Abstract

We apply coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy to characterize director structures in liquid crystals. We demonstrate that the polarized CARS signal in these anisotropic fluids strongly depends on alignment of chemical bonds/molecules with respect to the collinear polarizations of Stokes and pump/probe excitation beams. This dependence allows for the visualization of the bond/molecular orientations via polarized detection of the CARS signal and thus for CARS polarization microscopy of liquid crystal director fields, as we demonstrate using structures in nematic, cholesteric, and smectic liquid crystals. On the other hand, laser-induced director realignment at powers above a well-defined threshold provides the capability for all-optical CARS signal enhancement in liquid crystals. Moreover, since the liquid crystalline alignment can be controlled by electric and magnetic fields, this demonstrates the feasibility of CARS signal modulation by applying external fields to these materials.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (7)

P. Palffy-Muhoray, "The Diverse World of Liquid Crystals," Phys. Today 60, 54-60 (2007).

A.V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, P. N. Prasad, and I. I. Smalyukh, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering polarized microscopy of 3-D director structures in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Southern and H. F. Gleeson, "Using the full Raman depolarization in the determination of the order parameters in liquid crystal systems," Eur. Phys. J. E 24, 119-127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, "Confocal Microscopy of Director Structures in Strongly Confined and Composite Systems," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 477, 23-41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, and J. X. Cheng, "Experimental observation and theoretical analysis of Raman resonance-enhanced photodamage in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 544-552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, D. S. Kaputa, A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, and P. N. Prasad, "Optical trapping of director structures and defects in liquid crystals using laser tweezers," Opt. Express 15, 4359-4371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Saar, H.-S. Park, X. S. Xie, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Three-dimensional imaging of chemical bond orientation in liquid crystals by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 13585-13596 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (10)

H. Kano and H.-O. Hamaguchi, "In-vivo multi-nonlinear optical imaging of a living cell using a supercontinuum light source generated from a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 14, 2798-2804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. -X. Cheng, "Characterization of photodamage in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Express 14, 3942-3951 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Characterization of photodamage in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Express 14, 3942-3951 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Pillai, M. Oh-e, H. Yokoyama, C. J. Brakenhoff, and M. Muller, "Imaging colloidal particle induced topological defects in a nematic liquid crystal using third harmonic generation microscopy," Opt. Express 14, 12976-12983 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, O. V. Zribi, J. C. Butler, O. D. Lavrentovich, and G. C. L. Wong, "Structure and Dynamics of Liquid Crystalline Pattern Formation in Drying Droplets of DNA," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 177801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, A.V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, and P. N. Prasad, "Laser trapping in anisotropic fluids and polarization controlled particle dynamics," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 18048-18053 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Blach, M. Warenghem, and D. Bormann, "Probing thick uniaxial birefringent medium in confined geometry: A polarised confocal micro-Raman approach," Vibr.Spectroscopy 41, 48-58 (2006).

M. Ofuji, Y. Takano, Y. Houkawa, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, T. Mori, M. Goh, S. Guo, and K. Akagi, "Microscopic Orientational Order of Polymer Chains in Helical Polyacetylene Thin Films studied by Confocal Laser Raman Microscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1710-1713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, Th. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nature Methods 3, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L.G. Rodriguez, S. J. Lockett, and G. R. Holtom, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: a biological review," Cytometry 69A, 779-791 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (7)

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of Axonal Myelin in Live Spinal Tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Kennedy, J. Sutcliffe, and J.-X. Cheng, "Molecular Composition and Orientation in Myelin figures Characterized by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," Langmuir 21, 6478-6486 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. W. H. Wurpel, H. A. Rinia, and M. Muller, "Imaging orientational order and lipid density in multilamellar vesicles with multiplex CARS microscopy," J. Microsc. 218, 37-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshiki, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, "Second-Harmonic-Generation Microscopy Using Excitation Beam with Controlled Polarization Pattern to Determine Three-Dimensional Molecular Orientation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L1066-L1068 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, "Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, R59-R81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, B. I. Senyuk, P. Palffy-Muhoray, O. D. Lavrentovich, H. Huang, E. C. Gartland, Jr., V. H. Bodnar, T. Kosa, and B. Taheri, "Electric-field-induced nematic-cholesteric transition and three-dimensional director structures in homeotropic cells," Phys. Rev. E 72, 061707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, R. Pratibha, N. V. Madhusudana, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Selective imaging of 3-D director fields and study of defects in biaxial smectic A liquid crystals," Eur. Phys. J. E 16, 179-192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

A. Xie and D. A. Higgins, "Electric-field-induced dynamics in radial liquid crystal droplets studied by multiphoton-excited fluorescence microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4014-4016 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. W. H. Wurpel, J. M. Schins, and M. Muller, "Direct measurement of chain order in single lipid mono- and bilayers with multiplex CARS," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 3400-3403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng and S. Xie, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Instrumentation, Theory, and Applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Kee and M. T. Cicerone, "Simple approach to one-laser, broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2701-2703 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

I. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, "Detection of single lipid bilayers with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 642-650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, S. Pautot, D. A. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of water molecules between phospholipid bilayers visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Pautot, B. J. Frisken, J.-X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Weitz, "Spontaneous Formation of Lipid Structures at Oil/Water/Lipid Interfaces," Langmuir 19, 10281-10287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Higgins and B. J. Luther, "Watching molecules reorient in liquid crystal droplets with multiphoton-excited fluorescence microscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3935-3942 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

I. I. Smalyukh, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Three-dimensional imaging of orientational order by fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 336, 88-96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering polarized microscopy," Opt. Lett. 26, 1341-1343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-Dimensional Vibrational Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

E. Santamato, G. Abbate, P. Maddalena, and Y. R. Shen, "Optically induced twist Freedericksz transition in planar-aligned nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 36, 2389-2392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I.-C. Khoo, P. Y. Yan, and T. H. Liu, "Nonlinear transverse dependence of optically induced director axis reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal film - theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 115-120 (1987).

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical-field-induced birefringence and Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411-1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

1. P. D. Maker and R. W . Terhune, "Study of Optical Effects Due to an Induced Polarization Third Order in the Electric Field Strength," Phys. Rev. 137, A801-A818 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Abbate, G.

E. Santamato, G. Abbate, P. Maddalena, and Y. R. Shen, "Optically induced twist Freedericksz transition in planar-aligned nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 36, 2389-2392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Akagi, K.

M. Ofuji, Y. Takano, Y. Houkawa, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, T. Mori, M. Goh, S. Guo, and K. Akagi, "Microscopic Orientational Order of Polymer Chains in Helical Polyacetylene Thin Films studied by Confocal Laser Raman Microscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1710-1713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arakelian, S. M.

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical-field-induced birefringence and Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411-1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Araki, T.

K. Yoshiki, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, "Second-Harmonic-Generation Microscopy Using Excitation Beam with Controlled Polarization Pattern to Determine Three-Dimensional Molecular Orientation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L1066-L1068 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beaurepaire, E.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, Th. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nature Methods 3, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blach, J.-F.

J.-F. Blach, M. Warenghem, and D. Bormann, "Probing thick uniaxial birefringent medium in confined geometry: A polarised confocal micro-Raman approach," Vibr.Spectroscopy 41, 48-58 (2006).

Bodnar, V. H.

I. I. Smalyukh, B. I. Senyuk, P. Palffy-Muhoray, O. D. Lavrentovich, H. Huang, E. C. Gartland, Jr., V. H. Bodnar, T. Kosa, and B. Taheri, "Electric-field-induced nematic-cholesteric transition and three-dimensional director structures in homeotropic cells," Phys. Rev. E 72, 061707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Book, L. D.

Bormann, D.

J.-F. Blach, M. Warenghem, and D. Bormann, "Probing thick uniaxial birefringent medium in confined geometry: A polarised confocal micro-Raman approach," Vibr.Spectroscopy 41, 48-58 (2006).

Brakenhoff, C. J.

Butler, J. C.

I. I. Smalyukh, O. V. Zribi, J. C. Butler, O. D. Lavrentovich, and G. C. L. Wong, "Structure and Dynamics of Liquid Crystalline Pattern Formation in Drying Droplets of DNA," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 177801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J. X.

Cheng, J. -X.

Cheng, J.-X.

Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Characterization of photodamage in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Express 14, 3942-3951 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of Axonal Myelin in Live Spinal Tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Kennedy, J. Sutcliffe, and J.-X. Cheng, "Molecular Composition and Orientation in Myelin figures Characterized by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," Langmuir 21, 6478-6486 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng and S. Xie, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Instrumentation, Theory, and Applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, S. Pautot, D. A. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of water molecules between phospholipid bilayers visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Pautot, B. J. Frisken, J.-X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Weitz, "Spontaneous Formation of Lipid Structures at Oil/Water/Lipid Interfaces," Langmuir 19, 10281-10287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering polarized microscopy," Opt. Lett. 26, 1341-1343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cicerone, M. T.

Combettes, L.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, Th. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nature Methods 3, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Débarre, D.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, Th. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nature Methods 3, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, M. D.

Durbin, S. D.

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical-field-induced birefringence and Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411-1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, A.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, Th. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nature Methods 3, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frisken, B. J.

S. Pautot, B. J. Frisken, J.-X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Weitz, "Spontaneous Formation of Lipid Structures at Oil/Water/Lipid Interfaces," Langmuir 19, 10281-10287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

Gartland, E. C.

I. I. Smalyukh, B. I. Senyuk, P. Palffy-Muhoray, O. D. Lavrentovich, H. Huang, E. C. Gartland, Jr., V. H. Bodnar, T. Kosa, and B. Taheri, "Electric-field-induced nematic-cholesteric transition and three-dimensional director structures in homeotropic cells," Phys. Rev. E 72, 061707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gleeson, H. F.

C. D. Southern and H. F. Gleeson, "Using the full Raman depolarization in the determination of the order parameters in liquid crystal systems," Eur. Phys. J. E 24, 119-127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goh, M.

M. Ofuji, Y. Takano, Y. Houkawa, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, T. Mori, M. Goh, S. Guo, and K. Akagi, "Microscopic Orientational Order of Polymer Chains in Helical Polyacetylene Thin Films studied by Confocal Laser Raman Microscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1710-1713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, S.

M. Ofuji, Y. Takano, Y. Houkawa, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, T. Mori, M. Goh, S. Guo, and K. Akagi, "Microscopic Orientational Order of Polymer Chains in Helical Polyacetylene Thin Films studied by Confocal Laser Raman Microscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1710-1713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hamaguchi, H.-O.

Hashimoto, M.

K. Yoshiki, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, "Second-Harmonic-Generation Microscopy Using Excitation Beam with Controlled Polarization Pattern to Determine Three-Dimensional Molecular Orientation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L1066-L1068 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, D. A.

A. Xie and D. A. Higgins, "Electric-field-induced dynamics in radial liquid crystal droplets studied by multiphoton-excited fluorescence microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4014-4016 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Higgins and B. J. Luther, "Watching molecules reorient in liquid crystal droplets with multiphoton-excited fluorescence microscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3935-3942 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holtom, G. R.

L.G. Rodriguez, S. J. Lockett, and G. R. Holtom, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: a biological review," Cytometry 69A, 779-791 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-Dimensional Vibrational Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Houkawa, Y.

M. Ofuji, Y. Takano, Y. Houkawa, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, T. Mori, M. Goh, S. Guo, and K. Akagi, "Microscopic Orientational Order of Polymer Chains in Helical Polyacetylene Thin Films studied by Confocal Laser Raman Microscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1710-1713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

I. I. Smalyukh, B. I. Senyuk, P. Palffy-Muhoray, O. D. Lavrentovich, H. Huang, E. C. Gartland, Jr., V. H. Bodnar, T. Kosa, and B. Taheri, "Electric-field-induced nematic-cholesteric transition and three-dimensional director structures in homeotropic cells," Phys. Rev. E 72, 061707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

M. Ofuji, Y. Takano, Y. Houkawa, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, T. Mori, M. Goh, S. Guo, and K. Akagi, "Microscopic Orientational Order of Polymer Chains in Helical Polyacetylene Thin Films studied by Confocal Laser Raman Microscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1710-1713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kachynski, A. V.

Kachynski, A.V.

A.V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, P. N. Prasad, and I. I. Smalyukh, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering polarized microscopy of 3-D director structures in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, A.V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, and P. N. Prasad, "Laser trapping in anisotropic fluids and polarization controlled particle dynamics," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 18048-18053 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kano, H.

Kaputa, D. S.

Kee, T. W.

Kennedy, A. P.

A. P. Kennedy, J. Sutcliffe, and J.-X. Cheng, "Molecular Composition and Orientation in Myelin figures Characterized by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," Langmuir 21, 6478-6486 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I.-C.

Kosa, T.

I. I. Smalyukh, B. I. Senyuk, P. Palffy-Muhoray, O. D. Lavrentovich, H. Huang, E. C. Gartland, Jr., V. H. Bodnar, T. Kosa, and B. Taheri, "Electric-field-induced nematic-cholesteric transition and three-dimensional director structures in homeotropic cells," Phys. Rev. E 72, 061707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmin, A. N.

A.V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, P. N. Prasad, and I. I. Smalyukh, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering polarized microscopy of 3-D director structures in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, D. S. Kaputa, A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, and P. N. Prasad, "Optical trapping of director structures and defects in liquid crystals using laser tweezers," Opt. Express 15, 4359-4371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, A.V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, and P. N. Prasad, "Laser trapping in anisotropic fluids and polarization controlled particle dynamics," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 18048-18053 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lavrentovich, O. D.

B. G. Saar, H.-S. Park, X. S. Xie, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Three-dimensional imaging of chemical bond orientation in liquid crystals by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 13585-13596 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, O. V. Zribi, J. C. Butler, O. D. Lavrentovich, and G. C. L. Wong, "Structure and Dynamics of Liquid Crystalline Pattern Formation in Drying Droplets of DNA," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 177801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, R. Pratibha, N. V. Madhusudana, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Selective imaging of 3-D director fields and study of defects in biaxial smectic A liquid crystals," Eur. Phys. J. E 16, 179-192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, B. I. Senyuk, P. Palffy-Muhoray, O. D. Lavrentovich, H. Huang, E. C. Gartland, Jr., V. H. Bodnar, T. Kosa, and B. Taheri, "Electric-field-induced nematic-cholesteric transition and three-dimensional director structures in homeotropic cells," Phys. Rev. E 72, 061707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Three-dimensional imaging of orientational order by fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 336, 88-96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T. H.

Lockett, S. J.

L.G. Rodriguez, S. J. Lockett, and G. R. Holtom, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: a biological review," Cytometry 69A, 779-791 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luther, B. J.

D. A. Higgins and B. J. Luther, "Watching molecules reorient in liquid crystal droplets with multiphoton-excited fluorescence microscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3935-3942 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maddalena, P.

E. Santamato, G. Abbate, P. Maddalena, and Y. R. Shen, "Optically induced twist Freedericksz transition in planar-aligned nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 36, 2389-2392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Madhusudana, N. V.

I. I. Smalyukh, R. Pratibha, N. V. Madhusudana, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Selective imaging of 3-D director fields and study of defects in biaxial smectic A liquid crystals," Eur. Phys. J. E 16, 179-192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maker, P. D.

1. P. D. Maker and R. W . Terhune, "Study of Optical Effects Due to an Induced Polarization Third Order in the Electric Field Strength," Phys. Rev. 137, A801-A818 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Manuccia, T. J.

Mori, T.

M. Ofuji, Y. Takano, Y. Houkawa, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, T. Mori, M. Goh, S. Guo, and K. Akagi, "Microscopic Orientational Order of Polymer Chains in Helical Polyacetylene Thin Films studied by Confocal Laser Raman Microscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1710-1713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muller, M.

R. S. Pillai, M. Oh-e, H. Yokoyama, C. J. Brakenhoff, and M. Muller, "Imaging colloidal particle induced topological defects in a nematic liquid crystal using third harmonic generation microscopy," Opt. Express 14, 12976-12983 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. W. H. Wurpel, H. A. Rinia, and M. Muller, "Imaging orientational order and lipid density in multilamellar vesicles with multiplex CARS microscopy," J. Microsc. 218, 37-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. W. H. Wurpel, J. M. Schins, and M. Muller, "Direct measurement of chain order in single lipid mono- and bilayers with multiplex CARS," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 3400-3403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ofuji, M.

M. Ofuji, Y. Takano, Y. Houkawa, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, T. Mori, M. Goh, S. Guo, and K. Akagi, "Microscopic Orientational Order of Polymer Chains in Helical Polyacetylene Thin Films studied by Confocal Laser Raman Microscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1710-1713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oh-e, M.

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

P. Palffy-Muhoray, "The Diverse World of Liquid Crystals," Phys. Today 60, 54-60 (2007).

I. I. Smalyukh, B. I. Senyuk, P. Palffy-Muhoray, O. D. Lavrentovich, H. Huang, E. C. Gartland, Jr., V. H. Bodnar, T. Kosa, and B. Taheri, "Electric-field-induced nematic-cholesteric transition and three-dimensional director structures in homeotropic cells," Phys. Rev. E 72, 061707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-S.

Pautot, S.

S. Pautot, B. J. Frisken, J.-X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Weitz, "Spontaneous Formation of Lipid Structures at Oil/Water/Lipid Interfaces," Langmuir 19, 10281-10287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, S. Pautot, D. A. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of water molecules between phospholipid bilayers visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pena, A.-M.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, Th. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nature Methods 3, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pillai, R. S.

Potma, I. O.

I. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, "Detection of single lipid bilayers with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 642-650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

A.V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, P. N. Prasad, and I. I. Smalyukh, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering polarized microscopy of 3-D director structures in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, D. S. Kaputa, A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, and P. N. Prasad, "Optical trapping of director structures and defects in liquid crystals using laser tweezers," Opt. Express 15, 4359-4371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, A.V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, and P. N. Prasad, "Laser trapping in anisotropic fluids and polarization controlled particle dynamics," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 18048-18053 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pratibha, R.

I. I. Smalyukh, R. Pratibha, N. V. Madhusudana, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Selective imaging of 3-D director fields and study of defects in biaxial smectic A liquid crystals," Eur. Phys. J. E 16, 179-192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reintjes, J.

Rinia, H. A.

G. W. H. Wurpel, H. A. Rinia, and M. Muller, "Imaging orientational order and lipid density in multilamellar vesicles with multiplex CARS microscopy," J. Microsc. 218, 37-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, L.G.

L.G. Rodriguez, S. J. Lockett, and G. R. Holtom, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: a biological review," Cytometry 69A, 779-791 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saar, B. G.

Santamato, E.

E. Santamato, G. Abbate, P. Maddalena, and Y. R. Shen, "Optically induced twist Freedericksz transition in planar-aligned nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 36, 2389-2392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schanne-Klein, M.-C.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, Th. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nature Methods 3, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schins, J. M.

G. W. H. Wurpel, J. M. Schins, and M. Muller, "Direct measurement of chain order in single lipid mono- and bilayers with multiplex CARS," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 3400-3403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Senyuk, B. I.

I. I. Smalyukh, B. I. Senyuk, P. Palffy-Muhoray, O. D. Lavrentovich, H. Huang, E. C. Gartland, Jr., V. H. Bodnar, T. Kosa, and B. Taheri, "Electric-field-induced nematic-cholesteric transition and three-dimensional director structures in homeotropic cells," Phys. Rev. E 72, 061707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

E. Santamato, G. Abbate, P. Maddalena, and Y. R. Shen, "Optically induced twist Freedericksz transition in planar-aligned nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 36, 2389-2392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical-field-induced birefringence and Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411-1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shi, R.

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

I. I. Smalyukh, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Three-dimensional imaging of orientational order by fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 336, 88-96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smalyukh, I. I.

A.V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, P. N. Prasad, and I. I. Smalyukh, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering polarized microscopy of 3-D director structures in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, D. S. Kaputa, A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, and P. N. Prasad, "Optical trapping of director structures and defects in liquid crystals using laser tweezers," Opt. Express 15, 4359-4371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, "Confocal Microscopy of Director Structures in Strongly Confined and Composite Systems," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 477, 23-41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, O. V. Zribi, J. C. Butler, O. D. Lavrentovich, and G. C. L. Wong, "Structure and Dynamics of Liquid Crystalline Pattern Formation in Drying Droplets of DNA," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 177801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, A.V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, and P. N. Prasad, "Laser trapping in anisotropic fluids and polarization controlled particle dynamics," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 18048-18053 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, B. I. Senyuk, P. Palffy-Muhoray, O. D. Lavrentovich, H. Huang, E. C. Gartland, Jr., V. H. Bodnar, T. Kosa, and B. Taheri, "Electric-field-induced nematic-cholesteric transition and three-dimensional director structures in homeotropic cells," Phys. Rev. E 72, 061707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, R. Pratibha, N. V. Madhusudana, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Selective imaging of 3-D director fields and study of defects in biaxial smectic A liquid crystals," Eur. Phys. J. E 16, 179-192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Three-dimensional imaging of orientational order by fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 336, 88-96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Southern, C. D.

C. D. Southern and H. F. Gleeson, "Using the full Raman depolarization in the determination of the order parameters in liquid crystal systems," Eur. Phys. J. E 24, 119-127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Supatto, W.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, Th. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nature Methods 3, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sutcliffe, J.

A. P. Kennedy, J. Sutcliffe, and J.-X. Cheng, "Molecular Composition and Orientation in Myelin figures Characterized by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," Langmuir 21, 6478-6486 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

I. I. Smalyukh, B. I. Senyuk, P. Palffy-Muhoray, O. D. Lavrentovich, H. Huang, E. C. Gartland, Jr., V. H. Bodnar, T. Kosa, and B. Taheri, "Electric-field-induced nematic-cholesteric transition and three-dimensional director structures in homeotropic cells," Phys. Rev. E 72, 061707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takanishi, Y.

M. Ofuji, Y. Takano, Y. Houkawa, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, T. Mori, M. Goh, S. Guo, and K. Akagi, "Microscopic Orientational Order of Polymer Chains in Helical Polyacetylene Thin Films studied by Confocal Laser Raman Microscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1710-1713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takano, Y.

M. Ofuji, Y. Takano, Y. Houkawa, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, T. Mori, M. Goh, S. Guo, and K. Akagi, "Microscopic Orientational Order of Polymer Chains in Helical Polyacetylene Thin Films studied by Confocal Laser Raman Microscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1710-1713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

M. Ofuji, Y. Takano, Y. Houkawa, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, T. Mori, M. Goh, S. Guo, and K. Akagi, "Microscopic Orientational Order of Polymer Chains in Helical Polyacetylene Thin Films studied by Confocal Laser Raman Microscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1710-1713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Terhune, R. W

1. P. D. Maker and R. W . Terhune, "Study of Optical Effects Due to an Induced Polarization Third Order in the Electric Field Strength," Phys. Rev. 137, A801-A818 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Tordjmann, Th.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, Th. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nature Methods 3, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Volkmer, A.

A. Volkmer, "Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, R59-R81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Warenghem, M.

J.-F. Blach, M. Warenghem, and D. Bormann, "Probing thick uniaxial birefringent medium in confined geometry: A polarised confocal micro-Raman approach," Vibr.Spectroscopy 41, 48-58 (2006).

Weitz, D. A.

S. Pautot, B. J. Frisken, J.-X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Weitz, "Spontaneous Formation of Lipid Structures at Oil/Water/Lipid Interfaces," Langmuir 19, 10281-10287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, S. Pautot, D. A. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of water molecules between phospholipid bilayers visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. C. L.

I. I. Smalyukh, O. V. Zribi, J. C. Butler, O. D. Lavrentovich, and G. C. L. Wong, "Structure and Dynamics of Liquid Crystalline Pattern Formation in Drying Droplets of DNA," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 177801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wurpel, G. W. H.

G. W. H. Wurpel, H. A. Rinia, and M. Muller, "Imaging orientational order and lipid density in multilamellar vesicles with multiplex CARS microscopy," J. Microsc. 218, 37-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. W. H. Wurpel, J. M. Schins, and M. Muller, "Direct measurement of chain order in single lipid mono- and bilayers with multiplex CARS," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 3400-3403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, A.

A. Xie and D. A. Higgins, "Electric-field-induced dynamics in radial liquid crystal droplets studied by multiphoton-excited fluorescence microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4014-4016 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S.

J.-X. Cheng and S. Xie, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Instrumentation, Theory, and Applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

B. G. Saar, H.-S. Park, X. S. Xie, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Three-dimensional imaging of chemical bond orientation in liquid crystals by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 13585-13596 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, S. Pautot, D. A. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of water molecules between phospholipid bilayers visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, "Detection of single lipid bilayers with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 642-650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Pautot, B. J. Frisken, J.-X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Weitz, "Spontaneous Formation of Lipid Structures at Oil/Water/Lipid Interfaces," Langmuir 19, 10281-10287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering polarized microscopy," Opt. Lett. 26, 1341-1343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-Dimensional Vibrational Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yan, P. Y.

Yokoyama, H.

Yoshiki, K.

K. Yoshiki, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, "Second-Harmonic-Generation Microscopy Using Excitation Beam with Controlled Polarization Pattern to Determine Three-Dimensional Molecular Orientation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L1066-L1068 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zickmund, P.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of Axonal Myelin in Live Spinal Tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zribi, O. V.

I. I. Smalyukh, O. V. Zribi, J. C. Butler, O. D. Lavrentovich, and G. C. L. Wong, "Structure and Dynamics of Liquid Crystalline Pattern Formation in Drying Droplets of DNA," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 177801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zumbusch, A.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-Dimensional Vibrational Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A.V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, P. N. Prasad, and I. I. Smalyukh, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering polarized microscopy of 3-D director structures in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Xie and D. A. Higgins, "Electric-field-induced dynamics in radial liquid crystal droplets studied by multiphoton-excited fluorescence microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4014-4016 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of Axonal Myelin in Live Spinal Tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. I. Smalyukh, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Three-dimensional imaging of orientational order by fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 336, 88-96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cytometry (1)

L.G. Rodriguez, S. J. Lockett, and G. R. Holtom, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: a biological review," Cytometry 69A, 779-791 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. E (2)

C. D. Southern and H. F. Gleeson, "Using the full Raman depolarization in the determination of the order parameters in liquid crystal systems," Eur. Phys. J. E 24, 119-127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smalyukh, R. Pratibha, N. V. Madhusudana, and O. D. Lavrentovich, "Selective imaging of 3-D director fields and study of defects in biaxial smectic A liquid crystals," Eur. Phys. J. E 16, 179-192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. A. Higgins and B. J. Luther, "Watching molecules reorient in liquid crystal droplets with multiphoton-excited fluorescence microscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3935-3942 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

G. W. H. Wurpel, H. A. Rinia, and M. Muller, "Imaging orientational order and lipid density in multilamellar vesicles with multiplex CARS microscopy," J. Microsc. 218, 37-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

G. W. H. Wurpel, J. M. Schins, and M. Muller, "Direct measurement of chain order in single lipid mono- and bilayers with multiplex CARS," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 3400-3403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng and S. Xie, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Instrumentation, Theory, and Applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Volkmer, "Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, R59-R81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

I. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, "Detection of single lipid bilayers with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 642-650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Ofuji, Y. Takano, Y. Houkawa, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, T. Mori, M. Goh, S. Guo, and K. Akagi, "Microscopic Orientational Order of Polymer Chains in Helical Polyacetylene Thin Films studied by Confocal Laser Raman Microscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1710-1713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshiki, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, "Second-Harmonic-Generation Microscopy Using Excitation Beam with Controlled Polarization Pattern to Determine Three-Dimensional Molecular Orientation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L1066-L1068 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (2)

S. Pautot, B. J. Frisken, J.-X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Weitz, "Spontaneous Formation of Lipid Structures at Oil/Water/Lipid Interfaces," Langmuir 19, 10281-10287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Kennedy, J. Sutcliffe, and J.-X. Cheng, "Molecular Composition and Orientation in Myelin figures Characterized by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," Langmuir 21, 6478-6486 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

I. I. Smalyukh, "Confocal Microscopy of Director Structures in Strongly Confined and Composite Systems," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 477, 23-41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature Methods (1)

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, Th. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nature Methods 3, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

1. P. D. Maker and R. W . Terhune, "Study of Optical Effects Due to an Induced Polarization Third Order in the Electric Field Strength," Phys. Rev. 137, A801-A818 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

E. Santamato, G. Abbate, P. Maddalena, and Y. R. Shen, "Optically induced twist Freedericksz transition in planar-aligned nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 36, 2389-2392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

I. I. Smalyukh, B. I. Senyuk, P. Palffy-Muhoray, O. D. Lavrentovich, H. Huang, E. C. Gartland, Jr., V. H. Bodnar, T. Kosa, and B. Taheri, "Electric-field-induced nematic-cholesteric transition and three-dimensional director structures in homeotropic cells," Phys. Rev. E 72, 061707 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

I. I. Smalyukh, O. V. Zribi, J. C. Butler, O. D. Lavrentovich, and G. C. L. Wong, "Structure and Dynamics of Liquid Crystalline Pattern Formation in Drying Droplets of DNA," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 177801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical-field-induced birefringence and Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411-1411 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-Dimensional Vibrational Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

P. Palffy-Muhoray, "The Diverse World of Liquid Crystals," Phys. Today 60, 54-60 (2007).

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

I. I. Smalyukh, A.V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, and P. N. Prasad, "Laser trapping in anisotropic fluids and polarization controlled particle dynamics," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 18048-18053 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

J.-X. Cheng, S. Pautot, D. A. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of water molecules between phospholipid bilayers visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spectroscopy (1)

J.-F. Blach, M. Warenghem, and D. Bormann, "Probing thick uniaxial birefringent medium in confined geometry: A polarised confocal micro-Raman approach," Vibr.Spectroscopy 41, 48-58 (2006).

Other (5)

P. N. Prasad, Introduction to Biophotonics (Wiley, New York, 2003).

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Clarendon Press, Oxford 1993).

I.-C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley, New York, 1995).

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Supplementary Material (2)

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