Abstract

A broadband, Mach-Zehnder-interferometer based silicon optical modulator is demonstrated, with an electrical bandwidth of 26 GHz and VπL of 4 V∙cm. The design of this modulator does not require epitaxial overgrowth and is therefore simpler to fabricate than previous devices with similar performance.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: an Introduction (John Wiley, Chichester, 2004)
  2. L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications," Electron. Lett. 431196-1197 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15, 430-436 (2007).
  4. L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, and D. Hodge, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, "Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure," Opt. Express 16, 334-339 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. C. Twichell and R. Helkey, "Phase-encoded optical sampling for analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 12, 1237-1239 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi?, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, "Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion with Electronic-Photonic Integrated Circuits," Proceedings of SPIE Photonics West, (Invited Paper), San Jose, CA, USA, Jan. 2008.
  9. K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, "Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 18, 2287-2289 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, "Spot-size converter for low-loss coupling between 0.3-μm-square Si wire waveguides and single-mode fibers," EOS 2002. 2002 IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, 1, pp. 289-290.
  11. P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O??Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, "Optically Sampled Analog-to-Digital Converters," IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, "Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure," Opt. Express 16, 334-339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications," Electron. Lett. 431196-1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15, 430-436 (2007).

2006 (1)

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, "Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 18, 2287-2289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, and D. Hodge, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O??Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, "Optically Sampled Analog-to-Digital Converters," IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. C. Twichell and R. Helkey, "Phase-encoded optical sampling for analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 12, 1237-1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Aalto, T.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, "Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 18, 2287-2289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications," Electron. Lett. 431196-1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Betts, G. E.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O??Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, "Optically Sampled Analog-to-Digital Converters," IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, "Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure," Opt. Express 16, 334-339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications," Electron. Lett. 431196-1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications," Electron. Lett. 431196-1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J. M.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, "Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure," Opt. Express 16, 334-339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hargreaves, J. J.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O??Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, "Optically Sampled Analog-to-Digital Converters," IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harjanne, M.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, "Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 18, 2287-2289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helkey, R.

J. C. Twichell and R. Helkey, "Phase-encoded optical sampling for analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 12, 1237-1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hodge, D.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, and D. Hodge, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications," Electron. Lett. 431196-1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Juodawlkis, P. W.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O??Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, "Optically Sampled Analog-to-Digital Converters," IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kapulainen, M.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, "Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 18, 2287-2289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, "Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure," Opt. Express 16, 334-339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications," Electron. Lett. 431196-1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, and D. Hodge, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15, 430-436 (2007).

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications," Electron. Lett. 431196-1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, and D. Hodge, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyan, P.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, "Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure," Opt. Express 16, 334-339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manipatruni, S.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15, 430-436 (2007).

Marris-Morini, D.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, "Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure," Opt. Express 16, 334-339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morse, M.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, and D. Hodge, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications," Electron. Lett. 431196-1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O??Donnell, F. J.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O??Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, "Optically Sampled Analog-to-Digital Converters," IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications," Electron. Lett. 431196-1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ray, K. G.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O??Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, "Optically Sampled Analog-to-Digital Converters," IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications," Electron. Lett. 431196-1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Samara-Rubio, D.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, and D. Hodge, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15, 430-436 (2007).

Shakya, J.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15, 430-436 (2007).

Solehmainen, K.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, "Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 18, 2287-2289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Twichell, J. C.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O??Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, "Optically Sampled Analog-to-Digital Converters," IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Twichell and R. Helkey, "Phase-encoded optical sampling for analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 12, 1237-1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, "Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure," Opt. Express 16, 334-339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wasserman, J. L.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O??Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, "Optically Sampled Analog-to-Digital Converters," IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, R. C.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O??Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, "Optically Sampled Analog-to-Digital Converters," IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15, 430-436 (2007).

Younger, R. D.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O??Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, "Optically Sampled Analog-to-Digital Converters," IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications," Electron. Lett. 431196-1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. (2)

J. C. Twichell and R. Helkey, "Phase-encoded optical sampling for analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 12, 1237-1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, "Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 18, 2287-2289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O??Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, "Optically Sampled Analog-to-Digital Converters," IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, "Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure," Opt. Express 16, 334-339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15, 430-436 (2007).

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, and D. Hodge, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, "Spot-size converter for low-loss coupling between 0.3-μm-square Si wire waveguides and single-mode fibers," EOS 2002. 2002 IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, 1, pp. 289-290.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi?, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, "Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion with Electronic-Photonic Integrated Circuits," Proceedings of SPIE Photonics West, (Invited Paper), San Jose, CA, USA, Jan. 2008.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: an Introduction (John Wiley, Chichester, 2004)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Top-view layout of the dual-output modulator. (b) Schematic view of the crosssection of one of the phase shifters. (All dimensions are in μm).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured and simulated normalized light transmission as a function of applied voltage.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured frequency response of the modulator.

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