Abstract

This work presents and demonstrates a semi-automatic optical frequency counter with octave-spanning counting capability using two fiber laser combs operated at different repetition rates. Monochromators are utilized to provide an approximate frequency of the laser under measurement to determine the mode number difference between the two laser combs. The exact mode number of the beating comb line is obtained from the mode number difference and the measured beat frequencies. The entire measurement process, except the frequency stabilization of the laser combs and the optimization of the beat signal-to-noise ratio, is controlled by a computer running a semi-automatic optical frequency counter.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
Related Articles
Relative carrier-envelope phase dynamics between passively synchronized Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers

Zhiyi Wei, Yohei Kobayashi, and Kenji Torizuka
Opt. Lett. 27(23) 2121-2123 (2002)

Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser

Feng-Lei Hong, Kaoru Minoshima, Atsushi Onae, Hajime Inaba, Hideyuki Takada, Akiko Hirai, Hirokazu Matsumoto, Toshiharu Sugiura, and Makoto Yoshida
Opt. Lett. 28(17) 1516-1518 (2003)

Determination of absolute mode number using two mode-locked laser combs in optical frequency metrology

Jin-Long Peng and Ren-Huei Shu
Opt. Express 15(8) 4485-4492 (2007)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. For example, http://www.optocomb.com/eng/index.html
  2. Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J.-L. Peng and R.-H. Shu, “Determination of absolute mode number using two mode-locked laser combs in optical frequency metrology,” Opt. Exp. 15, 4485–4492 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Exp. 14, 5223–5231 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, “A new method to determine the absolute mode number of a mode-locked femtosecond laser comb used for absolute optical frequency measurements,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1066–1071 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. T.-A. Liu, R.-H. Shu, and J.-L. Peng, “Semi-automatic, Octave-spanning Optical Frequency Counter,” Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR), Korea, Aug 26–31, ThG2-2, 2007. (pp. 1032–1033)
  7. J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025–1028 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 277–294 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  9. J.-L. Peng, H. Ahn, R.-H. Shu, H.-C. Chui, and J. W. Nicholson, “Highly stable, frequency-controlled mode-locked erbium fiber laser comb,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 49–53 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2007 (3)

J.-L. Peng and R.-H. Shu, “Determination of absolute mode number using two mode-locked laser combs in optical frequency metrology,” Opt. Exp. 15, 4485–4492 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025–1028 (2007).
[Crossref]

J.-L. Peng, H. Ahn, R.-H. Shu, H.-C. Chui, and J. W. Nicholson, “Highly stable, frequency-controlled mode-locked erbium fiber laser comb,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 49–53 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Exp. 14, 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, “A new method to determine the absolute mode number of a mode-locked femtosecond laser comb used for absolute optical frequency measurements,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1066–1071 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ahn, H.

J.-L. Peng, H. Ahn, R.-H. Shu, H.-C. Chui, and J. W. Nicholson, “Highly stable, frequency-controlled mode-locked erbium fiber laser comb,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 49–53 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chui, H.-C.

J.-L. Peng, H. Ahn, R.-H. Shu, H.-C. Chui, and J. W. Nicholson, “Highly stable, frequency-controlled mode-locked erbium fiber laser comb,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 49–53 (2007).
[Crossref]

Daimon, Y.

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Exp. 14, 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dumke, R.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025–1028 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q. H.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025–1028 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hirano, M.

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Exp. 14, 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, F.-L.

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Exp. 14, 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref]

Inaba, H.

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Exp. 14, 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jones, D. J.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Liu, T.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025–1028 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, T.-A.

T.-A. Liu, R.-H. Shu, and J.-L. Peng, “Semi-automatic, Octave-spanning Optical Frequency Counter,” Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR), Korea, Aug 26–31, ThG2-2, 2007. (pp. 1032–1033)

Lu, Z. H.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025–1028 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ma, L.-S.

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, “A new method to determine the absolute mode number of a mode-locked femtosecond laser comb used for absolute optical frequency measurements,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1066–1071 (2003).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, H.

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Exp. 14, 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref]

Minoshima, K.

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Exp. 14, 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakazawa, M.

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Exp. 14, 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nicholson, J. W.

J.-L. Peng, H. Ahn, R.-H. Shu, H.-C. Chui, and J. W. Nicholson, “Highly stable, frequency-controlled mode-locked erbium fiber laser comb,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 49–53 (2007).
[Crossref]

Okuno, T.

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Exp. 14, 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref]

Onae, A.

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Exp. 14, 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref]

Onishi, M.

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Exp. 14, 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref]

Peng, J.-L.

J.-L. Peng and R.-H. Shu, “Determination of absolute mode number using two mode-locked laser combs in optical frequency metrology,” Opt. Exp. 15, 4485–4492 (2007).
[Crossref]

J.-L. Peng, H. Ahn, R.-H. Shu, H.-C. Chui, and J. W. Nicholson, “Highly stable, frequency-controlled mode-locked erbium fiber laser comb,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 49–53 (2007).
[Crossref]

T.-A. Liu, R.-H. Shu, and J.-L. Peng, “Semi-automatic, Octave-spanning Optical Frequency Counter,” Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR), Korea, Aug 26–31, ThG2-2, 2007. (pp. 1032–1033)

Picard, S.

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, “A new method to determine the absolute mode number of a mode-locked femtosecond laser comb used for absolute optical frequency measurements,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1066–1071 (2003).
[Crossref]

Robertsson, L.

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, “A new method to determine the absolute mode number of a mode-locked femtosecond laser comb used for absolute optical frequency measurements,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1066–1071 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schibli, T. R.

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Exp. 14, 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shu, R.-H.

J.-L. Peng and R.-H. Shu, “Determination of absolute mode number using two mode-locked laser combs in optical frequency metrology,” Opt. Exp. 15, 4485–4492 (2007).
[Crossref]

J.-L. Peng, H. Ahn, R.-H. Shu, H.-C. Chui, and J. W. Nicholson, “Highly stable, frequency-controlled mode-locked erbium fiber laser comb,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 49–53 (2007).
[Crossref]

T.-A. Liu, R.-H. Shu, and J.-L. Peng, “Semi-automatic, Octave-spanning Optical Frequency Counter,” Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR), Korea, Aug 26–31, ThG2-2, 2007. (pp. 1032–1033)

Stejskal, A.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025–1028 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tamura, K.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Udem, Th.

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. J.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025–1028 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. H.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025–1028 (2007).
[Crossref]

Windeler, R. S.

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, “A new method to determine the absolute mode number of a mode-locked femtosecond laser comb used for absolute optical frequency measurements,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1066–1071 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025–1028 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y. N.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025–1028 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zucco, M.

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, “A new method to determine the absolute mode number of a mode-locked femtosecond laser comb used for absolute optical frequency measurements,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1066–1071 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

J.-L. Peng, H. Ahn, R.-H. Shu, H.-C. Chui, and J. W. Nicholson, “Highly stable, frequency-controlled mode-locked erbium fiber laser comb,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 49–53 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, “A new method to determine the absolute mode number of a mode-locked femtosecond laser comb used for absolute optical frequency measurements,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1066–1071 (2003).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025–1028 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Exp. (2)

J.-L. Peng and R.-H. Shu, “Determination of absolute mode number using two mode-locked laser combs in optical frequency metrology,” Opt. Exp. 15, 4485–4492 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Exp. 14, 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

T.-A. Liu, R.-H. Shu, and J.-L. Peng, “Semi-automatic, Octave-spanning Optical Frequency Counter,” Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR), Korea, Aug 26–31, ThG2-2, 2007. (pp. 1032–1033)

For example, http://www.optocomb.com/eng/index.html

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the semi-automatic optical frequency counter using two mode-locked Er:fiber combs. Each laser has two branches of octave-spanning supercontinuum. One branch is for the frequency stabilization of the repetition rate and the CEO frequency (not shown), and the other branch is for beating with the Nd:YAG laser.

Figs. 2.
Figs. 2.

(a) and (b) The measured beat frequencies for fr1=100 MHz and fr2=99.9989 MHz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The mode number n determined by Eq. (4).

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f L = n · f r 1 + f o 1 + f b 1
f L = ( n + m ) · f r 2 + f o 2 + f b 2
m = n · ( f r 1 f r 2 ) f o 2 + f o 1 f b 2 + f b 1 f r 2
n = m · f r 2 + f o 2 f o 1 + f b 2 f b 1 f r 1 f r 2
δ m = ( ( f r 1 f r 2 ) f r 2 · δ n est ) 2 + ( n f r 2 · δ ( f r 1 f r 2 ) ) 2 + ( 1 f r 2 · δ ( f b 2 f b 1 ) ) 2
δ n ( δ ( f b 2 f b 1 ) f r 1 f r 2 ) 2 + ( n δ ( f r 1 f r 2 ) f r 1 f r 2 ) 2
δ n est = c · δ λ f r 1 · λ 2 ,
δ m ( ( f r 1 f r 2 ) · c · δ λ f r 2 · f r 1 · λ 2 ) 2 + ( 2 n σ ( τ ) ) 2 ( f r 1 f r 2 ) · c · δ λ f r 2 · f r 1 · λ 2
δ n 2 n σ ( τ ) f r f r 1 f r 2
δ n 2 ( δ ν ) f r 1 f r 2
f r 2 · f r 1 · λ 2 c · δ λ f r 1 f r 2 2 ( δ ν )

Metrics