Abstract

We present a low coherence light source by direct supercontinuum generation from a diode-pumped, passively modelocked Er:Yb:glass-laser, which generates 198 fs transform-limited pulses with an average power of 100 mW at a repetition rate of 75 MHz. The pulse train is launched into a dispersion optimized highly nonlinear fiber for spectral broadening. The optical bandwidth spans from 1150 nm to 2400 nm, which is more than one octave. The potential for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) is demonstrated by coherence measurements supporting an axial resolution of 3.5 µm in air.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

N. Nishizawa, Y. Chen, P. Hsiung, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Real-time, ultrahigh-resolution, optical coherence tomography with an all-fiber, femtosecond fiber laser continuum at 1.5 µm," Opt. Lett. 29, 2846-2848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, "Noise of mode-locked lasers. Part II: Timing jitter and other fluctuations," Appl. Phys. B 79, 163-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47-74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 608-610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Nishizawa, and T. Goto, "Widely Broadened Super Continuum Generation Using Highly Nonlinear Dispersion Shifted Fibers and Femtosecond Fiber Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 365-367 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (2)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, "Silica-Based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1385-1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomographic Imaging of Human Tissue at 1.55 µm and 1.81 µm Using Er- and TM-Doped Fiber Sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Colston, U. Sathyam, L. DaSilva, M. Everett, P. Stroeve, and L. Otis, "Dental OCT," Opt. Express 3, 230-238 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, "In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 1439-1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy: Properties and Demonstration of Vascular Pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, "Soliton Mode-Locking with Saturable Absorbers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 540-556 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguirre, A.

Alonzo, J.

Asom, M. T.

B¸nting, U.

Barton, J. K.

Birks, T.

Birngruber, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bise, R.

Bizheva, K.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomographic Imaging of Human Tissue at 1.55 µm and 1.81 µm Using Er- and TM-Doped Fiber Sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy: Properties and Demonstration of Vascular Pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

Bourquin, S.

Boyd, G. D.

Brezinski, M. E.

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomographic Imaging of Human Tissue at 1.55 µm and 1.81 µm Using Er- and TM-Doped Fiber Sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy: Properties and Demonstration of Vascular Pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomograhic imaging using a mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 laser source," Opt. Lett. 20, 1486-1488 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Chiu, T. H.

Chudoba, C.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, "Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers and Optics 77, 269-277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Colston, B.

Corwin, K. L.

N. R. Newbury, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and R. S. Windeler, "Noise amplification during supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 944-946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, "Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers and Optics 77, 269-277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DaSilva, L.

de Boer, J. F.

Diddams, S. A.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, "Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers and Optics 77, 269-277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, "Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers and Optics 77, 269-277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Engelhardt, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Everett, M.

Feder, K.

Ferguson, J. F.

Fini, J. M.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

N. Nishizawa, Y. Chen, P. Hsiung, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Real-time, ultrahigh-resolution, optical coherence tomography with an all-fiber, femtosecond fiber laser continuum at 1.5 µm," Opt. Lett. 29, 2846-2848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361-1367 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 608-610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kärtner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 111-113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomographic Imaging of Human Tissue at 1.55 µm and 1.81 µm Using Er- and TM-Doped Fiber Sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy: Properties and Demonstration of Vascular Pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomograhic imaging using a mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 laser source," Opt. Lett. 20, 1486-1488 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In-vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghanta, R. K.

Goto, T.

N. Nishizawa, and T. Goto, "Widely Broadened Super Continuum Generation Using Highly Nonlinear Dispersion Shifted Fibers and Femtosecond Fiber Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 365-367 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Hartl, I.

Haverkamp, N.

Hee, M. R.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy: Properties and Demonstration of Vascular Pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomograhic imaging using a mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 laser source," Opt. Lett. 20, 1486-1488 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In-vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hoelzenbein, T.

Holzwarth, R.

Hsiung, P.

Huang, D.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In-vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Innerhofer, E.

Ippen, E. P.

Ishikawa, S.

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, "Silica-Based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1385-1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Jones, D. J.

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomographic Imaging of Human Tissue at 1.55 µm and 1.81 µm Using Er- and TM-Doped Fiber Sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. D.

F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, "Soliton Mode-Locking with Saturable Absorbers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 540-556 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kashiwada, T.

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, "Silica-Based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1385-1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

Ko, T.

Ko, T. H.

Kopf, D.

Kowalevicz, A.

Krainer, L.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Lankenau, E.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, M.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In-vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mei, M.

Miller, D. A. B.

Monberg, E.

Morgner, U.

Nelson, J. S.

Nelson, L. E.

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomographic Imaging of Human Tissue at 1.55 µm and 1.81 µm Using Er- and TM-Doped Fiber Sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, "Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers and Optics 77, 269-277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Newbury, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and R. S. Windeler, "Noise amplification during supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 944-946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicholson, J. W.

Nishimura, M.

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, "Silica-Based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1385-1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, N.

Okuno, T.

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, "Silica-Based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1385-1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Onishi, M.

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, "Silica-Based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1385-1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Otis, L.

Paschotta, R.

Pehamberger, H.

Pitris, C.

Pollnau, M.

Považay, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In-vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

Rudin, B.

Salathé, R.

Sathyam, U.

Sattmann, H.

Saxer, C.

Schlatter, A.

Schuman, J. S.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In-vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seitz, W.

Sickler, J. W.

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy: Properties and Demonstration of Vascular Pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

Spühler, G. J.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockert, T.

Stroeve, P.

Swanson, E. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy: Properties and Demonstration of Vascular Pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In-vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takayanagi, J.

Tearney, G. J.

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomographic Imaging of Human Tissue at 1.55 µm and 1.81 µm Using Er- and TM-Doped Fiber Sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy: Properties and Demonstration of Vascular Pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomograhic imaging using a mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 laser source," Opt. Lett. 20, 1486-1488 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Telle, H. R.

Trevor, D. J.

Wacheck, V.

Wadsworth, W.

Wang, Y.

Washburn, B. R.

N. R. Newbury, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and R. S. Windeler, "Noise amplification during supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 944-946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, "Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers and Optics 77, 269-277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, "Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers and Optics 77, 269-277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

Welch, A. J.

Welzel, J.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

Windeler, R. S.

Xiang, S.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zeller, S. C.

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Paschotta, "Noise of mode-locked lasers. Part II: Timing jitter and other fluctuations," Appl. Phys. B 79, 163-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers and Optics (1)

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, "Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers and Optics 77, 269-277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Circulation (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography for Optical Biopsy: Properties and Demonstration of Vascular Pathology," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Okuno, M. Onishi, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, and M. Nishimura, "Silica-Based functional fibers with enhanced nonlinearity and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1385-1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, "Soliton Mode-Locking with Saturable Absorbers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 540-556 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomographic Imaging of Human Tissue at 1.55 µm and 1.81 µm Using Er- and TM-Doped Fiber Sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47-74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Nishizawa, and T. Goto, "Widely Broadened Super Continuum Generation Using Highly Nonlinear Dispersion Shifted Fibers and Femtosecond Fiber Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 365-367 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361-1367 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (16)

N. R. Newbury, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and R. S. Windeler, "Noise amplification during supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 944-946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, J. W. Sickler, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, "High repetition rate, low jitter, low intensity noise, fundamentally mode-locked 167 fs soliton Er-fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 32, 1566-1568 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schlatter, B. Rudin, S. C. Zeller, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, "Nearly quantum-noise-limited timing jitter from miniature Er:Yb:glass lasers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1536-1538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, J. S. Nelson, Z. Chen, and R. S. Windeler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography by broadband continuum generation from a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 182-184 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, E. Innerhofer, R. Paschotta, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, "Soliton mode-locked Er:Yb:glass laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 263-265 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, R. Bise, J. Alonzo, T. Stockert, D. J. Trevor, E. Monberg, J. M. Fini, P. S. Westbrook, K. Feder, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, "Visible continuum generation using a femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser and a silica nonlinear fiber," Opt. Lett. 33, 28-30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, "In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 1439-1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kärtner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 111-113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In-vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, "Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 25, 114-116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomograhic imaging using a mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 laser source," Opt. Lett. 20, 1486-1488 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, T. Hoelzenbein, V. Wacheck, and H. Pehamberger, "Compact, broad-bandwidth fiber laser for sub-2-µm axial resolution optical coherence tomography in the 1300-nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 28, 707-709 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 608-610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Nishizawa, Y. Chen, P. Hsiung, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Real-time, ultrahigh-resolution, optical coherence tomography with an all-fiber, femtosecond fiber laser continuum at 1.5 µm," Opt. Lett. 29, 2846-2848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, "Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber," Opt. Lett. 17, 505-507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J . Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  2, 435-453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

http://www.superlumdiodes.com.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the laser cavity: SESAM, semiconductor saturable absorber mirror; M1 high reflectors at 1550 nm, radius of curvature 300 mm; GTI, high reflective GTI-mirror, dispersion -100 fs2; M2, M3, high reflectors at 1550 nm, radius of curvature 75 mm; OC, output coupler, transmission 1.7 %.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectrum (a) and autocorrelation trace (b) of the generated pulses directly after the oscillator plotted with fits for a sech2-pulse.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Overview of the experimental scheme: The oscillator output is directly broadened by a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) and characterized by a Michelson Interferometer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Index of refraction profile of the highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). The dispersion profile was adopted by the diameter Da of the highly doped core and the diameter Db of the depressed cladding.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Generated supercontinua. Blue line: spectrum of the 10-meter fiber; green line: spectrum of the 5-meter fiber; grey line: unbroaded laser spectrum; red line: dispersion profile of the HNLF.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured relative intensity noise (RIN). Blue line: RIN of the oscillator; green line: RIN of the supercontinuum generated with 10 m HNLF, red line: RIN of the supercontinuum generated with 5 m HNLF, grey line: RIN of the measurement system noise floor.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured interferograms of the 10-meter (blue) and the 5-meter HNLF (green). The coherence length supports an axial resolution of 3.5 µm in air.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Comparison between the spectrum retrieved from the interferogram and the spectrum measured with the monochromator (both curves include the response of the same detector) using (a) 10-meter HNLF and (b) 5-meter HNLF.

Metrics