Abstract

We report on the use of a high-speed, fiber-based Mueller-matrix optical coherence tomography system with continuous source-polarization modulation for in vivo burn depth evaluation and healing monitoring. A homemade hand-held probe with integrated optical scanning and beam delivering optics was coupled in the sample arm. In vivo burn imaging was demonstrated on porcine skin at different stages of the wound healing process, where porcine skin was used because of its similarity to the human skin. Thermally damaged region was clearly localized in the depth-resolved phase retardation image extracted from the measured Jones matrix. The burn areas in the OCT images agreed well with the histology. By using a decomposition algorithm developed by our group, we also mapped the local birefringence of the skin. The experimental results demonstrate the system’s potential for in vivo burn-depth determination.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. American Burn Association, "Burn Incidence and Treatment in the US: 2000 Fact Sheet," (2000), http://www.ameriburn.org/resources_factsheet.php.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. S. L. Jiao, W. Yu, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, "Contrast mechanisms in polarization-sensitive Mueller-matrix optical coherence tomography and application in burn imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 5191-5197 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. M. Srinivas, J. F. deBoer, B. H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207-212 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. deBoer, B. H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. deBoer, "Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Burns 30, 511-517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Todorovi�?, S. L. Jiao, and L. V. Wang, "Determination of local polarization properties of biological samples in the presence of diattenuation by use of Mueller optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2402-2404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Escamez, M. Garcia, F. Larcher, A. Meana, E. Munoz, J. L. Jorcano, and M. Del Rio, "An In Vivo Model of Wound Healing in Genetically Modified Skin-Humanized Mice," J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 123, 1182-1191 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2001

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. deBoer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1998

1997

1992

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. deBoer, "Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Burns 30, 511-517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. deBoer, B. H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. deBoer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 212-218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

deBoer, J. F.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. deBoer, B. H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. deBoer, "Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Burns 30, 511-517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. deBoer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. deBoer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 212-218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. F. deBoer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. vanGemert, and J. S. Nelson, "Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 934-936 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Del Rio, M.

M. J. Escamez, M. Garcia, F. Larcher, A. Meana, E. Munoz, J. L. Jorcano, and M. Del Rio, "An In Vivo Model of Wound Healing in Genetically Modified Skin-Humanized Mice," J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 123, 1182-1191 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Escamez, M. J.

M. J. Escamez, M. Garcia, F. Larcher, A. Meana, E. Munoz, J. L. Jorcano, and M. Del Rio, "An In Vivo Model of Wound Healing in Genetically Modified Skin-Humanized Mice," J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 123, 1182-1191 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Garcia, M.

M. J. Escamez, M. Garcia, F. Larcher, A. Meana, E. Munoz, J. L. Jorcano, and M. Del Rio, "An In Vivo Model of Wound Healing in Genetically Modified Skin-Humanized Mice," J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 123, 1182-1191 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

Huang, D.

Huang, H. L.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. deBoer, B. H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, S. L.

Johnson, R. M.

R. M. Johnson and R. Richards, "Partial-thickness burns: identification and management," Advances in skin and wound care 16, 178-187 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jorcano, J. L.

M. J. Escamez, M. Garcia, F. Larcher, A. Meana, E. Munoz, J. L. Jorcano, and M. Del Rio, "An In Vivo Model of Wound Healing in Genetically Modified Skin-Humanized Mice," J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 123, 1182-1191 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, W. Q.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. deBoer, B. H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keikhanzadeh, K.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. deBoer, B. H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larcher, F.

M. J. Escamez, M. Garcia, F. Larcher, A. Meana, E. Munoz, J. L. Jorcano, and M. Del Rio, "An In Vivo Model of Wound Healing in Genetically Modified Skin-Humanized Mice," J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 123, 1182-1191 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malekafzali, A.

Meana, A.

M. J. Escamez, M. Garcia, F. Larcher, A. Meana, E. Munoz, J. L. Jorcano, and M. Del Rio, "An In Vivo Model of Wound Healing in Genetically Modified Skin-Humanized Mice," J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 123, 1182-1191 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Munoz, E.

M. J. Escamez, M. Garcia, F. Larcher, A. Meana, E. Munoz, J. L. Jorcano, and M. Del Rio, "An In Vivo Model of Wound Healing in Genetically Modified Skin-Humanized Mice," J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 123, 1182-1191 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. deBoer, B. H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. deBoer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. deBoer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 212-218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. F. deBoer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. vanGemert, and J. S. Nelson, "Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 934-936 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. H.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. deBoer, B. H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. deBoer, "Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Burns 30, 511-517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. deBoer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. deBoer, "Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Burns 30, 511-517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards, R.

R. M. Johnson and R. Richards, "Partial-thickness burns: identification and management," Advances in skin and wound care 16, 178-187 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxer, C.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. deBoer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheridan, R. L.

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. deBoer, "Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Burns 30, 511-517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. deBoer, B. H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. deBoer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. deBoer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 212-218 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stoica, G.

Swanson, E. A.

Tearney, G. J.

Todorovi??, M.

vanGemert, M. J. C.

Wang, L. H. V.

Wang, L. V.

Yao, G.

Yu, W.

Zhang, J.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. deBoer, B. H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Advances in skin and wound care

R. M. Johnson and R. Richards, "Partial-thickness burns: identification and management," Advances in skin and wound care 16, 178-187 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Burns

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. deBoer, "Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Burns 30, 511-517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. deBoer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. deBoer, B. H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc.

M. J. Escamez, M. Garcia, F. Larcher, A. Meana, E. Munoz, J. L. Jorcano, and M. Del Rio, "An In Vivo Model of Wound Healing in Genetically Modified Skin-Humanized Mice," J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. 123, 1182-1191 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

United States National Institutes of Health, "Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals," (US Goverment Printing Office, Washington DC, 1985), NIH Publication No. 86-23.

American Burn Association, "Burn Incidence and Treatment in the US: 2000 Fact Sheet," (2000), http://www.ameriburn.org/resources_factsheet.php.

R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, and S. L. Robbins, Robbins Pathologic bases of disease (W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the Mueller PS-OCT system. SLD, super-luminescent diode; PM, polarization modulator; NBS, non-polarizing beam splitter; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PDH, PDV, photodiodes for horizontal and vertical polarization, respectively; RSOD, rapid scanning optical delay line; LPV, vertical linear polarizer; LP -45, -45° linear polarizer; P, BK7 glass prisms.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity (a), integrated (b) and differentiated (c) phase retardation, and HE stained histology (d) images of a burnt porcine ear skin. E – epidermis; P – papillae; B – burn. The burn depth is determined to be 0.47 mm (OCT) and 0.41 mm (histology). The difference in burn depth can be attributed to tissue shrinkage due to formalin fixation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Intensity (a), phase retardation (b) and HE stained histology (c) images of the burnt porcine dorso-lateral skin immediately following the injury; intensity (d) and phase retardation (e) images of the second burn from the same region immediately post-burning; and the intensity (f), phase retardation (g) and the and HE stained histology (h) images of the second burn after four weeks of healing. H – epidermal and proximal dermal region healed after four weeks; NH – deeper dermal region not healed after four weeks. Vertical and horizontal bars in HE stained histology images represent 0.2 mm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J 11 = 0.5 [ I aH ( ω c ) I aH ( ω b ) ( 1 + J 0 ( A ) ) ] J 1 ( A ) E r
J 12 = 0.5 [ I aH ( ω c ) I aH ( ω b ) ( 1 + J 0 ( A ) ) ] J 1 ( A ) E r
J 21 = J 12
J 12 = 0.5 [ I aV ( ω c ) I aV ( ω b ) ( 1 + J 0 ( A ) ) ] J 1 ( A ) E r

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