diagram of the testing setup.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Data packet without recirculation (through switch state) (b) Delayed data packet after one recirculation (cross-over switch state).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a). Measured BER as a function of the received power with different input powers to the device. (b). Power penalty at a BER of 10−9.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Device model using a cascaded link of the passive elements and the amplifiers.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Calculated power penalty as a function of a number of recirculation with a different loss of the delay line and gain of the input amplifier.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table. 1. Device Definitions of the parameters used in the device model.

Equations (4)

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F N = 0 net = F IN + F OUT G IN , for 0 recirculation .
F N 1 net = F IN + F LOOP G IN k = 1 N 1 G LOOP k 1 + F OUT G LOOP N , for N recirculations .
F N 1 net = F IN + F LOOP G IN N + F OUT G IN , for G LOOP = 1 .
P rec = hv F N net Δf ( Q 2 + Q ( Δ v opt Δf ) 1 2 )

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