Abstract

Significant improvements in the accuracy of time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy are reached by using a Monte Carlo scheme for evaluation of measured photon time-of-flight distributions. The use of time-resolved diffusion theory of photon migration, being the current standard scheme for data evaluation, is shown defective. In particular, the familiar problem sometimes referred to as absorption-to-scattering coupling or crosstalk, is identified as an error related to the breakdown of the diffusion approximation. These systematic errors are investigated numerically using Monte Carlo simulations, and their influence on data evaluation of experimental recordings are accurately predicted. The proposed Monte Carlo-based data evaluation avoids these errors, and can be used for routine data evaluation. The accuracy and reproducibility of both MC and diffusion modeling are investigated experimentally using the MEDPHOT set of solid tissue-simulating phantoms, and provides convincing arguments that Monte Carlo-based evaluation is crucial in important ranges of optical properties. In contrast to diffusion-based evaluation, the Monte Carlo scheme results in optical properties consistent with phantom design. Since the MEDPHOT phantoms are used for international comparisons and performance assessment, the performed characterization is carefully reported.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. Mccully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, "Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdottır, and K. Svanberg, "In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014022 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Gibson, J. Hebden, and S. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1- R43 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Abrahamsson, A. Lowgren, B. Stromdahl, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "Scatter correction of transmission near-infrared spectra by photon migration data: Quantitative analysis of solids," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 1381-1387 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Pandozzi and D. Burns, "Power law analysis estimates of analyte concentration and particle size in highly scattering granular samples from photon time-of-flight measurements," Anal. Chem. 79, 6792-6798 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Yoo, F. Liu, and R. Alfano, "When does the diffusion-approximation fail to describe photon transport in random-media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2647-2650 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Haskell, L. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, and M. Mcadams, "Boundary-conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative-transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2727-2741 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Hielscher, S. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. Tittel, "The influence of boundary-conditions on the accuracy of diffusion-theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Experimental test of theoretical models for time-resolved reflectance," Med. Phys. 23, 1625-1633 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Kienle and M. Patterson, "Improved solutions of the steady-state and the time-resolved diffusion equations for reflectance from a semi-infinite turbid medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 246-254 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration," J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
    [PubMed]
  15. R. Graaff, M. Koelink, F. Demul, W. Zijlstra, A. Dassel, and J. Aarnoudse, "Condensed Monte Carlo simulations for the description of light transport," Appl. Opt. 32, 426-434 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Kienle and M. Patterson, "Determination of the optical properties of turbid media from a single Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2221-2227 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Pifferi, R. Berg, P. Taroni, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Fitting of Time-resolved reflectance curves with a Monte Carlo model," in Trends in Optics and Photonics: Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, vol. 2, pp. 311-314 (Optical Society of America, 1996).
  18. T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdottır, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Towards accuracte in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate," J. Biophoton. DOI: 10.1002/jbio.200710025 (posted 24 April 2008, in press).
  19. A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Moller, R. MacDonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. van Veen, H. Sterenborg, J. Tualle, H. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, "Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol," Appl. Opt. 44, 2104-2114 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu, "Fully automated time domain spectrometer for the absorption and scattering characterization of diffusive media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. Pogue and M. Patterson, "Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, "Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. Time-resolved method," Opt. Express 15, 6589-6604 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Firbank, M. Oda, and D. Delpy, "An improved design for a stable and reproducible phantom material for use in near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955-961 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Swartling, J. S. Dam, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Comparison of spatially and temporally resolved diffusereflectance measurement systems for determination of biomedical optical properties," Appl. Opt. 42, 4612-4620 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Real-time method for fitting time-resolved reflectance and transmittance measurements with a Monte Carlo model," Appl. Opt. 37, 2774-2780 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. Graaff, J. Aarnoudse, F. Demul, and H. Jentink, "Similarity relations for anisotropic scattering in absorbing media," Opt. Eng. 32, 244-252 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. Furutsu and Y. Yamada, "Diffusion-approximation for a dissipative random medium and the applications," Phys. Rev. E 50, 3634-3640 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Bassani, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, and D. Contini, "Independence of the diffusion coefficient from absorption: Experimental and numerical evidence," Opt. Lett. 22, 853-855 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. T. Nakai, G. Nishimura, K. Yamamoto, and M. Tamura, "Expression of optical diffusion coefficient in highabsorption turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2541-2549 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. Durduran, A. Yodh, B. Chance, and D. Boas, "Does the photon-diffusion coefficient depend on absorption?" J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 3358-3365 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  31. L. Marti-Lopez, J. Hebden, and J.-L. Bouza-Dominguez, "Estimates of minimum pulse width and maximum modulation frequency for diffusion optical tomography," Opt. Laser Eng. 44, 1172-1184 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

F. Pandozzi and D. Burns, "Power law analysis estimates of analyte concentration and particle size in highly scattering granular samples from photon time-of-flight measurements," Anal. Chem. 79, 6792-6798 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdottır, and K. Svanberg, "In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu, "Fully automated time domain spectrometer for the absorption and scattering characterization of diffusive media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, "Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. Time-resolved method," Opt. Express 15, 6589-6604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

L. Marti-Lopez, J. Hebden, and J.-L. Bouza-Dominguez, "Estimates of minimum pulse width and maximum modulation frequency for diffusion optical tomography," Opt. Laser Eng. 44, 1172-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Pogue and M. Patterson, "Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, "Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (4)

1996 (2)

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Experimental test of theoretical models for time-resolved reflectance," Med. Phys. 23, 1625-1633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle and M. Patterson, "Determination of the optical properties of turbid media from a single Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2221-2227 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

A. Hielscher, S. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. Tittel, "The influence of boundary-conditions on the accuracy of diffusion-theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Oda, and D. Delpy, "An improved design for a stable and reproducible phantom material for use in near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955-961 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

K. Furutsu and Y. Yamada, "Diffusion-approximation for a dissipative random medium and the applications," Phys. Rev. E 50, 3634-3640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Haskell, L. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, and M. Mcadams, "Boundary-conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative-transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2727-2741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

R. Graaff, M. Koelink, F. Demul, W. Zijlstra, A. Dassel, and J. Aarnoudse, "Condensed Monte Carlo simulations for the description of light transport," Appl. Opt. 32, 426-434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. Aarnoudse, F. Demul, and H. Jentink, "Similarity relations for anisotropic scattering in absorbing media," Opt. Eng. 32, 244-252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Yoo, F. Liu, and R. Alfano, "When does the diffusion-approximation fail to describe photon transport in random-media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2647-2650 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. Mccully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Aarnoudse, J.

R. Graaff, M. Koelink, F. Demul, W. Zijlstra, A. Dassel, and J. Aarnoudse, "Condensed Monte Carlo simulations for the description of light transport," Appl. Opt. 32, 426-434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. Aarnoudse, F. Demul, and H. Jentink, "Similarity relations for anisotropic scattering in absorbing media," Opt. Eng. 32, 244-252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Abrahamsson, C.

Alerstam, E.

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration," J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Alfano, R.

K. Yoo, F. Liu, and R. Alfano, "When does the diffusion-approximation fail to describe photon transport in random-media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2647-2650 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson, M.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdottır, and K. Svanberg, "In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Abrahamsson, A. Lowgren, B. Stromdahl, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "Scatter correction of transmission near-infrared spectra by photon migration data: Quantitative analysis of solids," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 1381-1387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Moller, R. MacDonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. van Veen, H. Sterenborg, J. Tualle, H. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, "Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol," Appl. Opt. 44, 2104-2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, "Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Swartling, J. S. Dam, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Comparison of spatially and temporally resolved diffusereflectance measurement systems for determination of biomedical optical properties," Appl. Opt. 42, 4612-4620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Real-time method for fitting time-resolved reflectance and transmittance measurements with a Monte Carlo model," Appl. Opt. 37, 2774-2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration," J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Arridge, S.

A. Gibson, J. Hebden, and S. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1- R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avrillier, S.

Bassani, M.

Bassi, A.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu, "Fully automated time domain spectrometer for the absorption and scattering characterization of diffusive media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Moller, R. MacDonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. van Veen, H. Sterenborg, J. Tualle, H. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, "Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol," Appl. Opt. 44, 2104-2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, "Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D.

Boretsky, R.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bouza-Dominguez, J.-L.

L. Marti-Lopez, J. Hebden, and J.-L. Bouza-Dominguez, "Estimates of minimum pulse width and maximum modulation frequency for diffusion optical tomography," Opt. Laser Eng. 44, 1172-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burns, D.

F. Pandozzi and D. Burns, "Power law analysis estimates of analyte concentration and particle size in highly scattering granular samples from photon time-of-flight measurements," Anal. Chem. 79, 6792-6798 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

T. Durduran, A. Yodh, B. Chance, and D. Boas, "Does the photon-diffusion coefficient depend on absorption?" J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 3358-3365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. Mccully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chikoidze, E.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, "Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, P.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Comelli, D.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu, "Fully automated time domain spectrometer for the absorption and scattering characterization of diffusive media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contini, D.

Cubeddu, R.

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, "Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. Time-resolved method," Opt. Express 15, 6589-6604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu, "Fully automated time domain spectrometer for the absorption and scattering characterization of diffusive media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Moller, R. MacDonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. van Veen, H. Sterenborg, J. Tualle, H. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, "Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol," Appl. Opt. 44, 2104-2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, "Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Experimental test of theoretical models for time-resolved reflectance," Med. Phys. 23, 1625-1633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dam, J. S.

Dassel, A.

Delpy, D.

M. Firbank, M. Oda, and D. Delpy, "An improved design for a stable and reproducible phantom material for use in near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955-961 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demul, F.

R. Graaff, J. Aarnoudse, F. Demul, and H. Jentink, "Similarity relations for anisotropic scattering in absorbing media," Opt. Eng. 32, 244-252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Graaff, M. Koelink, F. Demul, W. Zijlstra, A. Dassel, and J. Aarnoudse, "Condensed Monte Carlo simulations for the description of light transport," Appl. Opt. 32, 426-434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

Farina, A.

Feng, T.

Finander, M.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Firbank, M.

M. Firbank, M. Oda, and D. Delpy, "An improved design for a stable and reproducible phantom material for use in near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955-961 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Folestad, S.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Abrahamsson, A. Lowgren, B. Stromdahl, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "Scatter correction of transmission near-infrared spectra by photon migration data: Quantitative analysis of solids," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 1381-1387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fountain, M.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. Mccully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furutsu, K.

K. Furutsu and Y. Yamada, "Diffusion-approximation for a dissipative random medium and the applications," Phys. Rev. E 50, 3634-3640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, A.

A. Gibson, J. Hebden, and S. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1- R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graaff, R.

R. Graaff, M. Koelink, F. Demul, W. Zijlstra, A. Dassel, and J. Aarnoudse, "Condensed Monte Carlo simulations for the description of light transport," Appl. Opt. 32, 426-434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. Aarnoudse, F. Demul, and H. Jentink, "Similarity relations for anisotropic scattering in absorbing media," Opt. Eng. 32, 244-252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Greenfeld, R.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. Mccully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Grosenick, D.

Haskell, R.

Hebden, J.

L. Marti-Lopez, J. Hebden, and J.-L. Bouza-Dominguez, "Estimates of minimum pulse width and maximum modulation frequency for diffusion optical tomography," Opt. Laser Eng. 44, 1172-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Gibson, J. Hebden, and S. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1- R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hielscher, A.

A. Hielscher, S. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. Tittel, "The influence of boundary-conditions on the accuracy of diffusion-theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holtom, G.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. Mccully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S.

A. Hielscher, S. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. Tittel, "The influence of boundary-conditions on the accuracy of diffusion-theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jentink, H.

R. Graaff, J. Aarnoudse, F. Demul, and H. Jentink, "Similarity relations for anisotropic scattering in absorbing media," Opt. Eng. 32, 244-252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, J.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Abrahamsson, A. Lowgren, B. Stromdahl, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "Scatter correction of transmission near-infrared spectra by photon migration data: Quantitative analysis of solids," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 1381-1387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufmann, K.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kent, J.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. Mccully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienle, A.

A. Kienle and M. Patterson, "Improved solutions of the steady-state and the time-resolved diffusion equations for reflectance from a semi-infinite turbid medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 246-254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Kienle and M. Patterson, "Determination of the optical properties of turbid media from a single Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2221-2227 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koelink, M.

Leigh, J.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Levy, W.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

K. Yoo, F. Liu, and R. Alfano, "When does the diffusion-approximation fail to describe photon transport in random-media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2647-2650 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowgren, A.

MacDonald, R.

Martelli, F.

Marti-Lopez, L.

L. Marti-Lopez, J. Hebden, and J.-L. Bouza-Dominguez, "Estimates of minimum pulse width and maximum modulation frequency for diffusion optical tomography," Opt. Laser Eng. 44, 1172-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mcadams, M.

Mccully, K.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. Mccully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyake, H.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Moller, M.

Nakai, T.

T. Nakai, G. Nishimura, K. Yamamoto, and M. Tamura, "Expression of optical diffusion coefficient in highabsorption turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2541-2549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nghiem, H.

Nioka, S.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. Mccully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, G.

T. Nakai, G. Nishimura, K. Yamamoto, and M. Tamura, "Expression of optical diffusion coefficient in highabsorption turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2541-2549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oda, M.

M. Firbank, M. Oda, and D. Delpy, "An improved design for a stable and reproducible phantom material for use in near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955-961 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pandozzi, F.

F. Pandozzi and D. Burns, "Power law analysis estimates of analyte concentration and particle size in highly scattering granular samples from photon time-of-flight measurements," Anal. Chem. 79, 6792-6798 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M.

B. Pogue and M. Patterson, "Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle and M. Patterson, "Improved solutions of the steady-state and the time-resolved diffusion equations for reflectance from a semi-infinite turbid medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 246-254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Kienle and M. Patterson, "Determination of the optical properties of turbid media from a single Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2221-2227 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu, "Fully automated time domain spectrometer for the absorption and scattering characterization of diffusive media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, "Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. Time-resolved method," Opt. Express 15, 6589-6604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Moller, R. MacDonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. van Veen, H. Sterenborg, J. Tualle, H. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, "Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol," Appl. Opt. 44, 2104-2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, "Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Real-time method for fitting time-resolved reflectance and transmittance measurements with a Monte Carlo model," Appl. Opt. 37, 2774-2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Experimental test of theoretical models for time-resolved reflectance," Med. Phys. 23, 1625-1633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B.

B. Pogue and M. Patterson, "Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rippe, L.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, L.

Stamm, H.

Sterenborg, H.

Stromdahl, B.

Svaasand, L.

Svanberg, S.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Svensson, T.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdottır, and K. Svanberg, "In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Abrahamsson, A. Lowgren, B. Stromdahl, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "Scatter correction of transmission near-infrared spectra by photon migration data: Quantitative analysis of solids," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 1381-1387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Moller, R. MacDonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. van Veen, H. Sterenborg, J. Tualle, H. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, "Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol," Appl. Opt. 44, 2104-2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration," J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Swartling, J.

Tamura, M.

T. Nakai, G. Nishimura, K. Yamamoto, and M. Tamura, "Expression of optical diffusion coefficient in highabsorption turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2541-2549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taroni, P.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu, "Fully automated time domain spectrometer for the absorption and scattering characterization of diffusive media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Moller, R. MacDonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. van Veen, H. Sterenborg, J. Tualle, H. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, "Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol," Appl. Opt. 44, 2104-2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, "Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Real-time method for fitting time-resolved reflectance and transmittance measurements with a Monte Carlo model," Appl. Opt. 37, 2774-2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Experimental test of theoretical models for time-resolved reflectance," Med. Phys. 23, 1625-1633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, F.

A. Hielscher, S. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. Tittel, "The influence of boundary-conditions on the accuracy of diffusion-theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu, "Fully automated time domain spectrometer for the absorption and scattering characterization of diffusive media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, "Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. Time-resolved method," Opt. Express 15, 6589-6604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Moller, R. MacDonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. van Veen, H. Sterenborg, J. Tualle, H. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, "Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol," Appl. Opt. 44, 2104-2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, "Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Experimental test of theoretical models for time-resolved reflectance," Med. Phys. 23, 1625-1633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsay, T.

Tualle, J.

Valentini, G.

A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Real-time method for fitting time-resolved reflectance and transmittance measurements with a Monte Carlo model," Appl. Opt. 37, 2774-2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Experimental test of theoretical models for time-resolved reflectance," Med. Phys. 23, 1625-1633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Veen, R.

Wabnitz, H.

Wang, L.

A. Hielscher, S. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. Tittel, "The influence of boundary-conditions on the accuracy of diffusion-theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whelan, M.

Yamada, Y.

K. Furutsu and Y. Yamada, "Diffusion-approximation for a dissipative random medium and the applications," Phys. Rev. E 50, 3634-3640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

T. Nakai, G. Nishimura, K. Yamamoto, and M. Tamura, "Expression of optical diffusion coefficient in highabsorption turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2541-2549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A.

Yoo, K.

K. Yoo, F. Liu, and R. Alfano, "When does the diffusion-approximation fail to describe photon transport in random-media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2647-2650 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshioka, H.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Young, M.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zaccanti, G.

Zijlstra, W.

Anal. Biochem. (1)

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. Mccully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, and G. Holtom, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle," Anal. Biochem. 174, 698-707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

F. Pandozzi and D. Burns, "Power law analysis estimates of analyte concentration and particle size in highly scattering granular samples from photon time-of-flight measurements," Anal. Chem. 79, 6792-6798 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "White Monte Carlo for time-resolved photon migration," J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, "Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdottır, and K. Svanberg, "In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pogue and M. Patterson, "Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Med. Phys. (1)

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Experimental test of theoretical models for time-resolved reflectance," Med. Phys. 23, 1625-1633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. Graaff, J. Aarnoudse, F. Demul, and H. Jentink, "Similarity relations for anisotropic scattering in absorbing media," Opt. Eng. 32, 244-252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

L. Marti-Lopez, J. Hebden, and J.-L. Bouza-Dominguez, "Estimates of minimum pulse width and maximum modulation frequency for diffusion optical tomography," Opt. Laser Eng. 44, 1172-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (5)

A. Gibson, J. Hebden, and S. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1- R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hielscher, S. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. Tittel, "The influence of boundary-conditions on the accuracy of diffusion-theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1957-1975 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle and M. Patterson, "Determination of the optical properties of turbid media from a single Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2221-2227 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakai, G. Nishimura, K. Yamamoto, and M. Tamura, "Expression of optical diffusion coefficient in highabsorption turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2541-2549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, M. Oda, and D. Delpy, "An improved design for a stable and reproducible phantom material for use in near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955-961 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

K. Furutsu and Y. Yamada, "Diffusion-approximation for a dissipative random medium and the applications," Phys. Rev. E 50, 3634-3640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Yoo, F. Liu, and R. Alfano, "When does the diffusion-approximation fail to describe photon transport in random-media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2647-2650 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu, "Fully automated time domain spectrometer for the absorption and scattering characterization of diffusive media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. Pifferi, R. Berg, P. Taroni, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Fitting of Time-resolved reflectance curves with a Monte Carlo model," in Trends in Optics and Photonics: Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, vol. 2, pp. 311-314 (Optical Society of America, 1996).

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdottır, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Towards accuracte in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate," J. Biophoton. DOI: 10.1002/jbio.200710025 (posted 24 April 2008, in press).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Relative errors due to EBC diffusion modeling when using a 80/20 evaluation range, and involving a convolution with an IRF recorded by our TOFS system. The dashed line indicates the zero relative error and hence the border between overestimation and underestimation of the derived parameters. For most optical combinations of µ s and µa overestimations of the derived optical properties occur while minor underestimations occasionally are observed when the absorption is low.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Relative errors due to EBC diffusion modeling when using a 80/20 fit range for the impulse response. The dashed line indicates the zero relative error and hence the border between overestimation and underestimation of the derived parameters. As in Fig. 1, over-estimations of the derived optical properties dominate. The apparent instability in derived µa for high absorption and low scattering media is most likely related to the few number of data points eligible for evaluation resulting from the short pulses exhibited by such media.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A so called accuracy plot (see Ref. [19]) showing derived µ s and µa at 786 nm for run 1 (circles), run 2 (diamonds) and run 3 (squares), using (a) WMC evaluation, and (b) diffusion evaluation. From the design of the phantoms, points are expected to fall on a grid. The mean scattering and absorption values for the WMC measurements are shown as dashed lines in both figures. In addition, the mean WMC-derived optical properties with corrections according to the error-map (Fig. 1) are shown in (b) as red crosses.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Linearity plot of the derived µa (at 786 nm) for the four constant scattering series (A-D). All WMC-derived data are shown as well as the best linear fit to these points. The mean EBC-diffusion values are shown as red crosses.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Linearity plot of the derived µ s (at 786 nm) for the constant absorption series (1–8). All WMC-derived values (for all runs) are shown, as well as the best linear fit to these points. The mean values obtained from diffusion modeling are shown as red crosses.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Derived µ s and µa as a function of the early fit range limit for the Phantoms A1, A7, B4 and D4 (786 nm data from run 1). The small black and red dots indicate WMC and diffusion evaluation respectively. Each point illustrates the derived µ s and µ a when excluding all earlier the data points during the nonlinear fitting procedure, i.e. the fitting range extend from that point (inclusive) to 20% of the peak maximum at the trailing edge. The corresponding TOF histograms are shown for reference. A1 and A7 illustrates the performance in low scattering A phantoms while B4 and D4 exemplifies behavior in the B, C and D phantoms.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Derived reduced scattering coefficients [cm-1]. * Due to the limited time range where WMC is valid, these measurement had to be evaluated using a reduced fit range (20/40).

Tables Icon

Table 2. Derived absorption coefficients [cm-1]

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

χ ~ 2 ( μ s ) = min k , μ a { χ 2 ( k , μ a , μ s ) } .
R ( ρ , t ) = a ( n ) Φ ( ρ , z = 0 , t ) + b ( n ) R f ( ρ , t ) ,
Φ ( ρ , z = 0 , t ) = c ( 4 π D c t ) 3 2 exp ( μ a c t ) [ exp ( r 1 2 4 D c t ) exp ( r 2 2 4 D c t ) ] ,
R f ( ρ , t ) = 1 2 1 ( 4 π D c ) 3 2 t 5 2 exp ( μ a c t ) [ z 0 exp ( r 1 2 4 D c t ) + ( z 0 + 2 z b ) exp ( r 2 2 4 D c t ) ] ,
z 0 = 1 μ a + μ s ,
z b = 1 + R eff ( n ) 1 R eff ( n ) 2 D ,
0.01 μ a 0.75[cm -1 ] 2 μ s ' 18  [ cm 1 ]
Δ μ = μ D μ WMC μ WMC ,

Metrics