Abstract

The effect of the mixing of pulsed two color fields on the generation of an isolated attosecond pulse has been systematically investigated. One main color is 800 nm and the other color (or secondary color) is varied from 1.2 to 2.4µm. This work shows that the continuum length behaves in a similar way to the behavior of the difference in the square of the amplitude of the strongest and next strongest cycle. As the mixing ratio is increased, the optimal wavelength for the extended continuum shifts toward shorter wavelength side. There is a certain mixing ratio of intensities at which the continuum length bifurcates, i.e., the existence of two optimal wavelengths. As the mixing ratio is further increased, each branch bifurcates again into two sub-branches. This 2D map analysis of the mixing ratio and the wavelength of the secondary field easily allows one to select a proper wavelength and the mixing ratio for a given pulse duration of the primary field. The study shows that an isolated sub-100 attosecond pulse can be generated mixing an 11 fs full-width-half-maximum (FWHM), 800 laser pulse with an 1840 nm FWHM pulse. Furthermore the result reveals that a 33 fs FWHM, 800 nm pulse can produce an isolated pulse below 200 as, when properly mixed.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008

2007

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, S. Gasilov, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, "Millijoule-level phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle infrared parametric source," Opt. Lett. 32, 2957-2959 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-20-2957.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Merdji, T. Auguste, W. Boutu, J.-Pascal Caumes, B. Carre, T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Isolated attosecond pulses using a detuned second-harmonic field," Opt. Lett. 32, 3134-3136 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Dromey et al, "Bright Multi-keV Harmonic Generation from Relativistically Oscillating Plasma Surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 085001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmarkis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics," New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zeng, Y. Cheng, X. Song, R. Li, and Z. Xu, "Generation of an Extreme Ultraviolet Supercontinuum in a Two-color Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Song, Z. Zeng, Y. Fu, B. Cai, R. Li, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, "Quantum path control in few-optical-cycle regime," Phys. Rev. A. 76, 043830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Heterodyne Mixing of Laser Fields For Temporal Gating of High-order Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone,  et al., "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

K. Lee, B. H. Kim, and D. Kim,"Coherent radiation of relativistic nonlinear Thomson scattering," Phys. Plasmas 12, 043107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zholents and G. Penn, "Obtaining attosecond x-ray pulses using a self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8, 050704 (2005).

Y. Huo, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, "Single attosecond pulse generation using two-color polarized time-gating technique," Opt. Express 13, 9897-9902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

P. Emma, K. Bane, M, Cornacchia, Z. Huang, H. Schlarb, G. Stupakov, and D. Walz, "Femtosecond and Subfemtosecond X-Ray Pulses from a Self-Amplified Spontaneous-Emission-Based Free-Electron Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 074801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gao, "Thomson Scattering from Ultrashort and Ultraintense Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kova�?ev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, "Temporal con-finement of the harmonic emission polarization gating," Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kova�?ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft Xrays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lee, Y. H. Cha, M. S. Shin, B. H. Kim, and D. Kim, "Temporal and spatial characterization of harmonic structures of relativistic nonlinear Thomson scattering," Opt. Express 11, 309-316 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, "Space-Time Considerations in the Phase Locking of High Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and K. Kraousz, "X-ray pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier," Science 291, 1923-1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

C. Altucci, Ch. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L�??Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starcze-wski, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 58, 3934-3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. Antoine, A. L�??Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Attosecond Pulse Trains Using High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234-1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, "Subfemtosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 19, 1870-1872 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L�??Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A. 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abel, M. J.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Heterodyne Mixing of Laser Fields For Temporal Gating of High-order Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

M. Kova�?ev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, "Temporal con-finement of the harmonic emission polarization gating," Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kova�?ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft Xrays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

C. Altucci, Ch. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L�??Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starcze-wski, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 58, 3934-3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, P.

P. Antoine, A. L�??Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Attosecond Pulse Trains Using High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234-1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auge, F.

M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auguste, T.

Balcou, Ph.

M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L�??Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A. 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bane, K.

P. Emma, K. Bane, M, Cornacchia, Z. Huang, H. Schlarb, G. Stupakov, and D. Walz, "Femtosecond and Subfemtosecond X-Ray Pulses from a Self-Amplified Spontaneous-Emission-Based Free-Electron Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 074801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

Boutu, W.

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kova�?ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft Xrays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kova�?ev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, "Temporal con-finement of the harmonic emission polarization gating," Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, N. H.

Cai, B.

X. Song, Z. Zeng, Y. Fu, B. Cai, R. Li, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, "Quantum path control in few-optical-cycle regime," Phys. Rev. A. 76, 043830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calegari, F.

Carré, B.

M. Kova�?ev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, "Temporal con-finement of the harmonic emission polarization gating," Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kova�?ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft Xrays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

Cha, Y. H.

Charalambidis, D.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

Y. Yu, X. Song, Y. Fu, R. Li, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, "Theoretical investigation of single attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field," Opt. Express 16, 686-694 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Song, Z. Zeng, Y. Fu, B. Cai, R. Li, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, "Quantum path control in few-optical-cycle regime," Phys. Rev. A. 76, 043830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zeng, Y. Cheng, X. Song, R. Li, and Z. Xu, "Generation of an Extreme Ultraviolet Supercontinuum in a Two-color Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constant, E.

M. Kova�?ev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, "Temporal con-finement of the harmonic emission polarization gating," Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and K. Kraousz, "X-ray pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier," Science 291, 1923-1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, "Subfemtosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 19, 1870-1872 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L�??Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A. 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Bohan, A.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kova�?ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft Xrays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

Delfin, Ch.

C. Altucci, Ch. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L�??Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starcze-wski, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 58, 3934-3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, L. C.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kova�?ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft Xrays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and K. Kraousz, "X-ray pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier," Science 291, 1923-1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Gaarde, M. B.

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, "Space-Time Considerations in the Phase Locking of High Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213901 (2002).
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T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Heterodyne Mixing of Laser Fields For Temporal Gating of High-order Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and K. Kraousz, "X-ray pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier," Science 291, 1923-1927 (2001).
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M. Schultze, E. Goulielmarkis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics," New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and K. Kraousz, "X-ray pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier," Science 291, 1923-1927 (2001).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
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Kim, B. H.

Kim, D.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmarkis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics," New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
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M. Schultze, E. Goulielmarkis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics," New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
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Kleineberg, U.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmarkis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics," New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
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Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kova�?ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft Xrays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
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M. Kova�?ev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, "Temporal con-finement of the harmonic emission polarization gating," Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79-82 (2003).
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Kraousz, K.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and K. Kraousz, "X-ray pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier," Science 291, 1923-1927 (2001).
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Krausz, F.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmarkis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics," New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
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L???Huillier, A.

C. Altucci, Ch. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L�??Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starcze-wski, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 58, 3934-3941 (1998).
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M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L�??Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A. 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
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Lee, K.

Leone, S. R.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Heterodyne Mixing of Laser Fields For Temporal Gating of High-order Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
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P. Antoine, A. L�??Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Attosecond Pulse Trains Using High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234-1237 (1996).
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Li, R.

Y. Yu, X. Song, Y. Fu, R. Li, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, "Theoretical investigation of single attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field," Opt. Express 16, 686-694 (2008).
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X. Song, Z. Zeng, Y. Fu, B. Cai, R. Li, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, "Quantum path control in few-optical-cycle regime," Phys. Rev. A. 76, 043830 (2007).
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Z. Zeng, Y. Cheng, X. Song, R. Li, and Z. Xu, "Generation of an Extreme Ultraviolet Supercontinuum in a Two-color Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203901 (2007).
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Mairesse, Y.

M. Kova�?ev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, "Temporal con-finement of the harmonic emission polarization gating," Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79-82 (2003).
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Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kova�?ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft Xrays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mercer, I.

C. Altucci, Ch. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L�??Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starcze-wski, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 58, 3934-3941 (1998).
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Merdji, H.

H. Merdji, T. Auguste, W. Boutu, J.-Pascal Caumes, B. Carre, T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Isolated attosecond pulses using a detuned second-harmonic field," Opt. Lett. 32, 3134-3136 (2007).
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M. Kova�?ev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, "Temporal con-finement of the harmonic emission polarization gating," Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kova�?ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft Xrays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
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Mével, E.

M. Kova�?ev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, "Temporal con-finement of the harmonic emission polarization gating," Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79-82 (2003).
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Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monchicourt, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kova�?ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft Xrays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kova�?ev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, "Temporal con-finement of the harmonic emission polarization gating," Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kova�?ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft Xrays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
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Mullot, G.

M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
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Nagel, P. M.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Heterodyne Mixing of Laser Fields For Temporal Gating of High-order Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumark, D. M.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Heterodyne Mixing of Laser Fields For Temporal Gating of High-order Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

Papadogiannis, N. A.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, M.

M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penn, G.

A. A. Zholents and G. Penn, "Obtaining attosecond x-ray pulses using a self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8, 050704 (2005).

Pfeifer, T.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, "Heterodyne Mixing of Laser Fields For Temporal Gating of High-order Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priori, E.

M. Kova�?ev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, "Temporal con-finement of the harmonic emission polarization gating," Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reider, G. A.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and K. Kraousz, "X-ray pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier," Science 291, 1923-1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roos, L.

C. Altucci, Ch. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L�??Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starcze-wski, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 58, 3934-3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kova�?ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft Xrays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kova�?ev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, "Temporal con-finement of the harmonic emission polarization gating," Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

Schafer, K. J.

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, "Space-Time Considerations in the Phase Locking of High Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmarkis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics," New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shin, M. S.

Song, X.

Y. Yu, X. Song, Y. Fu, R. Li, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, "Theoretical investigation of single attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field," Opt. Express 16, 686-694 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Song, Z. Zeng, Y. Fu, B. Cai, R. Li, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, "Quantum path control in few-optical-cycle regime," Phys. Rev. A. 76, 043830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zeng, Y. Cheng, X. Song, R. Li, and Z. Xu, "Generation of an Extreme Ultraviolet Supercontinuum in a Two-color Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, C.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and K. Kraousz, "X-ray pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier," Science 291, 1923-1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

Starcze-wski, T.

C. Altucci, Ch. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L�??Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starcze-wski, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 58, 3934-3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taïeb, R.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kova�?ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft Xrays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tcherbakoff, O.

M. Kova�?ev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, "Temporal con-finement of the harmonic emission polarization gating," Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and K. Kraousz, "X-ray pulses Approaching the Attosecond Frontier," Science 291, 1923-1927 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toma, E. S.

M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsakiris, G. D.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tzallas, P.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmarkis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics," New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

Wahlström, C.-G.

C. Altucci, Ch. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L�??Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starcze-wski, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 58, 3934-3941 (1998).
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Y. Huo, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, "Single attosecond pulse generation using two-color polarized time-gating technique," Opt. Express 13, 9897-9902 (2005).
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Eur. Phys. J. D

M. Kova�?ev, Y. Mairesse, E. Priori, H. Merdji, O. Tcherbakoff, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, E. Mével, E. Constant, P. Salières, B. Carré, and P. Agostini, "Temporal con-finement of the harmonic emission polarization gating," Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 79-82 (2003).
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Nature

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Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams

A. A. Zholents and G. Penn, "Obtaining attosecond x-ray pulses using a self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8, 050704 (2005).

Science

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) time-frequency diagram (b) its time-integrated spectrum (high harmonic spectrum) The simulation was done for a 5fs FWHM, 800nm laser of 5×1014 W/cm 2 interacting with He atom

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The electric field of single and mixed laser field. The black line is the electric field of a linearly polarized 11fs FWHM, 800nm laser(single color), the red line the field of 11 fs FWHM, 800nm laser mixed with, 64fs FWHM, 1840nm laser of 16% intensity of 800 nm light, and the dotted blue line the field of 11 fs FWHM, 800nm laser mixed with 1200nm laser. E 1st means the strongest peak electric field. E 2nd E 3rd are second, third one. E 1st is overlapped at blue and red line. T is the period of 800 nm light

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Laser intensity difference (■) and continuum length (oe-16-14-10331-i001) in case of a linearly polarized 11fs FWHM laser pulse of 5×1014 W/cm 2 mixed with a 64 fs FWHM secondary pulse of different intensities: (a) 2×1013 W/cm 2 (4%) for Ar (b) 8×1013 W/cm 2 (16%) for He. The horizontal axis is the wavelength of the secondary field. (c) The electric field of the condition as marked by (c) in (a). (d) The electric field of the condition as marked by (d) in (a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Contour maps of intensity ratio, (E2 /E1 )2, for various fundamental pulse durations with respect to the field ratio and the wavelength of the secondary field whose pulse duration is 64fs FWHM. The pulse duration(FWHM) of the primary field is 33 fs for (a), 22 fs for (b), 11 fs for (c), and 6 fs for (d).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

High harmonic spectrum (a), generated isolated attosecond pulse (b) and time frequency diagram(c) for the mixing of an 11 fs FWHM, 800nm, and 3×1014 W/cm 2 with a 64 fs FWHM, 1840nm,1.1×1014 W/cm 2. This is the condition for the red triangle in Fig. 4(c); (d), (e), and (f) for the mixing of an 11 fs FWHM, 800nm, and 3×1014 W/cm 2 with a 64 fs FWHM, 1400nm, and 1.1×1014 W/cm 2. This is the condition for the black triangle in Fig.4(c)

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Thresholds for bifurcation

Equations (2)

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E = E 1 exp ( 2 In 2 t 2 τ 1 2 ) cos ( ω 1 t + ϕ 1 ) + E 2 exp ( 2 In 2 t 2 τ 2 2 ) cos ( ω 2 t + ϕ 2 ) ,
δ d = E 1 st 2 E 2 nd 2 E 1 st 2

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