Abstract

We report on directional mode switching in semiconductor ring lasers through optical injection co-propagating with the lasing mode. The understanding of this novel feature in ring lasers is based on the particular structure of a two-dimensional asymptotic phase space. Our theoretical results are verified numerically and experimentally.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Sorel, J. P. R. Laybourn, A. Scire, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, "Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1992-1994 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, J. P. R. Laybourn, and S. Donati, "Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: experiment and model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1187-1195 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. J. Liang, S. T. Lau, M. H. Leary, and J. M. Ballantyne, "Unidirectional operation of waveguide diode ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1192-1194 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, "Optical bistability on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2387-2389 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Yuan and S. Yu, "Bistability and switching properties of semiconductor ring lasers with external optical injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 41 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Perez, A. Scire, G. Van der Sande, P. Colet, and C. Mirasso, "Bistability and all-optical switching in semiconductor ring lasers," Opt. Express 15, 12941-12948 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Calabretta, S. Beri, L. Gelens, R. Notzel, E. Bente, J. Danckaert, M. Smit, and H. Dorren, "Experimental investigation of bistable operation of semiconductor ring lasers under optical injection," in "Proc. CLEO/QELS San Jose," (2008).
  9. G. Van der Sande, L. Gelens, P. Tassin, A. Scire, and J. Danckaert, "Two-dimensional phase-space analysis and bifurcation study of the dynamical behavior of a semiconductor ring laser," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 095402 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Zeghlache, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham, L. M. Hoffer, G. L. Lippi, and T. Mello, "Bidirectional ring laser: Stability analysis and time-dependent solutions," Phys. Rev. A 37, 470 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Etrich, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham and H. Zeghlache, "Dynamics of a two-mode semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 811 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. A. Khandokhin, I. V. Koryukin, Ya. I. Khanin, and P. Mandel, "Influence of carrier diffusion on the dynamics of a two-mode laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 647 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. J. C. Spreeuw, R. C. Neelen, N. J. van Druten, E. R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman, "Mode coupling in a He-Ne ring lasers with backscattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 4315 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. M. Hammel, C. K. R. T. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, "Global dynamical behavior of the optical field in a ring cavity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 552 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Kuznetsov, Elements of Applied Bifurcation Theory (Springer, 3rd edition, New York, 2004).
  16. G. H. M. Tartwijk, and D. Lenstra, "Semiconductor lasers with optical injection and feedback," Quantum. Semiclass. Opt. 7, 87 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. Annovazzi-Lodi, A. Scire, M. Sorel and S. Donati, "Dynamic behavior and locking of a semiconductor laser subjected to external injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2350 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped inp-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

G. Yuan and S. Yu, "Bistability and switching properties of semiconductor ring lasers with external optical injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Van der Sande, L. Gelens, P. Tassin, A. Scire, and J. Danckaert, "Two-dimensional phase-space analysis and bifurcation study of the dynamical behavior of a semiconductor ring laser," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 095402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. Perez, A. Scire, G. Van der Sande, P. Colet, and C. Mirasso, "Bistability and all-optical switching in semiconductor ring lasers," Opt. Express 15, 12941-12948 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped inp-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, "Optical bistability on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2387-2389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, J. P. R. Laybourn, and S. Donati, "Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: experiment and model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1187-1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Sorel, J. P. R. Laybourn, A. Scire, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, "Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1992-1994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, A. Scire, M. Sorel and S. Donati, "Dynamic behavior and locking of a semiconductor laser subjected to external injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. J. Liang, S. T. Lau, M. H. Leary, and J. M. Ballantyne, "Unidirectional operation of waveguide diode ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1192-1194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

G. H. M. Tartwijk, and D. Lenstra, "Semiconductor lasers with optical injection and feedback," Quantum. Semiclass. Opt. 7, 87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Khandokhin, I. V. Koryukin, Ya. I. Khanin, and P. Mandel, "Influence of carrier diffusion on the dynamics of a two-mode laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 647 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. Etrich, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham and H. Zeghlache, "Dynamics of a two-mode semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. J. C. Spreeuw, R. C. Neelen, N. J. van Druten, E. R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman, "Mode coupling in a He-Ne ring lasers with backscattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 4315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

H. Zeghlache, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham, L. M. Hoffer, G. L. Lippi, and T. Mello, "Bidirectional ring laser: Stability analysis and time-dependent solutions," Phys. Rev. A 37, 470 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

S. M. Hammel, C. K. R. T. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, "Global dynamical behavior of the optical field in a ring cavity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 552 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, N. B.

C. Etrich, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham and H. Zeghlache, "Dynamics of a two-mode semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Zeghlache, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham, L. M. Hoffer, G. L. Lippi, and T. Mello, "Bidirectional ring laser: Stability analysis and time-dependent solutions," Phys. Rev. A 37, 470 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, "Optical bistability on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2387-2389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annovazzi-Lodi, V.

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, A. Scire, M. Sorel and S. Donati, "Dynamic behavior and locking of a semiconductor laser subjected to external injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped inp-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballantyne, J. M.

J. J. Liang, S. T. Lau, M. H. Leary, and J. M. Ballantyne, "Unidirectional operation of waveguide diode ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1192-1194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Binsma, H.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campenhout, J. V.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped inp-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cioccio, L. D.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped inp-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

den Besten, J. H.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorren, H. J. S.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eliel, E. R.

R. J. C. Spreeuw, R. C. Neelen, N. J. van Druten, E. R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman, "Mode coupling in a He-Ne ring lasers with backscattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 4315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etrich, C.

C. Etrich, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham and H. Zeghlache, "Dynamics of a two-mode semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped inp-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelens, L.

G. Van der Sande, L. Gelens, P. Tassin, A. Scire, and J. Danckaert, "Two-dimensional phase-space analysis and bifurcation study of the dynamical behavior of a semiconductor ring laser," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 095402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giuliani, G.

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, J. P. R. Laybourn, and S. Donati, "Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: experiment and model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1187-1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hammel, S. M.

S. M. Hammel, C. K. R. T. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, "Global dynamical behavior of the optical field in a ring cavity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 552 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffer, L. M.

H. Zeghlache, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham, L. M. Hoffer, G. L. Lippi, and T. Mello, "Bidirectional ring laser: Stability analysis and time-dependent solutions," Phys. Rev. A 37, 470 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, C. K. R. T.

S. M. Hammel, C. K. R. T. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, "Global dynamical behavior of the optical field in a ring cavity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 552 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Khandokhin, P. A.

P. A. Khandokhin, I. V. Koryukin, Ya. I. Khanin, and P. Mandel, "Influence of carrier diffusion on the dynamics of a two-mode laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 647 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Khanin, Ya. I.

P. A. Khandokhin, I. V. Koryukin, Ya. I. Khanin, and P. Mandel, "Influence of carrier diffusion on the dynamics of a two-mode laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 647 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G. D.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koryukin, I. V.

P. A. Khandokhin, I. V. Koryukin, Ya. I. Khanin, and P. Mandel, "Influence of carrier diffusion on the dynamics of a two-mode laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 647 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lagahe, C.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped inp-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lau, S. T.

J. J. Liang, S. T. Lau, M. H. Leary, and J. M. Ballantyne, "Unidirectional operation of waveguide diode ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1192-1194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laybourn, J. P. R.

M. Sorel, J. P. R. Laybourn, A. Scire, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, "Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1992-1994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leary, M. H.

J. J. Liang, S. T. Lau, M. H. Leary, and J. M. Ballantyne, "Unidirectional operation of waveguide diode ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1192-1194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leijtens, X. J. M.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenstra, D.

G. H. M. Tartwijk, and D. Lenstra, "Semiconductor lasers with optical injection and feedback," Quantum. Semiclass. Opt. 7, 87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J. J.

J. J. Liang, S. T. Lau, M. H. Leary, and J. M. Ballantyne, "Unidirectional operation of waveguide diode ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1192-1194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lippi, G. L.

H. Zeghlache, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham, L. M. Hoffer, G. L. Lippi, and T. Mello, "Bidirectional ring laser: Stability analysis and time-dependent solutions," Phys. Rev. A 37, 470 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, "Optical bistability on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2387-2389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandel, P.

P. A. Khandokhin, I. V. Koryukin, Ya. I. Khanin, and P. Mandel, "Influence of carrier diffusion on the dynamics of a two-mode laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 647 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Etrich, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham and H. Zeghlache, "Dynamics of a two-mode semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Zeghlache, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham, L. M. Hoffer, G. L. Lippi, and T. Mello, "Bidirectional ring laser: Stability analysis and time-dependent solutions," Phys. Rev. A 37, 470 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mello, T.

H. Zeghlache, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham, L. M. Hoffer, G. L. Lippi, and T. Mello, "Bidirectional ring laser: Stability analysis and time-dependent solutions," Phys. Rev. A 37, 470 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moloney, J. V.

S. M. Hammel, C. K. R. T. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, "Global dynamical behavior of the optical field in a ring cavity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 552 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Neelen, R. C.

R. J. C. Spreeuw, R. C. Neelen, N. J. van Druten, E. R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman, "Mode coupling in a He-Ne ring lasers with backscattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 4315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oei, Y. S.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regreny, P.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped inp-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romeo, P. R.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped inp-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seassal, C.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped inp-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorel, M.

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, J. P. R. Laybourn, and S. Donati, "Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: experiment and model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1187-1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, J. P. R. Laybourn, A. Scire, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, "Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1992-1994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

R. J. C. Spreeuw, R. C. Neelen, N. J. van Druten, E. R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman, "Mode coupling in a He-Ne ring lasers with backscattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 4315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tartwijk, G. H. M.

G. H. M. Tartwijk, and D. Lenstra, "Semiconductor lasers with optical injection and feedback," Quantum. Semiclass. Opt. 7, 87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tassin, P.

G. Van der Sande, L. Gelens, P. Tassin, A. Scire, and J. Danckaert, "Two-dimensional phase-space analysis and bifurcation study of the dynamical behavior of a semiconductor ring laser," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 095402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped inp-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van der Sande, G.

G. Van der Sande, L. Gelens, P. Tassin, A. Scire, and J. Danckaert, "Two-dimensional phase-space analysis and bifurcation study of the dynamical behavior of a semiconductor ring laser," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 095402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Druten, N. J.

R. J. C. Spreeuw, R. C. Neelen, N. J. van Druten, E. R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman, "Mode coupling in a He-Ne ring lasers with backscattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 4315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verstuyft, S.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped inp-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerdman, J. P.

R. J. C. Spreeuw, R. C. Neelen, N. J. van Druten, E. R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman, "Mode coupling in a He-Ne ring lasers with backscattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 4315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, S.

G. Yuan and S. Yu, "Bistability and switching properties of semiconductor ring lasers with external optical injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, G.

G. Yuan and S. Yu, "Bistability and switching properties of semiconductor ring lasers with external optical injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeghlache, H.

C. Etrich, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham and H. Zeghlache, "Dynamics of a two-mode semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Zeghlache, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham, L. M. Hoffer, G. L. Lippi, and T. Mello, "Bidirectional ring laser: Stability analysis and time-dependent solutions," Phys. Rev. A 37, 470 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. J. Liang, S. T. Lau, M. H. Leary, and J. M. Ballantyne, "Unidirectional operation of waveguide diode ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1192-1194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, J. P. R. Laybourn, and S. Donati, "Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: experiment and model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1187-1195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Yuan and S. Yu, "Bistability and switching properties of semiconductor ring lasers with external optical injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Etrich, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham and H. Zeghlache, "Dynamics of a two-mode semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Khandokhin, I. V. Koryukin, Ya. I. Khanin, and P. Mandel, "Influence of carrier diffusion on the dynamics of a two-mode laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 647 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, A. Scire, M. Sorel and S. Donati, "Dynamic behavior and locking of a semiconductor laser subjected to external injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

S. M. Hammel, C. K. R. T. Jones, and J. V. Moloney, "Global dynamical behavior of the optical field in a ring cavity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 552 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

G. Van der Sande, L. Gelens, P. Tassin, A. Scire, and J. Danckaert, "Two-dimensional phase-space analysis and bifurcation study of the dynamical behavior of a semiconductor ring laser," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 095402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. V. Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped inp-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Perez, A. Scire, G. Van der Sande, P. Colet, and C. Mirasso, "Bistability and all-optical switching in semiconductor ring lasers," Opt. Express 15, 12941-12948 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

M. Sorel, J. P. R. Laybourn, A. Scire, S. Balle, G. Giuliani, R. Miglierina, and S. Donati, "Alternate oscillations in semiconductor ring lasers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1992-1994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, "Optical bistability on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2387-2389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

H. Zeghlache, P. Mandel, N. B. Abraham, L. M. Hoffer, G. L. Lippi, and T. Mello, "Bidirectional ring laser: Stability analysis and time-dependent solutions," Phys. Rev. A 37, 470 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. C. Spreeuw, R. C. Neelen, N. J. van Druten, E. R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman, "Mode coupling in a He-Ne ring lasers with backscattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 4315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum. Semiclass. Opt. (1)

G. H. M. Tartwijk, and D. Lenstra, "Semiconductor lasers with optical injection and feedback," Quantum. Semiclass. Opt. 7, 87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Y. Kuznetsov, Elements of Applied Bifurcation Theory (Springer, 3rd edition, New York, 2004).

N. Calabretta, S. Beri, L. Gelens, R. Notzel, E. Bente, J. Danckaert, M. Smit, and H. Dorren, "Experimental investigation of bistable operation of semiconductor ring lasers under optical injection," in "Proc. CLEO/QELS San Jose," (2008).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Numerical simulations of Eqs. (1)(2). In (a) the different regimes of operation of the optically injected SRL are indicated in the plane (Δ, Ein j ). LS marks the stable locking region in grey, LNS the unstable locking region, and NL the regime without locking. Δ represents the detuning with the injected master laser, and Ein j the amplitude of the injected signal. (b) shows the phase portrait of the system. CW and CCW are the stable states of the system; S is the saddle. The stable manifold of S is indicated with a black solid line. A and B indicate the equilibrium positions of the system when the counter-propagating (A) or co-propagating (B) signal is injected starting from the CW state. The possible locked states from panel (a) by co-propagating injection are again depicted by the grey region. The external field is injected in the co-propagating direction at tin = 200ns and removed at tfin = 400ns. The relaxation trajectories from A-B towards the corresponding equilibrium are marked in grey solid lines. Finally, (c)-(d) depict the time-series for ∣E 12 (grey) and ∣E 22 (black) corresponding to the switches in (b). The injection amplitude and detuning are (Ein j = 3 10−4, Δ = −1.2ns −1) in (c) and (Ein j = 6 10−4, Δ=−4.2ns −1) in (d). μ = 1.704 (J = 0.8), k =0.44ns −1, θk = 1.5, κ =100ns −1, γ = 0.2ns −1, s = 0.005, c = 0.01, α =3.5.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Experimental set-up. TL1, TL2: Tunable lasers; PC: polarisation controllers; CIR: circulators. (b)-(e) demonstrate switches in power as a result of injection from input 1. Output 1 is turned off by a counter-propagating field, while turning on Output 2[(b)-(c)]. Output 1 is turned on by a co-propagating field, while turning off Output 2[(d)-(e)].

Equations (4)

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E ˙ 1,2 = κ ( 1 + ) [ N ( 1 s E 1,2 2 c E 2,1 2 ) 1 ] E 1,2 k e i ϕ k E 2,1 + 1 κ τ in F 1,2 ( t ) ,
N ˙ = γ [ μ N N ( 1 s E 1 2 c E 2 2 ) E 1 2 N ( 1 s E 2 2 c E 1 2 ) E 2 2 ] ,
θ = 2 sin ϕ k sin ψ + 2 cos ϕ k cos ψ sin θ + J sin θ cos θ ,
cos θψ = αJ sin θ cos θ + 2 cos ϕ k sin ψ + 2 sin ϕ k cos ψ sin θ .

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