Abstract

We present a model for infrared radiance contrast of native and crude oil covered water surfaces. This model is based on the so called “direct” approach by treating individual volumetric elements as incoherent radiators. The total emitted radiation is calculated by the sum of individual contributions from the oil film and the underlying water, respectively. Therefore, different temperatures can be assigned to the oil film and water assuming quasi-static temperature distribution, enabling modeling of differential heating of the oil film during daytime. This model can be applied to remote sensing, particularly, to explain the historically observed thickness-dependent contrast in native and crude oil covered sea surfaces.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. F. Fingas et al., in Proceedings of the fifth thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. II 411-418, 1998.
  2. R. H. Goodman, The remote sensing of oil slicks, Lodge AE, ed., (John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, 1989), pp. 39-65.
  3. N. Hurfurd, The remote sensing of oil slicks, Lodge AE, ed., (John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, 1989), pp. 7-16.
  4. U. Hua, "Remote sensing of oil spills in thermal infrared - Contour line effect," in Proceedings of IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE 1991) 3, pp. 1315-1317.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  8. P. Pigeat et al., "Calculation of thermal emissivity for thin films by a direct method," Phys. Rev. B 57, 9293-9300 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Hadni, Essentials of modern physics applied to the study of the IR (Paragon, Oxford 1967).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

P. Pigeat et al., "Calculation of thermal emissivity for thin films by a direct method," Phys. Rev. B 57, 9293-9300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1973 (1)

1950 (1)

de Hoog, F. J.

den Boer, J. H. W. G.

Hale, G. M.

Kroesen, G. M. W.

McMahon, M. O.

Otremba, Z.

Pigeat, P.

P. Pigeat et al., "Calculation of thermal emissivity for thin films by a direct method," Phys. Rev. B 57, 9293-9300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Pigeat et al., "Calculation of thermal emissivity for thin films by a direct method," Phys. Rev. B 57, 9293-9300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

A. Hadni, Essentials of modern physics applied to the study of the IR (Paragon, Oxford 1967).

V. P. Tolstoy, Handbook of infrared spectroscopy of ultrathin films (Wiley 2003).
[CrossRef]

American Petroleum Institute, "American Petroleum Institute research project 44 selected properties of hydrocarbons and related compounds," (Carnegie Institute of Technology 1966).

M. F. Fingas et al., in Proceedings of the fifth thematic conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. II 411-418, 1998.

R. H. Goodman, The remote sensing of oil slicks, Lodge AE, ed., (John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, 1989), pp. 39-65.

N. Hurfurd, The remote sensing of oil slicks, Lodge AE, ed., (John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, 1989), pp. 7-16.

U. Hua, "Remote sensing of oil spills in thermal infrared - Contour line effect," in Proceedings of IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE 1991) 3, pp. 1315-1317.

R. Horvath et al., "Optical remote sensing of oil slicks: signature analysis and systems evaluation," (The University of Michigan 1971).

R. Siegel and J. R. Howell, Thermal radiation heat transfer, 4th ed., (Taylor & Francis 2001).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The air-oil-water stack. The three media are denoted as 1, 2, and 3 in the equations. The thickness of the oil film is h.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption spectra of three representative oils.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Contrast (Eq. (6)) for different iso-octane temperatures (292.5–294K). Water temperature was fixed at 293K and 8 µm wavelength was used in all calculations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Contrast (Eq. (6)) for different n-heptane temperatures (292.5–294K). Water temperature was fixed at 293K and 8 µm wavelength was used in all calculations.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Contrast (Eq. (6)) for different n-decane temperatures (292.5–294K). Water temperature was fixed at 293K and 8 µm wavelength was used in all calculations.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Contrast (Eq. (6)) for different o-xylene temperatures (292.5–294K). Water temperature was fixed at 293K and 8 µm wavelength was used in all calculations.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Contrast for different observation angles and polarizations: red, p-polarized; black, s-polarized; blue, unpolarized. Iso-octane at 8 µm wavelength is used as an example.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Contrast at different narrow wavelength bands for iso-octane at 294K: 8, 8.2, 8.6, and 12.8 µm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Contrast using integrated wavelength band from 8–14 µm (0.2 nm step size) for the four representative hydrocarbon constituents at 295K.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Results in Fig. 8 smoothed using a Savizky-Golay filter with 20 µm window, simulating non-uniform film thickness.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Contrast (Eq. (6)) for three different crude oils. Refractive index was fixed at 1.45 for all solid curves: blue, oil 293K; cyan, oil 294K; black, oil 295K. Refractive index was 1.5 for the dashed curves with oil at 295K. Water was fixed at 293K for all curves. In the transition thickness plot, the blue bars are for index 1.45, and the red bars are for index 1.5.

Tables (1)

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Table I. Optical properties of four hydrocarbon constituents and water at 8 µm.

Equations (8)

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R = r 12 + r 23 exp ( 2 i β 2 ) 1 + r 12 r 23 exp ( 2 i β 2 ) 2
β 2 = 2 π ( h λ ) n ̂ 2 2 n ̂ 1 2 sin 2 ( θ 1 ) ,
I oil = λ 4 π k 2 t 12 1 r 21 r 23 e i ( 2 π λ ) n ̂ 2 ( h cos θ 2 ) 2 ( 1 e 4 π k 2 h λ ) ,
ε oil = Re { n ̂ 1 n ̂ 2 } 4 π k 2 λ I oil .
I water = λ 4 π k 3 t 21 t 32 1 r 21 r 23 e i ( 2 π λ ) n ̂ 2 ( h cos θ 2 ) 2 e 4 π k 2 h λ
ε water = Re { n ̂ 1 n ̂ 3 } 4 π k 3 λ I water .
R total = B ( T oil ) ε oil + B ( T water ) ε water ,
C = ( R oil water R water ) R water ,

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