Abstract

A practical process to fabricate InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes (LEDs) with a self-organized nanorod structure is demonstrated. The nanorod array is realized by using nature lithography of surface patterned silica spheres followed by dry etching. A layer of spin-on-glass (SOG), which intervening the rod spacing, serves the purpose of electric isolation to each of the parallel nanorod LED units. The electroluminescence peak wavelengths of the nanorod LEDs nearly remain as constant for an injection current level between 25mA and 100mA, which indicates that the quantum confined stark effect is suppressed in the nanorod devices. Furthermore, from the Raman light scattering analysis we identify a strain relaxation mechanism for lattice mismatch layers in the nanostructure.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, "Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, "Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126-132 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, "Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaNGaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051121 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, L. C. Chen, "Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, "X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, "InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, "Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes," J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765-G770 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, "Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, "Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, "Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates," Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48-51 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and C. T. Liang, "Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters," Opt. Express 15, 9357 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu and C. D. Chen, "Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts," Nanotechnology 17,1454-1458 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, "Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024-2027 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, "Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires," Chem. Phys. Lett. 333, 12-15 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, "Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires," Adv. Mater. 12, 738 - 741 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, "Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601-1603 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).
  19. T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, "Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, "Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands," Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. H. Peng, C. W. Chuang, L. H. Lou, "Piezoelectric effects in the optical properties of strained InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 795-797 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, "Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. S. Park, C. M. Park, H. Im, S. J. Lee, T. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, and J. E. Oh, "Growth and optical properties on formation of self-assembled GaN nanorod grown on Si (111) substrates," 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology, 2, 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology 687-690 (2005).
  24. Y. Lalatonne, J. Richardi, and M. P. Pileni, "Van der Waals versus dipolar forces controlling mesoscopic organizations of magnetic nanocrystals," Nature Materials 3, 121-125 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, C. -T. Liang, T.Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, "Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters," Opt. express 15, 9357-9365 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, "Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, "Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126-132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, "Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaNGaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, "Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands," Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, "X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, "InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and C. T. Liang, "Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters," Opt. Express 15, 9357 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, C. -T. Liang, T.Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, "Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters," Opt. express 15, 9357-9365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, "Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes," J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765-G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, "Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu and C. D. Chen, "Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts," Nanotechnology 17,1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, L. C. Chen, "Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, "Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, "Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, "Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. Lalatonne, J. Richardi, and M. P. Pileni, "Van der Waals versus dipolar forces controlling mesoscopic organizations of magnetic nanocrystals," Nature Materials 3, 121-125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

2003 (4)

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, "Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601-1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, "Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024-2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, "Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates," Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48-51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, "Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires," Chem. Phys. Lett. 333, 12-15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, "Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires," Adv. Mater. 12, 738 - 741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," Science 290,314 - 317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

L. H. Peng, C. W. Chuang, L. H. Lou, "Piezoelectric effects in the optical properties of strained InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 795-797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Airey, R.

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, "Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asif Khan, M.

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, "Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, "Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates," Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48-51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bai, J.

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, "Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," Science 290,314 - 317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellet-Amalric, E.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. J.

Chapelle, M. L.

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, "Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires," Chem. Phys. Lett. 333, 12-15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, "Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires," Adv. Mater. 12, 738 - 741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. D.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu and C. D. Chen, "Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts," Nanotechnology 17,1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Q.

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, "Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, "Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates," Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48-51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, "Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaNGaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, "X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu and C. D. Chen, "Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts," Nanotechnology 17,1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. G.

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, "InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. S.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu and C. D. Chen, "Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts," Nanotechnology 17,1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. H.

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, C. -T. Liang, T.Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, "Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters," Opt. express 15, 9357-9365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, L. C. Chen, "Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q. Y.

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, "Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. T.

Chen, W. H.

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, "Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024-2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and C. T. Liang, "Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters," Opt. Express 15, 9357 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. S.

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, "X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chi, T. W.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, "Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601-1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, "Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands," Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. T.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, "Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands," Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

Chu, W. K.

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, "Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Chuang, C. W.

L. H. Peng, C. W. Chuang, L. H. Lou, "Piezoelectric effects in the optical properties of strained InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 795-797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deng, S.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, "Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024-2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, "Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, "Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126-132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H.-J.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," Science 290,314 - 317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ewing, M. A.

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, "Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126-132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. S.

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, "Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires," Chem. Phys. Lett. 333, 12-15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. M.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, "Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaevski, M.

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, "Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates," Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48-51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gao, R. C.

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, "InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaska, R.

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, "Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates," Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48-51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Georgakilas, A.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hill, G.

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, "Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hollingsworth, A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," Science 290,314 - 317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horng, R. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, "Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes," J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765-G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, "Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, C. L.

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, "Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006)
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, "Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601-1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, K. Y.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, "Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601-1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, Y. P.

Hsu, C. W.

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, L. C. Chen, "Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, T. H.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, "Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands," Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

Hu, Z.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, "Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024-2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. F.

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, "Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaNGaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, "X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, L. C. Chen, "Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu and C. D. Chen, "Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts," Nanotechnology 17,1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, "Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands," Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

Huang, J. J.

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, "X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, L. C. Chen, "Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. C.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, "Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, "Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes," J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765-G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, "Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hung, Y. T.

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huo, K.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, "Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024-2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J. S.

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iliev, M. N.

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, "Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Jalabert, D.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, "Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands," Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

Klimov, V. I.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," Science 290,314 - 317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T. S.

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, "InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kontos, A. G.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Korenblit, Y.

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, "Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126-132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, "InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, "Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands," Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

Kuokstis, E.

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, "Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, "Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates," Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48-51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. F.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, "Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands," Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lalatonne, Y.

Y. Lalatonne, J. Richardi, and M. P. Pileni, "Van der Waals versus dipolar forces controlling mesoscopic organizations of magnetic nanocrystals," Nature Materials 3, 121-125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leatherdale, C. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," Science 290,314 - 317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, "Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, "Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126-132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, "InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, "Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires," Chem. Phys. Lett. 333, 12-15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liang, C. H.

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liang, C. T.

Liang, C. -T.

Limb, J.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, "Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, "Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126-132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, "Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands," Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, "Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

Lin, S. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, "Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, "Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes," J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765-G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. Y.

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.Y.

Liu, J. P.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, "Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, I.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, "Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601-1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lou, L. H.

L. H. Peng, C. W. Chuang, L. H. Lou, "Piezoelectric effects in the optical properties of strained InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 795-797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. F.

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, "Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaNGaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, "InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, "Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands," Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, "Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024-2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. C.

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, "X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu and C. D. Chen, "Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts," Nanotechnology 17,1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malko, J.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," Science 290,314 - 317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mean, J. K.

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, "Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Mikhailovsky, A. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," Science 290,314 - 317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, M. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, "Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes," J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765-G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Parbrook, P. J.

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, "Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pelekanos, N. T.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. H.

L. H. Peng, C. W. Chuang, L. H. Lou, "Piezoelectric effects in the optical properties of strained InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 795-797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pileni, M. P.

Y. Lalatonne, J. Richardi, and M. P. Pileni, "Van der Waals versus dipolar forces controlling mesoscopic organizations of magnetic nanocrystals," Nature Materials 3, 121-125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ponce, F. A.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, "Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ranalli, F.

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, "Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Raptis, Y. S.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rattlidge, R.

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, "Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richardi, J.

Y. Lalatonne, J. Richardi, and M. P. Pileni, "Van der Waals versus dipolar forces controlling mesoscopic organizations of magnetic nanocrystals," Nature Materials 3, 121-125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryou, J.-H.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, "Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ryou, J-H.

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, "Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126-132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seo, H. W.

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, "Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Shen, B.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, "Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024-2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shiao, W. Y.

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, "X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, L. C. Chen, "Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, "Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates," Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48-51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simin, G.

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, "Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates," Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48-51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W. H.

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, "Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, "Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates," Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48-51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. C.

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, "Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires," Chem. Phys. Lett. 333, 12-15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tang, T. Y.

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, "X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, L. C. Chen, "Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu and C. D. Chen, "Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts," Nanotechnology 17,1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, S. C.

Tu, L. W.

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, "Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006)
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, "Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601-1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. M.

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, "Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates," Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48-51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, "InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, "Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands," Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

Wang, T.

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, "Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. C.

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, "InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. K.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, "Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes," J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765-G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, "Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, "Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024-2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wen, K. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, "Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, "Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes," J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765-G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. S.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu and C. D. Chen, "Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts," Nanotechnology 17,1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, "Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024-2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. H.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, "Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, "Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes," J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765-G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, "Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, N.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, "Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024-2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," Science 290,314 - 317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, "X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, "Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaNGaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, L. C. Chen, "Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu and C. D. Chen, "Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts," Nanotechnology 17,1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. W.

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, "Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, "Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates," Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48-51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. C.

C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, "Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires," Adv. Mater. 12, 738 - 741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D. M.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu and C. D. Chen, "Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts," Nanotechnology 17,1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, D.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, "Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, "Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126-132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, "Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands," Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

Yu, Y. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, "Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes," J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765-G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. P.

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, "Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates," Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48-51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, "Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024-2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, "Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires," Adv. Mater. 12, 738 - 741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, "Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601-1603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, "Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Peng, C. W. Chuang, L. H. Lou, "Piezoelectric effects in the optical properties of strained InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 795-797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, "Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006)
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, "Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, "Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, "Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaNGaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, L. C. Chen, "Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, "InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, "Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, "Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires," Chem. Phys. Lett. 333, 12-15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Display Technol. (1)

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, "Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126-132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, "X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, "Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Soc. (1)

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, "Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes," J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765-G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, "Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024-2027 (2003).
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Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125-129 (2004).

Nanotechnology (2)

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, "Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands," Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
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H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu and C. D. Chen, "Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts," Nanotechnology 17,1454-1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature Materials (1)

Y. Lalatonne, J. Richardi, and M. P. Pileni, "Van der Waals versus dipolar forces controlling mesoscopic organizations of magnetic nanocrystals," Nature Materials 3, 121-125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research (1)

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, "Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates," Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48-51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," Science 290,314 - 317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Y. S. Park, C. M. Park, H. Im, S. J. Lee, T. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, and J. E. Oh, "Growth and optical properties on formation of self-assembled GaN nanorod grown on Si (111) substrates," 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology, 2, 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology 687-690 (2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). The as-grown LED structure. (b). Illustration of a SiO2 layer deposited by PECVD. The SiO2 thin film is served as the etch mask and the via hole is for silica nanoparticle coating at a latter step. (c). Formation of nanorods by spin coating a monolayer of silica nanoparticles followed by ICP dry etching. (d). Device profiles of nanorod LEDs. SOG (in pink) is coated between rods as a space and sidewall passivation layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). An SEM image of 100nm-diameter (a) and 50nm-diameter (b) nanorods. (c) The cross-section SEM image of nanorod LED array.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

I–V curves of the 100nm and 50nm nanorod LEDs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

EL spectra of a conventional LED (a), a 100nm nanorod LED (b) and a 50nm nanorod LED (c). (d) Comparison of peak wavelengths of conventional, 50nm and 100nm nanorod LEDs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Light emission of a 100nm nanorod LED with an injection current 20mA (a) 30mA (b) and 45mA (c).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Room-temperature Raman scattering spectra of the planar, 100nm- and 50nm-nanorod structures. (b). Closeup view of the InGaN E2 modes of these three structures under comparison.

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