Abstract

We present a phase-imaging technique to quantitatively study the three-dimensional structure of cells. The method, based on the simultaneous dual-wavelength digital holography, allows for higher axial range at which the unambiguous phase imaging can be performed. The technique is capable of nanometer axial resolution. The noise level, which increases as a result of using two wavelengths, is then reduced to the level of a single wavelength. The method compares favorably to software unwrapping, as the technique does not produce non-existent phase steps. Curvature mismatch between the reference and object beams is numerically compensated. The 3D images of SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells are presented.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  7. L. F. Yu and L. L. Cai, "Iterative algorithm with a constraint condition for numerical reconstruction of a three-dimensional object from its hologram," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1033-1045 (2001).
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  8. K. Matsushima, H. Schimmel, and F. Wyrowski, "Fast calculation method for optical diffraction on tilted planes by use of the angular spectrum of plane waves," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1755-1762 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. Khmaladze, A. Restrepo-Martínez, M. K. Kim, R. Castañeda, and A. Blandón, "Simultaneous Dual-Wavelength Reflection Digital Holography Applied to the Study of the Porous Coal Samples," Appl. Opt. 47, 3203-3210 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. Kühn, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, Y. Emery, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Real-time dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy with a single hologram acquisition," Opt. Express 15, 7231-7242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, "Quantitative Phase Microscopy of microstructures with extended measurement range and correction of chromatic aberrations by multiwavelength digital holography," Opt. Express 15, 14591-14600, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Warnasooriya and M. K. Kim, "LED-based multi-wavelength phase imaging interference microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 9239-9247 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

K. Tobin and P. Bingham, "Optical Spatial Heterodyned Interferometry for applications in Semiconductor Inspection and Metrology," Proc. SPIE 6162,616203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Parshall and M. K. Kim, "Digital holographic microscopy with dual wavelength phase unwrapping," Appl. Opt. 45, 451-459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

C. J. Mann, L. Yu, C. M. Lo, and M. K. Kim, "High-resolution quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by digital holography," Opt. Express 13, 8693-8698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gass, A. Dakoff, and M. K. Kim, "Phase imaging without 2?-ambiguity by multiple-wavelength digital holography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1141-1143 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Matsushima, H. Schimmel, and F. Wyrowski, "Fast calculation method for optical diffraction on tilted planes by use of the angular spectrum of plane waves," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1755-1762 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

U. Schnars and W. P. Jueptner, "Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85-R101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and R. Meucci, "Whole optical wavefields reconstruction by digital holography," Opt. Express 9, 294-302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Yu and L. L. Cai, "Iterative algorithm with a constraint condition for numerical reconstruction of a three-dimensional object from its hologram," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1033-1045 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, X. Peng, J. Miao, and A. K. Asundi, "Studies of digital microscopic holography with applications to microstructure testing," Appl. Opt. 40, 5046-5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, "Digital in-line holography for biological applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 11301-10305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, "Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Opt. Lett. 24, 291-293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, D. Paganin, and A. Roberts, "Quantitative optical phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 817-819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

U. Schnars, "Direct phase determination in hologram interferometry with use of digitally recorded holograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2011-2015 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Schnars and W. P. Jueptner, "Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 33, 179-181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

W. S. Haddad, D. Cullen, J. C. Solem, J. W. Longworth, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, "Fourier-transform holographic microscope," Appl. Opt. 31, 4973-4978 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asundi, A. K.

L. Xu, X. Peng, J. Miao, and A. K. Asundi, "Studies of digital microscopic holography with applications to microstructure testing," Appl. Opt. 40, 5046-5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barty, A.

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, D. Paganin, and A. Roberts, "Quantitative optical phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 817-819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bevilacqua, F.

E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, "Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Opt. Lett. 24, 291-293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bingham, P.

K. Tobin and P. Bingham, "Optical Spatial Heterodyned Interferometry for applications in Semiconductor Inspection and Metrology," Proc. SPIE 6162,616203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blandón, A.

A. Khmaladze, A. Restrepo-Martínez, M. K. Kim, R. Castañeda, and A. Blandón, "Simultaneous Dual-Wavelength Reflection Digital Holography Applied to the Study of the Porous Coal Samples," Appl. Opt. 47, 3203-3210 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, K.

W. S. Haddad, D. Cullen, J. C. Solem, J. W. Longworth, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, "Fourier-transform holographic microscope," Appl. Opt. 31, 4973-4978 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, L. L.

L. F. Yu and L. L. Cai, "Iterative algorithm with a constraint condition for numerical reconstruction of a three-dimensional object from its hologram," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1033-1045 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Castañeda, R.

A. Khmaladze, A. Restrepo-Martínez, M. K. Kim, R. Castañeda, and A. Blandón, "Simultaneous Dual-Wavelength Reflection Digital Holography Applied to the Study of the Porous Coal Samples," Appl. Opt. 47, 3203-3210 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charrière, F.

J. Kühn, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, Y. Emery, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Real-time dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy with a single hologram acquisition," Opt. Express 15, 7231-7242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

J. Kühn, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, Y. Emery, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Real-time dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy with a single hologram acquisition," Opt. Express 15, 7231-7242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coppola, G.

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuche, E.

J. Kühn, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, Y. Emery, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Real-time dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy with a single hologram acquisition," Opt. Express 15, 7231-7242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, "Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Opt. Lett. 24, 291-293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cullen, D.

W. S. Haddad, D. Cullen, J. C. Solem, J. W. Longworth, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, "Fourier-transform holographic microscope," Appl. Opt. 31, 4973-4978 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dakoff, A.

J. Gass, A. Dakoff, and M. K. Kim, "Phase imaging without 2?-ambiguity by multiple-wavelength digital holography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1141-1143 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Nicola, S.

P. Ferraro, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, "Quantitative Phase Microscopy of microstructures with extended measurement range and correction of chromatic aberrations by multiwavelength digital holography," Opt. Express 15, 14591-14600, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and R. Meucci, "Whole optical wavefields reconstruction by digital holography," Opt. Express 9, 294-302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

J. Kühn, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, Y. Emery, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Real-time dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy with a single hologram acquisition," Opt. Express 15, 7231-7242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, "Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Opt. Lett. 24, 291-293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Emery, Y.

J. Kühn, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, Y. Emery, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Real-time dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy with a single hologram acquisition," Opt. Express 15, 7231-7242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferraro, P.

P. Ferraro, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, "Quantitative Phase Microscopy of microstructures with extended measurement range and correction of chromatic aberrations by multiwavelength digital holography," Opt. Express 15, 14591-14600, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and R. Meucci, "Whole optical wavefields reconstruction by digital holography," Opt. Express 9, 294-302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finizio, A.

P. Ferraro, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, "Quantitative Phase Microscopy of microstructures with extended measurement range and correction of chromatic aberrations by multiwavelength digital holography," Opt. Express 15, 14591-14600, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and R. Meucci, "Whole optical wavefields reconstruction by digital holography," Opt. Express 9, 294-302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gass, J.

J. Gass, A. Dakoff, and M. K. Kim, "Phase imaging without 2?-ambiguity by multiple-wavelength digital holography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1141-1143 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grilli, S.

P. Ferraro, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, "Quantitative Phase Microscopy of microstructures with extended measurement range and correction of chromatic aberrations by multiwavelength digital holography," Opt. Express 15, 14591-14600, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and R. Meucci, "Whole optical wavefields reconstruction by digital holography," Opt. Express 9, 294-302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haddad, W. S.

W. S. Haddad, D. Cullen, J. C. Solem, J. W. Longworth, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, "Fourier-transform holographic microscope," Appl. Opt. 31, 4973-4978 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jericho, M. H.

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, "Digital in-line holography for biological applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 11301-10305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jueptner, W. P.

U. Schnars and W. P. Jueptner, "Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85-R101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Schnars and W. P. Jueptner, "Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 33, 179-181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khmaladze, A.

A. Khmaladze, A. Restrepo-Martínez, M. K. Kim, R. Castañeda, and A. Blandón, "Simultaneous Dual-Wavelength Reflection Digital Holography Applied to the Study of the Porous Coal Samples," Appl. Opt. 47, 3203-3210 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M. K.

A. Khmaladze, A. Restrepo-Martínez, M. K. Kim, R. Castañeda, and A. Blandón, "Simultaneous Dual-Wavelength Reflection Digital Holography Applied to the Study of the Porous Coal Samples," Appl. Opt. 47, 3203-3210 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Warnasooriya and M. K. Kim, "LED-based multi-wavelength phase imaging interference microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 9239-9247 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Parshall and M. K. Kim, "Digital holographic microscopy with dual wavelength phase unwrapping," Appl. Opt. 45, 451-459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Mann, L. Yu, C. M. Lo, and M. K. Kim, "High-resolution quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by digital holography," Opt. Express 13, 8693-8698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gass, A. Dakoff, and M. K. Kim, "Phase imaging without 2?-ambiguity by multiple-wavelength digital holography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1141-1143 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreuzer, H. J.

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, "Digital in-line holography for biological applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 11301-10305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kühn, J.

J. Kühn, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, Y. Emery, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Real-time dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy with a single hologram acquisition," Opt. Express 15, 7231-7242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laporta, P.

P. Ferraro, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, "Quantitative Phase Microscopy of microstructures with extended measurement range and correction of chromatic aberrations by multiwavelength digital holography," Opt. Express 15, 14591-14600, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, C. M.

C. J. Mann, L. Yu, C. M. Lo, and M. K. Kim, "High-resolution quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by digital holography," Opt. Express 13, 8693-8698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Longworth, J. W.

W. S. Haddad, D. Cullen, J. C. Solem, J. W. Longworth, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, "Fourier-transform holographic microscope," Appl. Opt. 31, 4973-4978 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magro, C.

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mann, C. J.

C. J. Mann, L. Yu, C. M. Lo, and M. K. Kim, "High-resolution quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by digital holography," Opt. Express 13, 8693-8698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquet, P.

J. Kühn, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, Y. Emery, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Real-time dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy with a single hologram acquisition," Opt. Express 15, 7231-7242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsushima, K.

K. Matsushima, H. Schimmel, and F. Wyrowski, "Fast calculation method for optical diffraction on tilted planes by use of the angular spectrum of plane waves," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1755-1762 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McPherson, A.

W. S. Haddad, D. Cullen, J. C. Solem, J. W. Longworth, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, "Fourier-transform holographic microscope," Appl. Opt. 31, 4973-4978 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meinertzhagen, I. A.

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, "Digital in-line holography for biological applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 11301-10305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meucci, R.

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and R. Meucci, "Whole optical wavefields reconstruction by digital holography," Opt. Express 9, 294-302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, J.

L. Xu, X. Peng, J. Miao, and A. K. Asundi, "Studies of digital microscopic holography with applications to microstructure testing," Appl. Opt. 40, 5046-5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miccio, L.

P. Ferraro, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, "Quantitative Phase Microscopy of microstructures with extended measurement range and correction of chromatic aberrations by multiwavelength digital holography," Opt. Express 15, 14591-14600, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montfort, F.

J. Kühn, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, Y. Emery, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Real-time dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy with a single hologram acquisition," Opt. Express 15, 7231-7242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nugent, K. A.

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, D. Paganin, and A. Roberts, "Quantitative optical phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 817-819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

P. Ferraro, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, "Quantitative Phase Microscopy of microstructures with extended measurement range and correction of chromatic aberrations by multiwavelength digital holography," Opt. Express 15, 14591-14600, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paganin, D.

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, D. Paganin, and A. Roberts, "Quantitative optical phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 817-819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parshall, D.

D. Parshall and M. K. Kim, "Digital holographic microscopy with dual wavelength phase unwrapping," Appl. Opt. 45, 451-459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paturzo, M.

P. Ferraro, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, "Quantitative Phase Microscopy of microstructures with extended measurement range and correction of chromatic aberrations by multiwavelength digital holography," Opt. Express 15, 14591-14600, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, X.

L. Xu, X. Peng, J. Miao, and A. K. Asundi, "Studies of digital microscopic holography with applications to microstructure testing," Appl. Opt. 40, 5046-5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pierattini, G.

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and R. Meucci, "Whole optical wavefields reconstruction by digital holography," Opt. Express 9, 294-302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Restrepo-Martínez, A.

A. Khmaladze, A. Restrepo-Martínez, M. K. Kim, R. Castañeda, and A. Blandón, "Simultaneous Dual-Wavelength Reflection Digital Holography Applied to the Study of the Porous Coal Samples," Appl. Opt. 47, 3203-3210 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhodes, C. K.

W. S. Haddad, D. Cullen, J. C. Solem, J. W. Longworth, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, "Fourier-transform holographic microscope," Appl. Opt. 31, 4973-4978 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, A.

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, D. Paganin, and A. Roberts, "Quantitative optical phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 817-819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schimmel, H.

K. Matsushima, H. Schimmel, and F. Wyrowski, "Fast calculation method for optical diffraction on tilted planes by use of the angular spectrum of plane waves," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1755-1762 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schnars, U.

U. Schnars and W. P. Jueptner, "Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85-R101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Schnars and W. P. Jueptner, "Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 33, 179-181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schnars, "Direct phase determination in hologram interferometry with use of digitally recorded holograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2011-2015 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Solem, J. C.

W. S. Haddad, D. Cullen, J. C. Solem, J. W. Longworth, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, "Fourier-transform holographic microscope," Appl. Opt. 31, 4973-4978 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tobin, K.

K. Tobin and P. Bingham, "Optical Spatial Heterodyned Interferometry for applications in Semiconductor Inspection and Metrology," Proc. SPIE 6162,616203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Warnasooriya, N.

N. Warnasooriya and M. K. Kim, "LED-based multi-wavelength phase imaging interference microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 9239-9247 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyrowski, F.

K. Matsushima, H. Schimmel, and F. Wyrowski, "Fast calculation method for optical diffraction on tilted planes by use of the angular spectrum of plane waves," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1755-1762 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, X. Peng, J. Miao, and A. K. Asundi, "Studies of digital microscopic holography with applications to microstructure testing," Appl. Opt. 40, 5046-5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, "Digital in-line holography for biological applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 11301-10305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, L.

C. J. Mann, L. Yu, C. M. Lo, and M. K. Kim, "High-resolution quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by digital holography," Opt. Express 13, 8693-8698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, L. F.

L. F. Yu and L. L. Cai, "Iterative algorithm with a constraint condition for numerical reconstruction of a three-dimensional object from its hologram," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1033-1045 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

U. Schnars and W. P. Jueptner, "Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 33, 179-181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Xu, X. Peng, J. Miao, and A. K. Asundi, "Studies of digital microscopic holography with applications to microstructure testing," Appl. Opt. 40, 5046-5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Haddad, D. Cullen, J. C. Solem, J. W. Longworth, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, "Fourier-transform holographic microscope," Appl. Opt. 31, 4973-4978 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Parshall and M. K. Kim, "Digital holographic microscopy with dual wavelength phase unwrapping," Appl. Opt. 45, 451-459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Khmaladze, A. Restrepo-Martínez, M. K. Kim, R. Castañeda, and A. Blandón, "Simultaneous Dual-Wavelength Reflection Digital Holography Applied to the Study of the Porous Coal Samples," Appl. Opt. 47, 3203-3210 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, "Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 1938-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

L. F. Yu and L. L. Cai, "Iterative algorithm with a constraint condition for numerical reconstruction of a three-dimensional object from its hologram," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1033-1045 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Matsushima, H. Schimmel, and F. Wyrowski, "Fast calculation method for optical diffraction on tilted planes by use of the angular spectrum of plane waves," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1755-1762 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Schnars, "Direct phase determination in hologram interferometry with use of digitally recorded holograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2011-2015 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

U. Schnars and W. P. Jueptner, "Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85-R101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

C. J. Mann, L. Yu, C. M. Lo, and M. K. Kim, "High-resolution quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by digital holography," Opt. Express 13, 8693-8698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kühn, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, Y. Emery, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Real-time dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy with a single hologram acquisition," Opt. Express 15, 7231-7242 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, "Quantitative Phase Microscopy of microstructures with extended measurement range and correction of chromatic aberrations by multiwavelength digital holography," Opt. Express 15, 14591-14600, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and R. Meucci, "Whole optical wavefields reconstruction by digital holography," Opt. Express 9, 294-302 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Warnasooriya and M. K. Kim, "LED-based multi-wavelength phase imaging interference microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 9239-9247 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

J. Gass, A. Dakoff, and M. K. Kim, "Phase imaging without 2?-ambiguity by multiple-wavelength digital holography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1141-1143 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, D. Paganin, and A. Roberts, "Quantitative optical phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 817-819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, "Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Opt. Lett. 24, 291-293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, "Digital in-line holography for biological applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 11301-10305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

K. Tobin and P. Bingham, "Optical Spatial Heterodyned Interferometry for applications in Semiconductor Inspection and Metrology," Proc. SPIE 6162,616203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1996).

W. Jueptner and U. Schnars, Digital Holography (Springer Verlag, 2004).

A. Khmaladze and M. Kim, "Quantitative Phase Contrast Imaging of Cells by Multi-Wavelength Digital Holography," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JTuA52A.
[CrossRef]

A. Khmaladze, C. J. Mann, and M. K. Kim, "Phase Contrast Movies of Cell Migration by Multi-Wavelength Digital Holography," in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (DH), Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper DMB3.

A. Khmaladze, A. Restrepo-Martínez, M. K. Kim, R. Castañeda, and A. Blandón, "The Application of Dual-Wavelength Reflection Digital Holography for Detection of Pores in Coal Samples," in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (DH), Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper DMB5.

M. Born and E. Wolfe, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1964).

M. K. Kim, L. Yu, and C. J. Mann, "Digital holography and multi-wavelength interference techniques," in Digital holography and three-dimensional display, T. C. Poon, ed. (Springer 2006).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Multi-wavelength digital holography apparatus. The focal length of the lenses L21 and L22 are 17.5 cm and 10 cm respectively. The beams are collimated between L11 and L21 and between L12 and L22 and again are collimated after 20x OBJ1 microscope objective.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Two-wavelength hologram of a USAF resolution target: (a) digital hologram (640×480pixels) and (b) its Fourier spectrum of the hologram with the red and the green wavelengths first order components shown.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

R is the wave’s radius of curvature centered at C, which can be determined experimentally for a given setup, r¯ is the vector from the center of the CCD matrix (point O) to an arbitrary point A, and r¯0 is the vector from the center of the CCD matrix to the projection of the center of curvature on the CCD matrix P. Here r ̄ = x 2 + y 2 , x and y are the coordinates of A and r ̄ 0 = x 0 2 + y 0 2 , x0 and y0 are the coordinates of P.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The reconstructed phase image of the USAF resolution target (a) without curvature correction and (b) with curvature correction applied. The images are 174×174 μm2 (450×450pixels).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Phase map and height profile for λ=633 nm. (b). For comparison, AFM image and height profile of the same area.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Phase maps for (a) λ 1=532 nm and (b) λ 2=633 nm; (c) 3D rendering of synthetic dualphase map with beat wavelength Λ12=3334nm and (d) reduced noise fine map (the images are 174×174 μm2, 450×450 pixels and the vertical scale for (a) and (b) is in radians).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Confluent SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells: (a) amplitude image, (b) reconstructed phase for λ=532 nm, (c) dual-wavelength coarse phase image and (d) 3D rendering of fine map. All images are 92×92 μm2 (240×240 pixels).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

A single SKOV-3 cell: (a) reconstructed phase for λ=633 nm, (b) dual-wavelength coarse phase image, (c) 3D rendering of fine map and (d) line thickness profile. All images are 63.5×59 μm2 (165×153 pixels).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparison between optical and software unwrapping: (a) amplitude image; (b) single wavelength phase image, (c) coarse maps, (d) 3D rendering of the dual-wavelength fine phase map and (e) software unwrapped phase map. Images are 98×98 μm2 (256×256 pixels).

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A 0 ( k x , k y ; 0 ) = E 0 ( x , y ; 0 ) exp [ i ( k x x + k y y ) ] dxdy
A ( k x , k y ; z ) = A 0 ( k x , k y ; 0 ) exp [ ik z z ] ,
E ( x , y ; z ) = A ( k x , k y ; z ) exp [ i ( k x x + k y y ) ] dk x dk y
d = CA CO = CP 2 + PA 2 CP 2 + PO 2
d = R 2 + r ̄ r ̄ 0 2 R 2 + r ̄ 0 2 = R 2 + ( x x 0 ) 2 + ( y y 0 ) 2 R 2 + x 0 2 + y 0 2
E ( x , y ; 0 ) = E 0 ( x , y ; 0 ) exp [ ik ( ± [ R 2 + ( x x 0 ) 2 + ( y y 0 ) 2 R 2 + x 0 2 + y 0 2 ] ) ]
k ( R 2 + r 2 R ) = kR [ 1 + r 2 R 2 1 ] = 2 πR λ [ 1 + r 2 2 R 2 1 ] = 2 π λ x 2 + y 2 2 R
h x y = λ 4 π ϕ x y
h x y = λ 4 π ϕ x y ( n n 0 )
Λ 12 = λ 1 λ 2 λ 1 λ 2

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