Abstract

We present a technique to characterize ultrashort pulses at the focal plane of a high numerical aperture objective with unprecedented spatial resolution, by performing a FROG measurement with a single nanocrystal as nonlinear medium. This approach can be extended to develop novel phase-sensitive techniques in laser scanning microscopy, probing the microscopic environment by monitoring phase and amplitude distortions of femtosecond laser pulses.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (4)

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, "Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields," Nature 446, 301-304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Spindler, W. Pfeiffer, and T. Brixner, "Field control in the tight focus of polarization-shaped laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 89, 553-558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, "Directly measuring the spatio-temporal electric field of focusing ultrashort pulses," Opt. Express 15, 10219-10230 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (9)

J. P. Ogilvie, D. Debarre, X. Solinas, J. L. Martin, E. Beaurepaire, and M. Joffre, "Use of coherent control for selective two-photon fluorescence microscopy in live organisms," Opt. Express 14, 759-766 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Vacano, W. Wohlleben, and M. Motzkus, "Actively shaped supercontinuum from a photonic crystal fiber for nonlinear coherent microspectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 413-415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Tal and Y. Silberberg, "Transformation from an ultrashort pulse to a spatiotemporal speckle by a thin scattering surface," Opt. Lett. 31, 3529-3531 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, A. Shreenath, K. McGresham, R. Trebino, and S. Akturk, "Crossed-beam spectral interferometry: a simple, high-spectral-resolution method for completely characterizing complex ultrashort pulses in real time," Opt. Express 14, 11892-11900 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Ogilvie, E. Beaurepaire, A. Alexandrou, and M. Joffre, "Fourier-transform coherent anti-stokes raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 480-482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Galez, Y. Mugnier, J. Bouillot, Y. Lambert, and R. Le Dantec, "Synthesis and characterisation of Fe(IO3)3 nanosized powder," J. Alloys Compd. 416, 261-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, F. J. G. De Abajo, C. Spindler, andW. Pfeiffer, "Adaptive ultrafast nano-optics in a tight focus," Appl. Phys. B Lasers and Optics 84, 89-95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Phanon, B. Bentria, E. Jeanneau, D. Benbertal, A. Mosset, and I. Gautier-Luneau, "Crystal structure of m(io3)(2) metal iodates, twinned by pseudo-merohedry, with m-II: Mg-II, Mn-II, Co-II, Ni-II and Zn-II," Zeitschrift Fur Kristallographie 221, 635-642 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dela Cruz, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, "Coherent control improves biomedical imaging with ultrashort shaped pulses," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A -Chemistry 180, 307-313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (4)

2003 (2)

V. Le Floc�??h, S. Brasselet, J. F. Roch, and J. Zyss, "Monitoring of orientation in molecular ensembles by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 12403-12410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1368-1376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, "Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys.B-Lasers and Optics 74, S133-S144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, "Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase," Nature 414, 57-60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

1997 (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1985 (1)

K. Kato, "High-power difference frequency generation at 4.4-5.7 ?m in LiIO3," IEEE J. Quant. Elect. 21, 119- 120 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Abajo, F. J.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, "Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields," Nature 446, 301-304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aeschlimann, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, "Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields," Nature 446, 301-304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akturk, S.

Alexandrou, A.

J. P. Ogilvie, E. Beaurepaire, A. Alexandrou, and M. Joffre, "Fourier-transform coherent anti-stokes raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 480-482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amat-Roldan, I.

Artigas, D.

Barty, C. P. J.

Bauer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, "Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields," Nature 446, 301-304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayer, D.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, "Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields," Nature 446, 301-304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaurepaire, E.

J. P. Ogilvie, E. Beaurepaire, A. Alexandrou, and M. Joffre, "Fourier-transform coherent anti-stokes raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 480-482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ogilvie, D. Debarre, X. Solinas, J. L. Martin, E. Beaurepaire, and M. Joffre, "Use of coherent control for selective two-photon fluorescence microscopy in live organisms," Opt. Express 14, 759-766 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benbertal, D.

D. Phanon, B. Bentria, E. Jeanneau, D. Benbertal, A. Mosset, and I. Gautier-Luneau, "Crystal structure of m(io3)(2) metal iodates, twinned by pseudo-merohedry, with m-II: Mg-II, Mn-II, Co-II, Ni-II and Zn-II," Zeitschrift Fur Kristallographie 221, 635-642 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bentria, B.

D. Phanon, B. Bentria, E. Jeanneau, D. Benbertal, A. Mosset, and I. Gautier-Luneau, "Crystal structure of m(io3)(2) metal iodates, twinned by pseudo-merohedry, with m-II: Mg-II, Mn-II, Co-II, Ni-II and Zn-II," Zeitschrift Fur Kristallographie 221, 635-642 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonacina, L.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bouillot, J.

C. Galez, Y. Mugnier, J. Bouillot, Y. Lambert, and R. Le Dantec, "Synthesis and characterisation of Fe(IO3)3 nanosized powder," J. Alloys Compd. 416, 261-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boutou, V.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bowlan, P.

Brakenhoff, G. J.

Brixner, T.

C. Spindler, W. Pfeiffer, and T. Brixner, "Field control in the tight focus of polarization-shaped laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 89, 553-558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, "Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields," Nature 446, 301-304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brixner, F. J. G. De Abajo, C. Spindler, andW. Pfeiffer, "Adaptive ultrafast nano-optics in a tight focus," Appl. Phys. B Lasers and Optics 84, 89-95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, "Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys.B-Lasers and Optics 74, S133-S144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, "Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase," Nature 414, 57-60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. H.

S. P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. B. Shieh, L. J. Chen, K. J. Lin, C. H. Yu, S. W. Chu, C. H. Chang, X. Y. Shi, Y. C. Wen, K. H. Lin, T. M. Liu, and C. K. Sun, "Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. F.

Chen, L. J.

S. P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. B. Shieh, L. J. Chen, K. J. Lin, C. H. Yu, S. W. Chu, C. H. Chang, X. Y. Shi, Y. C. Wen, K. H. Lin, T. M. Liu, and C. K. Sun, "Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. W.

S. P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. B. Shieh, L. J. Chen, K. J. Lin, C. H. Yu, S. W. Chu, C. H. Chang, X. Y. Shi, Y. C. Wen, K. H. Lin, T. M. Liu, and C. K. Sun, "Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Comstock, M.

Cormack, I. G.

Courvoisier, F.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Damrauer, N. H.

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, "Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase," Nature 414, 57-60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dantus, M.

J. M. Dela Cruz, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, "Coherent control improves biomedical imaging with ultrashort shaped pulses," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A -Chemistry 180, 307-313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dela Cruz, I. Pastirk, M. Comstock, and M. Dantus, "Multiphoton intrapulse interference 8. Coherent control through scattering tissue," Opt. Express 12, 4144-4149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Abajo, F. J. G.

T. Brixner, F. J. G. De Abajo, C. Spindler, andW. Pfeiffer, "Adaptive ultrafast nano-optics in a tight focus," Appl. Phys. B Lasers and Optics 84, 89-95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Debarre, D.

Dela Cruz, J. M.

J. M. Dela Cruz, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, "Coherent control improves biomedical imaging with ultrashort shaped pulses," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A -Chemistry 180, 307-313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dela Cruz, I. Pastirk, M. Comstock, and M. Dantus, "Multiphoton intrapulse interference 8. Coherent control through scattering tissue," Opt. Express 12, 4144-4149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Extermann, J.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feurer, T.

R. Wolleschensky, T. Feurer, R. Sauerbrey, and I. Simon, "Characterization and optimization of a laser-scanning microscope in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 67, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, J. N. Sweetser, R. Trebino, and M. Muller, "Collinear type ii second-harmonic-generation frequency-resolved optical gating for use with high-numerical-aperture objectives," Opt. Lett. 23, 1046-1048 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, U.

Gabolde, P.

Galez, C.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Galez, Y. Mugnier, J. Bouillot, Y. Lambert, and R. Le Dantec, "Synthesis and characterisation of Fe(IO3)3 nanosized powder," J. Alloys Compd. 416, 261-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gautier-Luneau, I.

D. Phanon, B. Bentria, E. Jeanneau, D. Benbertal, A. Mosset, and I. Gautier-Luneau, "Crystal structure of m(io3)(2) metal iodates, twinned by pseudo-merohedry, with m-II: Mg-II, Mn-II, Co-II, Ni-II and Zn-II," Zeitschrift Fur Kristallographie 221, 635-642 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, G.

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, "Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys.B-Lasers and Optics 74, S133-S144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, "Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase," Nature 414, 57-60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gualda, E. J.

Jeanneau, E.

D. Phanon, B. Bentria, E. Jeanneau, D. Benbertal, A. Mosset, and I. Gautier-Luneau, "Crystal structure of m(io3)(2) metal iodates, twinned by pseudo-merohedry, with m-II: Mg-II, Mn-II, Co-II, Ni-II and Zn-II," Zeitschrift Fur Kristallographie 221, 635-642 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

J. P. Ogilvie, E. Beaurepaire, A. Alexandrou, and M. Joffre, "Fourier-transform coherent anti-stokes raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 480-482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ogilvie, D. Debarre, X. Solinas, J. L. Martin, E. Beaurepaire, and M. Joffre, "Use of coherent control for selective two-photon fluorescence microscopy in live organisms," Opt. Express 14, 759-766 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kannari, F.

Kano, S. S.

I. Otake, S. S. Kano, and A. Wada, "Pulse shaping effect on two-photon excitation efficiency of alpha-perylene crystals and perylene in chloroform solution," J. Chem. Phys. 124, 14501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, K.

K. Kato, "High-power difference frequency generation at 4.4-5.7 ?m in LiIO3," IEEE J. Quant. Elect. 21, 119- 120 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, H.

Krampert, G.

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, "Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys.B-Lasers and Optics 74, S133-S144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krumbugel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, Y.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Galez, Y. Mugnier, J. Bouillot, Y. Lambert, and R. Le Dantec, "Synthesis and characterisation of Fe(IO3)3 nanosized powder," J. Alloys Compd. 416, 261-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le Dantec, R.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Galez, Y. Mugnier, J. Bouillot, Y. Lambert, and R. Le Dantec, "Synthesis and characterisation of Fe(IO3)3 nanosized powder," J. Alloys Compd. 416, 261-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K. H.

S. P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. B. Shieh, L. J. Chen, K. J. Lin, C. H. Yu, S. W. Chu, C. H. Chang, X. Y. Shi, Y. C. Wen, K. H. Lin, T. M. Liu, and C. K. Sun, "Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K. J.

S. P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. B. Shieh, L. J. Chen, K. J. Lin, C. H. Yu, S. W. Chu, C. H. Chang, X. Y. Shi, Y. C. Wen, K. H. Lin, T. M. Liu, and C. K. Sun, "Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T. M.

S. P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. B. Shieh, L. J. Chen, K. J. Lin, C. H. Yu, S. W. Chu, C. H. Chang, X. Y. Shi, Y. C. Wen, K. H. Lin, T. M. Liu, and C. K. Sun, "Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

Lozovoy, V. V.

J. M. Dela Cruz, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, "Coherent control improves biomedical imaging with ultrashort shaped pulses," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A -Chemistry 180, 307-313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. L.

McGresham, K.

Midorikawa, K.

Miyawaki, A.

Mizuno, H.

Mosset, A.

D. Phanon, B. Bentria, E. Jeanneau, D. Benbertal, A. Mosset, and I. Gautier-Luneau, "Crystal structure of m(io3)(2) metal iodates, twinned by pseudo-merohedry, with m-II: Mg-II, Mn-II, Co-II, Ni-II and Zn-II," Zeitschrift Fur Kristallographie 221, 635-642 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Motzkus, M.

Mugnier, Y.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Galez, Y. Mugnier, J. Bouillot, Y. Lambert, and R. Le Dantec, "Synthesis and characterisation of Fe(IO3)3 nanosized powder," J. Alloys Compd. 416, 261-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muller, M.

Nabekawa, Y.

Niklaus, P.

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, "Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys.B-Lasers and Optics 74, S133-S144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, "Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase," Nature 414, 57-60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogilvie, J. P.

J. P. Ogilvie, E. Beaurepaire, A. Alexandrou, and M. Joffre, "Fourier-transform coherent anti-stokes raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 480-482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ogilvie, D. Debarre, X. Solinas, J. L. Martin, E. Beaurepaire, and M. Joffre, "Use of coherent control for selective two-photon fluorescence microscopy in live organisms," Opt. Express 14, 759-766 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oron, D.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otake, I.

I. Otake, S. S. Kano, and A. Wada, "Pulse shaping effect on two-photon excitation efficiency of alpha-perylene crystals and perylene in chloroform solution," J. Chem. Phys. 124, 14501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pastirk, I.

Pfeiffer, W.

C. Spindler, W. Pfeiffer, and T. Brixner, "Field control in the tight focus of polarization-shaped laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 89, 553-558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, "Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields," Nature 446, 301-304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phanon, D.

D. Phanon, B. Bentria, E. Jeanneau, D. Benbertal, A. Mosset, and I. Gautier-Luneau, "Crystal structure of m(io3)(2) metal iodates, twinned by pseudo-merohedry, with m-II: Mg-II, Mn-II, Co-II, Ni-II and Zn-II," Zeitschrift Fur Kristallographie 221, 635-642 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rohmer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, "Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields," Nature 446, 301-304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

R. Wolleschensky, T. Feurer, R. Sauerbrey, and I. Simon, "Characterization and optimization of a laser-scanning microscope in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 67, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shi, X. Y.

S. P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. B. Shieh, L. J. Chen, K. J. Lin, C. H. Yu, S. W. Chu, C. H. Chang, X. Y. Shi, Y. C. Wen, K. H. Lin, T. M. Liu, and C. K. Sun, "Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, D. B.

S. P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. B. Shieh, L. J. Chen, K. J. Lin, C. H. Yu, S. W. Chu, C. H. Chang, X. Y. Shi, Y. C. Wen, K. H. Lin, T. M. Liu, and C. K. Sun, "Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shreenath, A.

Silberberg, Y.

E. Tal and Y. Silberberg, "Transformation from an ultrashort pulse to a spatiotemporal speckle by a thin scattering surface," Opt. Lett. 31, 3529-3531 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, I.

R. Wolleschensky, T. Feurer, R. Sauerbrey, and I. Simon, "Characterization and optimization of a laser-scanning microscope in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 67, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solinas, X.

Spindler, C.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, "Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields," Nature 446, 301-304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Spindler, W. Pfeiffer, and T. Brixner, "Field control in the tight focus of polarization-shaped laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 89, 553-558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, F. J. G. De Abajo, C. Spindler, andW. Pfeiffer, "Adaptive ultrafast nano-optics in a tight focus," Appl. Phys. B Lasers and Optics 84, 89-95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Squier, J. A.

Steeb, F.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, "Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields," Nature 446, 301-304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

Stibenz, G.

Sun, C. K.

S. P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. B. Shieh, L. J. Chen, K. J. Lin, C. H. Yu, S. W. Chu, C. H. Chang, X. Y. Shi, Y. C. Wen, K. H. Lin, T. M. Liu, and C. K. Sun, "Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J. N.

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, J. N. Sweetser, R. Trebino, and M. Muller, "Collinear type ii second-harmonic-generation frequency-resolved optical gating for use with high-numerical-aperture objectives," Opt. Lett. 23, 1046-1048 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tai, S. P.

S. P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. B. Shieh, L. J. Chen, K. J. Lin, C. H. Yu, S. W. Chu, C. H. Chang, X. Y. Shi, Y. C. Wen, K. H. Lin, T. M. Liu, and C. K. Sun, "Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tal, E.

Tanabe, T.

Trebino, R.

Tunnermann, A.

Vacano, B.

Wada, A.

I. Otake, S. S. Kano, and A. Wada, "Pulse shaping effect on two-photon excitation efficiency of alpha-perylene crystals and perylene in chloroform solution," J. Chem. Phys. 124, 14501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1368-1376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wen, Y. C.

S. P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. B. Shieh, L. J. Chen, K. J. Lin, C. H. Yu, S. W. Chu, C. H. Chang, X. Y. Shi, Y. C. Wen, K. H. Lin, T. M. Liu, and C. K. Sun, "Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1368-1376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, K. R.

Wohlleben, W.

Wolf, J. P.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wolleschensky, R.

R. Wolleschensky, T. Feurer, R. Sauerbrey, and I. Simon, "Characterization and optimization of a laser-scanning microscope in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 67, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

S. P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. B. Shieh, L. J. Chen, K. J. Lin, C. H. Yu, S. W. Chu, C. H. Chang, X. Y. Shi, Y. C. Wen, K. H. Lin, T. M. Liu, and C. K. Sun, "Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. H.

S. P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. B. Shieh, L. J. Chen, K. J. Lin, C. H. Yu, S. W. Chu, C. H. Chang, X. Y. Shi, Y. C. Wen, K. H. Lin, T. M. Liu, and C. K. Sun, "Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeitner, U. D.

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1368-1376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B Lasers and Optics (1)

T. Brixner, F. J. G. De Abajo, C. Spindler, andW. Pfeiffer, "Adaptive ultrafast nano-optics in a tight focus," Appl. Phys. B Lasers and Optics 84, 89-95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B-Lasers and Optics (4)

C. Spindler, W. Pfeiffer, and T. Brixner, "Field control in the tight focus of polarization-shaped laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 89, 553-558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, "Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys.B-Lasers and Optics 74, S133-S144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Wolleschensky, T. Feurer, R. Sauerbrey, and I. Simon, "Characterization and optimization of a laser-scanning microscope in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 67, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quant. Elect. (1)

K. Kato, "High-power difference frequency generation at 4.4-5.7 ?m in LiIO3," IEEE J. Quant. Elect. 21, 119- 120 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

C. Galez, Y. Mugnier, J. Bouillot, Y. Lambert, and R. Le Dantec, "Synthesis and characterisation of Fe(IO3)3 nanosized powder," J. Alloys Compd. 416, 261-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. A -Chemistry (1)

J. M. Dela Cruz, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, "Coherent control improves biomedical imaging with ultrashort shaped pulses," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A -Chemistry 180, 307-313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.Phys. Chem. B (1)

V. Le Floc�??h, S. Brasselet, J. F. Roch, and J. Zyss, "Monitoring of orientation in molecular ensembles by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 12403-12410 (2003).
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Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1368-1376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, "Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields," Nature 446, 301-304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, "Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase," Nature 414, 57-60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

J. A. Squier, M. Muller, G. J. Brakenhoff, and K. R. Wilson, "Third harmonic generation microscopy," Opt. Express 3, 315-324 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Amat-Roldan, I. G. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, E. J. Gualda, and D. Artigas, "Ultrashort pulse characterization with shg collinear-frog," Opt. Express 12, 1169-1178 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Chen, H. Kawano, Y. Nabekawa, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, T. Tanabe, F. Kannari, and K. Midorikawa, "Selective excitation between two-photon and three-photon fluorescence with engineered cost functions," Opt. Express 12, 3408-3414 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dela Cruz, I. Pastirk, M. Comstock, and M. Dantus, "Multiphoton intrapulse interference 8. Coherent control through scattering tissue," Opt. Express 12, 4144-4149 (2004).
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G. Stibenz and G. Steinmeyer, "Interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Express 13, 2617-2626 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Fuchs, U. D. Zeitner, and A. Tunnermann, "Ultra-short pulse propagation in complex optical systems," Opt. Express 13, 3852-3861 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Ogilvie, D. Debarre, X. Solinas, J. L. Martin, E. Beaurepaire, and M. Joffre, "Use of coherent control for selective two-photon fluorescence microscopy in live organisms," Opt. Express 14, 759-766 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, A. Shreenath, K. McGresham, R. Trebino, and S. Akturk, "Crossed-beam spectral interferometry: a simple, high-spectral-resolution method for completely characterizing complex ultrashort pulses in real time," Opt. Express 14, 11892-11900 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, "Directly measuring the spatio-temporal electric field of focusing ultrashort pulses," Opt. Express 15, 10219-10230 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Letters (1)

J. P. Ogilvie, E. Beaurepaire, A. Alexandrou, and M. Joffre, "Fourier-transform coherent anti-stokes raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 480-482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zeitschrift Fur Kristallographie (1)

D. Phanon, B. Bentria, E. Jeanneau, D. Benbertal, A. Mosset, and I. Gautier-Luneau, "Crystal structure of m(io3)(2) metal iodates, twinned by pseudo-merohedry, with m-II: Mg-II, Mn-II, Co-II, Ni-II and Zn-II," Zeitschrift Fur Kristallographie 221, 635-642 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. B. Shieh, L. J. Chen, K. J. Lin, C. H. Yu, S. W. Chu, C. H. Chang, X. Y. Shi, Y. C. Wen, K. H. Lin, T. M. Liu, and C. K. Sun, "Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up. C: folded compressor for dispersion precompensation; I: interferometer; DS: stepper motor; MC: scanning monochromator; PMT: photo-multiplier tube. The excitation polarization is controlled by a zeroth order λ/2 plate (PWP). Shutter S1 is used to completely block the beam, while S2 for blocking one arm of the interferometer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Interferometric autocorrelation trace. (b) cFROG trace. (c) Image of the nanoparticles dispersed on a microscopic glass slide. The particle highlighted by the 1 µm square was used as nonlinear medium for acquiring the autocorrelation and the cFROG trace. (d) Result of the Fourier transform along the time axis of the cFROG trace in B.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Experimental FROG trace. (b) Retrieved FROG trace. Electric field intensity (solid line) and phase (dashed line) as a function of time (c) and of wavelength (d)).

Equations (4)

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I cFROG ( τ , v ) ( E ̂ ( t ) + E ̂ ( t τ ) ) 2 exp ( i 2 π v t ) d t 2
I cFROG ( τ , v ) 4 E ( t ) E ( t τ ) exp ( i 2 π v t ) d t 2 + 2 E 2 ( t ) exp ( i 2 π v t ) d t 2 +
+ 2 E 2 ( t ) exp ( i 2 π v t ) d t 2 cos ( 2 π ( 2 v 0 + v ) τ ) +
+ 4 Re { ( E 2 ( t ) exp ( + i 2 π v t ) d t E ( t ) E ( t τ ) exp ( i 2 π v t ) d t ) · ( exp ( i 2 π v 0 τ ) + exp ( i 2 π ( v 0 + v ) τ ) ) }

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