Abstract

The application of phase imaging to refractive index profiling of an optical fiber slice is described. It is shown that the refractive index profile of axially symmetric and asymmetric optical fibers can be obtained from quantitative phase image of thin transverse optical fiber slices. Although this method requires careful and time consuming sample preparation, one advantage of this technique is that it can be applied to a wide range of optical fibers. In this paper results for both symmetric and non-symmetric fibers are presented and good agreement with the industrystandard refracted near-field technique demonstrated.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, and D. Peganin, "Quantitative optical phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 817-819 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Roberts, E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, N. Dragomir, G. Baxter, and S. T. Huntington, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers with axial symmetry using quantitative phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 27, 2061-2063 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, N. M. Dragomir, K. A Nugent, and A. Roberts, "Refractive index profiling of axially symmetric optical fibers: a new technique," Opt. Express 13, 3277-3282 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, and D. Paganin, "Quantitative Phase Tomography," Opt. Commun. 17, 329-336 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. M. Goh, N. M. Dragomir, D. N. Jamieson, A. Roberts, and D. X. Belton, "Optical tomographic reconstruction of ion beam induced refractive index changes in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, "Quantitative Phase Amplitude Microscopy IV: Imaging Thick Specimens," J. Microsc. 214, 62-69 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Roberts, S. T. Huntington, and K. A. Nugent, "High spatial resolution optical fibre mode profiling," Electron. Lett. 40, 793-795 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Iga, Y. Kokubun, and M. Okikawa, "Measurements of index distributions" in Fundamentals of microoptics: Distributed index, microlens and stacked planer optics, (Academic Press, Tokyo, Orlando, 1984), pp. 139-176
  9. N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers using differential interference contrast microscopy," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149-2151 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. W. Raine, J. G. N. Baines, and D. E. Putland, "Refractive index profiling-State of the art," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1162-1169 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. M. Presby, D. Marcuse, and H. M. Astle, "Automatic refractive index profiling of optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 17, 2209-2214 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, "Non-interferometric phase imaging with partially coherent light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586-2589 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, A. Roberts, and J. D. Love, "Refractive index profiles of Ge-doped optical fibers with nanometer spatial resolution using atomic force microscopy," Opt. Express 12, 1452-1457 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, "Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguide: A quantitative study," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730-2734 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

X. M. Goh, N. M. Dragomir, D. N. Jamieson, A. Roberts, and D. X. Belton, "Optical tomographic reconstruction of ion beam induced refractive index changes in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers using differential interference contrast microscopy," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149-2151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, N. M. Dragomir, K. A Nugent, and A. Roberts, "Refractive index profiling of axially symmetric optical fibers: a new technique," Opt. Express 13, 3277-3282 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, "Quantitative Phase Amplitude Microscopy IV: Imaging Thick Specimens," J. Microsc. 214, 62-69 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Roberts, S. T. Huntington, and K. A. Nugent, "High spatial resolution optical fibre mode profiling," Electron. Lett. 40, 793-795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, A. Roberts, and J. D. Love, "Refractive index profiles of Ge-doped optical fibers with nanometer spatial resolution using atomic force microscopy," Opt. Express 12, 1452-1457 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Roberts, E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, N. Dragomir, G. Baxter, and S. T. Huntington, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers with axial symmetry using quantitative phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 27, 2061-2063 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, and D. Paganin, "Quantitative Phase Tomography," Opt. Commun. 17, 329-336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, and D. Peganin, "Quantitative optical phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 817-819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, "Non-interferometric phase imaging with partially coherent light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586-2589 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, "Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguide: A quantitative study," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730-2734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. W. Raine, J. G. N. Baines, and D. E. Putland, "Refractive index profiling-State of the art," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1162-1169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

H. M. Presby, D. Marcuse, and H. M. Astle, "Automatic refractive index profiling of optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 17, 2209-2214 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allman, B. E.

C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, "Quantitative Phase Amplitude Microscopy IV: Imaging Thick Specimens," J. Microsc. 214, 62-69 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ampem-Lassen, E.

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers using differential interference contrast microscopy," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149-2151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, N. M. Dragomir, K. A Nugent, and A. Roberts, "Refractive index profiling of axially symmetric optical fibers: a new technique," Opt. Express 13, 3277-3282 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Roberts, S. T. Huntington, and K. A. Nugent, "High spatial resolution optical fibre mode profiling," Electron. Lett. 40, 793-795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Roberts, E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, N. Dragomir, G. Baxter, and S. T. Huntington, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers with axial symmetry using quantitative phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 27, 2061-2063 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Astle, H. M.

H. M. Presby, D. Marcuse, and H. M. Astle, "Automatic refractive index profiling of optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 17, 2209-2214 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baines, J. G. N.

K. W. Raine, J. G. N. Baines, and D. E. Putland, "Refractive index profiling-State of the art," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1162-1169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Barty, A.

A. Roberts, E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, N. Dragomir, G. Baxter, and S. T. Huntington, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers with axial symmetry using quantitative phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 27, 2061-2063 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, and D. Paganin, "Quantitative Phase Tomography," Opt. Commun. 17, 329-336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, and D. Peganin, "Quantitative optical phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 817-819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, G.

A. Roberts, E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, N. Dragomir, G. Baxter, and S. T. Huntington, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers with axial symmetry using quantitative phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 27, 2061-2063 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, G. W.

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers using differential interference contrast microscopy," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149-2151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bazylenko, M.

S. T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, "Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguide: A quantitative study," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730-2734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bellair, C. J.

C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, "Quantitative Phase Amplitude Microscopy IV: Imaging Thick Specimens," J. Microsc. 214, 62-69 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belton, D. X.

X. M. Goh, N. M. Dragomir, D. N. Jamieson, A. Roberts, and D. X. Belton, "Optical tomographic reconstruction of ion beam induced refractive index changes in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Curl, C. L.

C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, "Quantitative Phase Amplitude Microscopy IV: Imaging Thick Specimens," J. Microsc. 214, 62-69 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delbridge, L. M. D.

C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, "Quantitative Phase Amplitude Microscopy IV: Imaging Thick Specimens," J. Microsc. 214, 62-69 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dragomir, N.

A. Roberts, E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, N. Dragomir, G. Baxter, and S. T. Huntington, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers with axial symmetry using quantitative phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 27, 2061-2063 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dragomir, N. M.

X. M. Goh, N. M. Dragomir, D. N. Jamieson, A. Roberts, and D. X. Belton, "Optical tomographic reconstruction of ion beam induced refractive index changes in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, N. M. Dragomir, K. A Nugent, and A. Roberts, "Refractive index profiling of axially symmetric optical fibers: a new technique," Opt. Express 13, 3277-3282 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers using differential interference contrast microscopy," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149-2151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, P. M.

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers using differential interference contrast microscopy," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149-2151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goh, X. M.

X. M. Goh, N. M. Dragomir, D. N. Jamieson, A. Roberts, and D. X. Belton, "Optical tomographic reconstruction of ion beam induced refractive index changes in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harris, P. J.

C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, "Quantitative Phase Amplitude Microscopy IV: Imaging Thick Specimens," J. Microsc. 214, 62-69 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huntington, S. T.

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers using differential interference contrast microscopy," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149-2151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, N. M. Dragomir, K. A Nugent, and A. Roberts, "Refractive index profiling of axially symmetric optical fibers: a new technique," Opt. Express 13, 3277-3282 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Roberts, S. T. Huntington, and K. A. Nugent, "High spatial resolution optical fibre mode profiling," Electron. Lett. 40, 793-795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, A. Roberts, and J. D. Love, "Refractive index profiles of Ge-doped optical fibers with nanometer spatial resolution using atomic force microscopy," Opt. Express 12, 1452-1457 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roberts, E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, N. Dragomir, G. Baxter, and S. T. Huntington, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers with axial symmetry using quantitative phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 27, 2061-2063 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, "Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguide: A quantitative study," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730-2734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jamieson, D. N.

X. M. Goh, N. M. Dragomir, D. N. Jamieson, A. Roberts, and D. X. Belton, "Optical tomographic reconstruction of ion beam induced refractive index changes in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, A. Roberts, and J. D. Love, "Refractive index profiles of Ge-doped optical fibers with nanometer spatial resolution using atomic force microscopy," Opt. Express 12, 1452-1457 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyytikäinen, K.

P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, A. Roberts, and J. D. Love, "Refractive index profiles of Ge-doped optical fibers with nanometer spatial resolution using atomic force microscopy," Opt. Express 12, 1452-1457 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcuse, D.

H. M. Presby, D. Marcuse, and H. M. Astle, "Automatic refractive index profiling of optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 17, 2209-2214 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mulvaney, P.

S. T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, "Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguide: A quantitative study," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730-2734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A

E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, N. M. Dragomir, K. A Nugent, and A. Roberts, "Refractive index profiling of axially symmetric optical fibers: a new technique," Opt. Express 13, 3277-3282 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nugent, K. A.

E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Roberts, S. T. Huntington, and K. A. Nugent, "High spatial resolution optical fibre mode profiling," Electron. Lett. 40, 793-795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, "Quantitative Phase Amplitude Microscopy IV: Imaging Thick Specimens," J. Microsc. 214, 62-69 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roberts, E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, N. Dragomir, G. Baxter, and S. T. Huntington, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers with axial symmetry using quantitative phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 27, 2061-2063 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, and D. Paganin, "Quantitative Phase Tomography," Opt. Commun. 17, 329-336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, and D. Peganin, "Quantitative optical phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 817-819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, "Non-interferometric phase imaging with partially coherent light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586-2589 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, "Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguide: A quantitative study," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730-2734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pace, P.

P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, A. Roberts, and J. D. Love, "Refractive index profiles of Ge-doped optical fibers with nanometer spatial resolution using atomic force microscopy," Opt. Express 12, 1452-1457 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paganin, D.

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, and D. Paganin, "Quantitative Phase Tomography," Opt. Commun. 17, 329-336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, "Non-interferometric phase imaging with partially coherent light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586-2589 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peganin, D.

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, and D. Peganin, "Quantitative optical phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 817-819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H. M.

H. M. Presby, D. Marcuse, and H. M. Astle, "Automatic refractive index profiling of optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 17, 2209-2214 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putland, D. E.

K. W. Raine, J. G. N. Baines, and D. E. Putland, "Refractive index profiling-State of the art," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1162-1169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Raine, K. W.

K. W. Raine, J. G. N. Baines, and D. E. Putland, "Refractive index profiling-State of the art," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1162-1169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, A.

X. M. Goh, N. M. Dragomir, D. N. Jamieson, A. Roberts, and D. X. Belton, "Optical tomographic reconstruction of ion beam induced refractive index changes in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, N. M. Dragomir, K. A Nugent, and A. Roberts, "Refractive index profiling of axially symmetric optical fibers: a new technique," Opt. Express 13, 3277-3282 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers using differential interference contrast microscopy," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149-2151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, A. Roberts, and J. D. Love, "Refractive index profiles of Ge-doped optical fibers with nanometer spatial resolution using atomic force microscopy," Opt. Express 12, 1452-1457 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, "Quantitative Phase Amplitude Microscopy IV: Imaging Thick Specimens," J. Microsc. 214, 62-69 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Roberts, S. T. Huntington, and K. A. Nugent, "High spatial resolution optical fibre mode profiling," Electron. Lett. 40, 793-795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Roberts, E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, N. Dragomir, G. Baxter, and S. T. Huntington, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers with axial symmetry using quantitative phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 27, 2061-2063 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, and D. Paganin, "Quantitative Phase Tomography," Opt. Commun. 17, 329-336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, "Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguide: A quantitative study," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730-2734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

H. M. Presby, D. Marcuse, and H. M. Astle, "Automatic refractive index profiling of optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 17, 2209-2214 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. M. Goh, N. M. Dragomir, D. N. Jamieson, A. Roberts, and D. X. Belton, "Optical tomographic reconstruction of ion beam induced refractive index changes in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Roberts, S. T. Huntington, and K. A. Nugent, "High spatial resolution optical fibre mode profiling," Electron. Lett. 40, 793-795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, "Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguide: A quantitative study," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730-2734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. W. Raine, J. G. N. Baines, and D. E. Putland, "Refractive index profiling-State of the art," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1162-1169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

C. J. Bellair, C. L. Curl, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. Roberts, L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. A. Nugent, "Quantitative Phase Amplitude Microscopy IV: Imaging Thick Specimens," J. Microsc. 214, 62-69 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, A. Roberts, and D. Paganin, "Quantitative Phase Tomography," Opt. Commun. 17, 329-336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, N. M. Dragomir, K. A Nugent, and A. Roberts, "Refractive index profiling of axially symmetric optical fibers: a new technique," Opt. Express 13, 3277-3282 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, A. Roberts, and J. D. Love, "Refractive index profiles of Ge-doped optical fibers with nanometer spatial resolution using atomic force microscopy," Opt. Express 12, 1452-1457 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, and D. Peganin, "Quantitative optical phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 817-819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Roberts, E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, N. Dragomir, G. Baxter, and S. T. Huntington, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers with axial symmetry using quantitative phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 27, 2061-2063 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. M. Dragomir, E. Ampem-Lassen, S. T. Huntington, G. W. Baxter, A. Roberts, and P. M. Farrell, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers using differential interference contrast microscopy," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149-2151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, "Non-interferometric phase imaging with partially coherent light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586-2589 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. Iga, Y. Kokubun, and M. Okikawa, "Measurements of index distributions" in Fundamentals of microoptics: Distributed index, microlens and stacked planer optics, (Academic Press, Tokyo, Orlando, 1984), pp. 139-176

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Brightfield intensity image of a slice of a bundle 62.5/125 multimode fiber sample. (b) Brightfield intensity image of a single slice (detail) from (a). Image size of (a) is 836μm × 715μm. Image size of (b) is 140μm × 140μm. Thickness of slice is 36 ± 1 μm..

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Images of a multimode fiber: (a) is the phase image retrieved from brightfield intensity images defocused at ± 2 μm at λ=521 ± 5 nm of Fig.1 (a). Image size of (a) is 100 μm × 100 μm. (b) is the lateral profile across 2(a). The solid line is the phase profile retrieved and a parabolic fit with the assumption that the fibre has a core diameter of 62.5 μm (dashed line). Panel (c) shows the refractive index profile retrieved from the phase image (solid line) compared with a parabolic fit of diameter 62.5 μm (dashed line) and S14 commercial refractive index profile (dash dot line). Panel (d) shows the AFM profile which shows the etch depth and the structural features of the same fiber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Refractive index of ‘Bowtie’ fiber obtained with a 40× 0.85 UplanApo objective at λ= 521 ± 5 nm. (b) shows profiles through the refractive index image obtained in (a) for a thickness of 26 ± 1 μm. Profiles are taken along the long (dashed line) and short (solid line) axes of the core. Size of (a) is 60.7 μm × 60.7 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) AFM image of bow-tie fiber etched in 48% HF solution at room temperature for 30 seconds. The size of the image is 55 μm × 55 μm. 4(b) is the profile across both the short (solid line) and the long axes (dashed line) of (a)..

Equations (2)

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( I ( x , y , z ) ϕ ( x , y , z ) ) = k z I ( x , y , z )
Δ n ( x , y ) = λ Δ ϕ ( x , y ) 2 πt

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