Abstract

All-optical manipulation of signals carried by lightwaves is attractive because controlling the light directly can be more efficient, allows a multitude of signal formats, and can also prove most cost effective. We implemented a novel scheme for ultrafast optical switching using very small control energy that relies on the use of a saturated fiber-optic parametric amplifier. Approximately 19 aJ (150 photons) of control pulse energy was needed for 50% extinction of the signal which is three to four orders of magnitude smaller than in other all-optical switching demonstrations. This allows the consideration of novel practical approaches to implement all-optical switching devices and all-optical subsystems for telecommunications and other applications.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, New York, 1992).
  2. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, New York, 2001).
  3. R. H. Stolen and J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1062-1072 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 506-520 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Oda, H. Sunnerud, P. A. Andrekson, "High efficiency and high output power fiber-optic parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 32, 1776-1778 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. M. Monro, K. M. Kiang, J. H. Lee, K. Frampton, Z. Yusoff, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, "High nonlinearity extruded single-mode holey optical fibers," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, (Optical Society of America 2002), paper FA1-1-FA1-3.
  7. S. A. Hamilton, B. S. Robinson, T. E. Murphy, S. J. Savage, and E. P. Ippen, "100 Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2086-2100 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, D. J. Gauthier, "All-Optical Switching in Rubidium Vapor," Science 308, 672-674 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. A. Andrekson and M. Westlund, "Nonlinear optical fiber based high resolution all-optical waveform sampling," Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 231-248 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Kylemark, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "Semi-analytic saturation theory of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3471- 3479 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Torounidis, P. A. Andrekson, and B. E. Olsson, "Fiber-optical parametric amplifier with 70-dB gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1194-1196 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Oda, H. Sunnerud, P. A. Andrekson, "High efficiency and high output power fiber-optic parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 32, 1776-1778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Andrekson and M. Westlund, "Nonlinear optical fiber based high resolution all-optical waveform sampling," Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 231-248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

P. Kylemark, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "Semi-analytic saturation theory of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3471- 3479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Torounidis, P. A. Andrekson, and B. E. Olsson, "Fiber-optical parametric amplifier with 70-dB gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1194-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, D. J. Gauthier, "All-Optical Switching in Rubidium Vapor," Science 308, 672-674 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

S. A. Hamilton, B. S. Robinson, T. E. Murphy, S. J. Savage, and E. P. Ippen, "100 Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2086-2100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. H. Stolen and J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1062-1072 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

S. Oda, H. Sunnerud, P. A. Andrekson, "High efficiency and high output power fiber-optic parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 32, 1776-1778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Andrekson and M. Westlund, "Nonlinear optical fiber based high resolution all-optical waveform sampling," Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 231-248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Kylemark, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "Semi-analytic saturation theory of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3471- 3479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Torounidis, P. A. Andrekson, and B. E. Olsson, "Fiber-optical parametric amplifier with 70-dB gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1194-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

R. H. Stolen and J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1062-1072 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Clark, S. M.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, D. J. Gauthier, "All-Optical Switching in Rubidium Vapor," Science 308, 672-674 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawes, A. M. C.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, D. J. Gauthier, "All-Optical Switching in Rubidium Vapor," Science 308, 672-674 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, D. J.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, D. J. Gauthier, "All-Optical Switching in Rubidium Vapor," Science 308, 672-674 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamilton, S. A.

S. A. Hamilton, B. S. Robinson, T. E. Murphy, S. J. Savage, and E. P. Ippen, "100 Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2086-2100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hedekvist, P. O.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Illing, L.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, D. J. Gauthier, "All-Optical Switching in Rubidium Vapor," Science 308, 672-674 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

S. A. Hamilton, B. S. Robinson, T. E. Murphy, S. J. Savage, and E. P. Ippen, "100 Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2086-2100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

P. Kylemark, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "Semi-analytic saturation theory of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3471- 3479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kylemark, P.

P. Kylemark, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "Semi-analytic saturation theory of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3471- 3479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, T. E.

S. A. Hamilton, B. S. Robinson, T. E. Murphy, S. J. Savage, and E. P. Ippen, "100 Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2086-2100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oda, S.

S. Oda, H. Sunnerud, P. A. Andrekson, "High efficiency and high output power fiber-optic parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 32, 1776-1778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olsson, B. E.

T. Torounidis, P. A. Andrekson, and B. E. Olsson, "Fiber-optical parametric amplifier with 70-dB gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1194-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. S.

S. A. Hamilton, B. S. Robinson, T. E. Murphy, S. J. Savage, and E. P. Ippen, "100 Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2086-2100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Savage, S. J.

S. A. Hamilton, B. S. Robinson, T. E. Murphy, S. J. Savage, and E. P. Ippen, "100 Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2086-2100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen and J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1062-1072 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sunnerud, H.

S. Oda, H. Sunnerud, P. A. Andrekson, "High efficiency and high output power fiber-optic parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 32, 1776-1778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kylemark, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "Semi-analytic saturation theory of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3471- 3479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Torounidis, T.

T. Torounidis, P. A. Andrekson, and B. E. Olsson, "Fiber-optical parametric amplifier with 70-dB gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1194-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Westlund, M.

P. A. Andrekson and M. Westlund, "Nonlinear optical fiber based high resolution all-optical waveform sampling," Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 231-248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. H. Stolen and J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1062-1072 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (1)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Torounidis, P. A. Andrekson, and B. E. Olsson, "Fiber-optical parametric amplifier with 70-dB gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1194-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

P. Kylemark, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "Semi-analytic saturation theory of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3471- 3479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hamilton, B. S. Robinson, T. E. Murphy, S. J. Savage, and E. P. Ippen, "100 Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2086-2100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

P. A. Andrekson and M. Westlund, "Nonlinear optical fiber based high resolution all-optical waveform sampling," Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 231-248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

S. Oda, H. Sunnerud, P. A. Andrekson, "High efficiency and high output power fiber-optic parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 32, 1776-1778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, D. J. Gauthier, "All-Optical Switching in Rubidium Vapor," Science 308, 672-674 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

W. R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, New York, 1992).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, New York, 2001).

T. M. Monro, K. M. Kiang, J. H. Lee, K. Frampton, Z. Yusoff, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, "High nonlinearity extruded single-mode holey optical fibers," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, (Optical Society of America 2002), paper FA1-1-FA1-3.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle setup of the optical switch. ECL: external cavity laser, PM: phase modulator, EDFA: Erbium-doped fiber amplifier, OBPF: optical band-pass filter, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig 2.
Fig 2.

Output signal power as a function of input control power, operating in CW mode.

Fig 3.
Fig 3.

ER as a function of input control signal pulse energy. Dashed line is simulated result. Insets show the measured switched pulses at 3 dB and 13 dB ER.

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