Abstract

An intracavity deformable membrane mirror has been successfully used to optimise the brightness of solid-state lasers — a side-pumped Nd3+:YAlO laser where the oscillation of a low-order transverse mode was obtained, and a grazing incidence Nd3+:GdVO4 laser where a brightness increase by an order of magnitude with negligible drop in power was achieved. Several search algorithms were also implemented in the system and compared with respect to intracavity optimisation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Eggleston, T. Kane, K. Kuhn, J. Unternahrer, and R. L. Byer, "The slab geometry laser. I. Theory," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE- 20, 289-301 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 5th edition (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 1999).
  3. D. Burns, G. J. Valentine, W. Lubeigt, E. Bente, and A. I. Ferguson, "Development of high average power picosecond laser systems," Proc. SPIE 4629, 4629-18 (2002).
  4. W. Lubeigt, G. Valentine, J. Girkin, E. Bente, and D. Burns, "Active transverse mode control and optimization of an all-solid-state laser using an intracavity adaptive-optic mirror," Opt. Express 10, 550-555 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  5. R. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics, 2nd edition, (Academic Press, 1998).
  6. Flexible Optical B.V. , PO Box 581, 2600 AN, Delft, the Netherlands, www.okotech.com.
  7. U. Wittrock, Y. Buske, and H. M. Heuck, "Adaptive aberration control in laser amplifiers and laser resonators," Proc. SPIE 4969, 4969-122 (2003).
  8. P. N. Marsh, D. Burns, and J. M. Girkin, "Practical implementation of adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy," Opt. Express 11, 1123-1130 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Welp, Y. Buske, and U. Wittrock, "Intracavity use of adaptive mirrors in Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YAG lasers," presented at the 4th International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine, Muenster, Germany, 19-24th October 2003.
  10. G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 8-3597 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. F. Man, Genetic Algorithms: concepts and designs, (Springer Series, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, "Optimization by simulated annealing," Science 220, 671-680 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. "Empirical comparison of stochastic algorithms" in Proceedings of the Second Nordic Workshop on Genetic Algorithms and their Applications, T. Jarmo, ed., Alander, Finland (1996).
  14. DILAS Diodenlaser GmbH, Galileo Galilei-Strasse 10, D-55129 Mainz-Hechtsheim, Germany, www.dilas.de.
  15. A. Minassian, B. Thompson, and M. J. Damzen, "Ultrahigh-efficiency TEM00 diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 341-343 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 6, 36-44 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1092 (1953).
    [CrossRef]

2005

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 6, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

U. Wittrock, Y. Buske, and H. M. Heuck, "Adaptive aberration control in laser amplifiers and laser resonators," Proc. SPIE 4969, 4969-122 (2003).

P. N. Marsh, D. Burns, and J. M. Girkin, "Practical implementation of adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy," Opt. Express 11, 1123-1130 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Minassian, B. Thompson, and M. J. Damzen, "Ultrahigh-efficiency TEM00 diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 341-343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. Burns, G. J. Valentine, W. Lubeigt, E. Bente, and A. I. Ferguson, "Development of high average power picosecond laser systems," Proc. SPIE 4629, 4629-18 (2002).

W. Lubeigt, G. Valentine, J. Girkin, E. Bente, and D. Burns, "Active transverse mode control and optimization of an all-solid-state laser using an intracavity adaptive-optic mirror," Opt. Express 10, 550-555 (2002).
[PubMed]

1984

J. M. Eggleston, T. Kane, K. Kuhn, J. Unternahrer, and R. L. Byer, "The slab geometry laser. I. Theory," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE- 20, 289-301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, "Optimization by simulated annealing," Science 220, 671-680 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 8-3597 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1953

N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1092 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Bente, E.

D. Burns, G. J. Valentine, W. Lubeigt, E. Bente, and A. I. Ferguson, "Development of high average power picosecond laser systems," Proc. SPIE 4629, 4629-18 (2002).

W. Lubeigt, G. Valentine, J. Girkin, E. Bente, and D. Burns, "Active transverse mode control and optimization of an all-solid-state laser using an intracavity adaptive-optic mirror," Opt. Express 10, 550-555 (2002).
[PubMed]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 8-3597 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Burns, D.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 6, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Marsh, D. Burns, and J. M. Girkin, "Practical implementation of adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy," Opt. Express 11, 1123-1130 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lubeigt, G. Valentine, J. Girkin, E. Bente, and D. Burns, "Active transverse mode control and optimization of an all-solid-state laser using an intracavity adaptive-optic mirror," Opt. Express 10, 550-555 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. Burns, G. J. Valentine, W. Lubeigt, E. Bente, and A. I. Ferguson, "Development of high average power picosecond laser systems," Proc. SPIE 4629, 4629-18 (2002).

Buske, Y.

U. Wittrock, Y. Buske, and H. M. Heuck, "Adaptive aberration control in laser amplifiers and laser resonators," Proc. SPIE 4969, 4969-122 (2003).

Damzen, M. J.

A. Minassian, B. Thompson, and M. J. Damzen, "Ultrahigh-efficiency TEM00 diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 341-343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eggleston, J. M.

J. M. Eggleston, T. Kane, K. Kuhn, J. Unternahrer, and R. L. Byer, "The slab geometry laser. I. Theory," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE- 20, 289-301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, A. I.

D. Burns, G. J. Valentine, W. Lubeigt, E. Bente, and A. I. Ferguson, "Development of high average power picosecond laser systems," Proc. SPIE 4629, 4629-18 (2002).

Gelatt, C. D.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, "Optimization by simulated annealing," Science 220, 671-680 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girkin, J.

W. Lubeigt, G. Valentine, J. Girkin, E. Bente, and D. Burns, "Active transverse mode control and optimization of an all-solid-state laser using an intracavity adaptive-optic mirror," Opt. Express 10, 550-555 (2002).
[PubMed]

Girkin, J. M.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 6, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Marsh, D. Burns, and J. M. Girkin, "Practical implementation of adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy," Opt. Express 11, 1123-1130 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heuck, H. M.

U. Wittrock, Y. Buske, and H. M. Heuck, "Adaptive aberration control in laser amplifiers and laser resonators," Proc. SPIE 4969, 4969-122 (2003).

Kirkpatrick, S.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, "Optimization by simulated annealing," Science 220, 671-680 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 8-3597 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Lubeigt, W.

W. Lubeigt, G. Valentine, J. Girkin, E. Bente, and D. Burns, "Active transverse mode control and optimization of an all-solid-state laser using an intracavity adaptive-optic mirror," Opt. Express 10, 550-555 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. Burns, G. J. Valentine, W. Lubeigt, E. Bente, and A. I. Ferguson, "Development of high average power picosecond laser systems," Proc. SPIE 4629, 4629-18 (2002).

Marsh, P. N.

P. N. Marsh, D. Burns, and J. M. Girkin, "Practical implementation of adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy," Opt. Express 11, 1123-1130 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metropolis, N.

N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1092 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Minassian, A.

A. Minassian, B. Thompson, and M. J. Damzen, "Ultrahigh-efficiency TEM00 diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 341-343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, B. A.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 6, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poland, S. P.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 6, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbluth, A. W.

N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1092 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbluth, M. N.

N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1092 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Teller, A. H.

N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1092 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Teller, E.

N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1092 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B.

A. Minassian, B. Thompson, and M. J. Damzen, "Ultrahigh-efficiency TEM00 diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 341-343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, G.

W. Lubeigt, G. Valentine, J. Girkin, E. Bente, and D. Burns, "Active transverse mode control and optimization of an all-solid-state laser using an intracavity adaptive-optic mirror," Opt. Express 10, 550-555 (2002).
[PubMed]

Valentine, G. J.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 6, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Burns, G. J. Valentine, W. Lubeigt, E. Bente, and A. I. Ferguson, "Development of high average power picosecond laser systems," Proc. SPIE 4629, 4629-18 (2002).

Vecchi, M. P.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, "Optimization by simulated annealing," Science 220, 671-680 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittrock, U.

U. Wittrock, Y. Buske, and H. M. Heuck, "Adaptive aberration control in laser amplifiers and laser resonators," Proc. SPIE 4969, 4969-122 (2003).

Wright, A. J.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 6, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

A. Minassian, B. Thompson, and M. J. Damzen, "Ultrahigh-efficiency TEM00 diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 341-343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE

J. M. Eggleston, T. Kane, K. Kuhn, J. Unternahrer, and R. L. Byer, "The slab geometry laser. I. Theory," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE- 20, 289-301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 8-3597 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1092 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Res. Tech.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 6, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

W. Lubeigt, G. Valentine, J. Girkin, E. Bente, and D. Burns, "Active transverse mode control and optimization of an all-solid-state laser using an intracavity adaptive-optic mirror," Opt. Express 10, 550-555 (2002).
[PubMed]

P. N. Marsh, D. Burns, and J. M. Girkin, "Practical implementation of adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy," Opt. Express 11, 1123-1130 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

D. Burns, G. J. Valentine, W. Lubeigt, E. Bente, and A. I. Ferguson, "Development of high average power picosecond laser systems," Proc. SPIE 4629, 4629-18 (2002).

U. Wittrock, Y. Buske, and H. M. Heuck, "Adaptive aberration control in laser amplifiers and laser resonators," Proc. SPIE 4969, 4969-122 (2003).

Science

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, "Optimization by simulated annealing," Science 220, 671-680 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

"Empirical comparison of stochastic algorithms" in Proceedings of the Second Nordic Workshop on Genetic Algorithms and their Applications, T. Jarmo, ed., Alander, Finland (1996).

DILAS Diodenlaser GmbH, Galileo Galilei-Strasse 10, D-55129 Mainz-Hechtsheim, Germany, www.dilas.de.

K. F. Man, Genetic Algorithms: concepts and designs, (Springer Series, 1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Welp, Y. Buske, and U. Wittrock, "Intracavity use of adaptive mirrors in Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YAG lasers," presented at the 4th International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine, Muenster, Germany, 19-24th October 2003.

R. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics, 2nd edition, (Academic Press, 1998).

Flexible Optical B.V. , PO Box 581, 2600 AN, Delft, the Netherlands, www.okotech.com.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 5th edition (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 1999).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Configuration of the grazing-incidence Nd:GdVO4 laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Configuration of the Michelson interferometer featuring the deformable mirror.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Interferometer patterns recorded at 115W/cm2 with all actuators set to 0V (a) with laser off and (b) with laser on; with all actuators set to 200V (c) with laser off and (d) with laser on.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Interferometer patterns recorded at 1.25kW/cm2 with all actuators set to 0V (a) with laser off and (b) with laser on; with all actuators set to 200V (c) with laser off and (d) with laser on.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Closed-loop feedback network

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of SHG for two fundamental beams with same power and same size of the incident beam to the lens but different M2 and focusing size.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental configuration of the second harmonic generation-based beam quality sensor

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Graphic user interface for automatic optimisation

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Flowchart of the genetic algorithm.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Flowchart of the ARS, RS and SA algorithms.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Configuration of the Nd:YAlO laser

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Configuration of the grazing-incidence Nd:GdVO4 laser

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Beam profiles taken from the 6W Nd:YAlO laser (a) before optimisation and (b) after optimisation.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Beam profiles of the Nd:GVO4 laser taken at the near field (a) before optimisation and (b) after optimisation

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Beam profiles of the Nd:GdVO4 laser taken at the far field (a) before optimisation and (b) after optimisation

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Configuration of the large-mode grazing-incidence Nd:GdVO4 laser.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Output beam profile of the large-mode grazing-incidence Nd:GdVO4 laser [N.B. the slight lobes at the side of the beam are reflection due to the filters used in the camera set-up]

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of optimisation algorithms in the brightness enhancement of a grazing-incidence Nd:GdVO4 laser

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