Abstract

Using an optical vortex coronagraph and simple adaptive optics techniques, we have made the first convincing demonstration of an optical vortex coronagraph that is coupled to a star gazing telescope. We suppressed by 97% the primary star of a resolvable binary system, Cor Caroli. The stars had an angular separation of 1.9λ/D at our imaging camera. The secondary star suffered no suppression from the vortex lens.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Wolszczan, D. A. Frail, “A planetary system around the millisecond pulsar PSR1257+12,” Nature 355, 145–147 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. W. Marcy, R. P. Butler, “Detection of extrasolar giant planets,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 36, 57–97 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. J. Dick, The Biological Universe (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1996).
  4. V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, A. E. Lowman, “The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274–1283 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Coulter, “NASA/s Terrestrial Planet Finder mission: the search for habitable planets,” in Towards other Earths: DARWIN/TPF and the Search for Extrasolar Planets, M. Fridlund, T. Henning, eds., (European Space Agency, 2003), pp. 47–54.
  6. A. Karlsson, L. Kaltenegger, “The technology of DARWIN,” in Towards other Earths: DARWIN/TPF and the Search for Extrasolar Planets, M. Fridlund, T. Henning, eds., (European Space Agency, 2003), pp. 41–46.
  7. O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 167, 81–99 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, V. Vuntesmeri, “The Nulling Stellar Coronagraph : Laboratory Tests and Performance Evaluation,” PASP 111, 1321–1330 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Galicher, O. Guyon, M. Otsubo, H. Suto, S. Ridgway, “Laboratory Demonstration and Numerical Simulations of the Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization,” PASP 117, 411–420 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Chakraborty, L. Thompson, M. Rogosky, “10-7 contrast ratio at 4.5λ/D: New results obtained in laboratory experiments using nano-fabricated coronagraph and multi-Gaussian shaped pupil masks,” Opt. Express 13, 2394–2402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, D. Rouan, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device,” A&A 448, 801–808 (2006).
  12. J. H. Lee, G. Foo, E. G. Johnson, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Experimental verification of an Optical Vortex Coronagraph,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053901(1–4) (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. T. Trauger, W. A. Traub, “A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet,” Nature 446, 771–773 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Enya, L. Abe, S. Tanaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Haze, T. Sato, T. Wakayama, “High contrast experiment of an AO-free coronagraph with a checkerboard pupil mask,” Astron. Astrophys. 480, 899–903 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. B. Lyot, “A study of the solar corona and prominences without eclipses,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 580 (1939).
  16. D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, J. Surdej, “Annular Groove Phase Mask Coronagraph,” The Astrophys. J. 633, 1191 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Foo, D. M. Palacios, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Optical Vortex Coronagraph,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3308–3310 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, G. V. Uspleniev, “The Phase Rotor Filter (PRF),” J. Modern Opt. 39, 1147–1154 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Peering into darkness with a vortex spatial filter,” Opt. Lett. 26, 497–499 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Broadband Nulling of a Vortex Phase Mask,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2876–2878 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., E. L. Ford, R. Abdul-Malik, J. Kim, L. Close, M. A. Peters, D Palacios, D. Wilson, “Advancements of the optical vortex coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669311–17 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. A. Peters, L. M. Close, M. Rademacher, T. Stalcup, G. A. Swartzlander, E. Ford, R. S. Abdul-Malik, “A high-Strehl low-resolution optical imager (BESSEL): Detection of a 0.7λ/D separation binary from the ground,” New Astron. 13, 359–369 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. Kern, T. A. Laurence, C. Martin, P. E. Dimotakis, “Temporal coherence of individual turbulent patterns in atmospheric seeing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4879–4885 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. A. Swartzlander, Jr. “Achromatic optical vortex lens” Opt. Lett. 31, 2042–2044 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, P. M. Echternach, J. P. Backlund, “Electron-beam lithography for micro-and nano-optical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 68–77 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Z. Mouroulis, J. Backlund, “Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5173, 115–126 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. D. Maker, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, “Fabrication and performance of optical interconnect analog phase holograms made by E-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE CR62, 415–430 (1996).
  28. We acknowledge G. E. Foo, E. Christensen, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., for this measurement using the 60”telescope on Mt. Lemmon, Arizona, Dec. 2002. Similar results were later reported in F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, C. Barbieri, “Optical Vortices with Starlight,” arXiv:0706.2675v2.
  29. J. Burton, “The way I see it. A record of my observations of the night sky: Cor Caroli” x.astrogeek.org/observations/log.php?object_id=508.
  30. R. Dibson-Smith, “The Constellations: Canes Venatici,” www.dibonsmith.com/cvn_con.htm.

2008

K. Enya, L. Abe, S. Tanaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Haze, T. Sato, T. Wakayama, “High contrast experiment of an AO-free coronagraph with a checkerboard pupil mask,” Astron. Astrophys. 480, 899–903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Peters, L. M. Close, M. Rademacher, T. Stalcup, G. A. Swartzlander, E. Ford, R. S. Abdul-Malik, “A high-Strehl low-resolution optical imager (BESSEL): Detection of a 0.7λ/D separation binary from the ground,” New Astron. 13, 359–369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. T. Trauger, W. A. Traub, “A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet,” Nature 446, 771–773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., E. L. Ford, R. Abdul-Malik, J. Kim, L. Close, M. A. Peters, D Palacios, D. Wilson, “Advancements of the optical vortex coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669311–17 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. A. Swartzlander, Jr. “Achromatic optical vortex lens” Opt. Lett. 31, 2042–2044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, D. Rouan, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device,” A&A 448, 801–808 (2006).

J. H. Lee, G. Foo, E. G. Johnson, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Experimental verification of an Optical Vortex Coronagraph,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053901(1–4) (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

R. Galicher, O. Guyon, M. Otsubo, H. Suto, S. Ridgway, “Laboratory Demonstration and Numerical Simulations of the Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization,” PASP 117, 411–420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, J. Surdej, “Annular Groove Phase Mask Coronagraph,” The Astrophys. J. 633, 1191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, P. M. Echternach, J. P. Backlund, “Electron-beam lithography for micro-and nano-optical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 68–77 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, L. Thompson, M. Rogosky, “10-7 contrast ratio at 4.5λ/D: New results obtained in laboratory experiments using nano-fabricated coronagraph and multi-Gaussian shaped pupil masks,” Opt. Express 13, 2394–2402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Broadband Nulling of a Vortex Phase Mask,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2876–2878 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Foo, D. M. Palacios, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Optical Vortex Coronagraph,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3308–3310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, A. E. Lowman, “The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274–1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Z. Mouroulis, J. Backlund, “Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5173, 115–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

1999

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, V. Vuntesmeri, “The Nulling Stellar Coronagraph : Laboratory Tests and Performance Evaluation,” PASP 111, 1321–1330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. W. Marcy, R. P. Butler, “Detection of extrasolar giant planets,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 36, 57–97 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. D. Maker, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, “Fabrication and performance of optical interconnect analog phase holograms made by E-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE CR62, 415–430 (1996).

1992

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, G. V. Uspleniev, “The Phase Rotor Filter (PRF),” J. Modern Opt. 39, 1147–1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Wolszczan, D. A. Frail, “A planetary system around the millisecond pulsar PSR1257+12,” Nature 355, 145–147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1939

M. B. Lyot, “A study of the solar corona and prominences without eclipses,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 580 (1939).

Abdul-Malik, R.

G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., E. L. Ford, R. Abdul-Malik, J. Kim, L. Close, M. A. Peters, D Palacios, D. Wilson, “Advancements of the optical vortex coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669311–17 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Abdul-Malik, R. S.

M. A. Peters, L. M. Close, M. Rademacher, T. Stalcup, G. A. Swartzlander, E. Ford, R. S. Abdul-Malik, “A high-Strehl low-resolution optical imager (BESSEL): Detection of a 0.7λ/D separation binary from the ground,” New Astron. 13, 359–369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Abe, L.

K. Enya, L. Abe, S. Tanaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Haze, T. Sato, T. Wakayama, “High contrast experiment of an AO-free coronagraph with a checkerboard pupil mask,” Astron. Astrophys. 480, 899–903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Absil, O.

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, J. Surdej, “Annular Groove Phase Mask Coronagraph,” The Astrophys. J. 633, 1191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Backlund, J.

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Z. Mouroulis, J. Backlund, “Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5173, 115–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Backlund, J. P.

D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, P. M. Echternach, J. P. Backlund, “Electron-beam lithography for micro-and nano-optical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 68–77 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baudoz, P.

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, D. Rouan, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device,” A&A 448, 801–808 (2006).

Baudrand, J.

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, D. Rouan, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device,” A&A 448, 801–808 (2006).

Bisiacchi, G.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, V. Vuntesmeri, “The Nulling Stellar Coronagraph : Laboratory Tests and Performance Evaluation,” PASP 111, 1321–1330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boccaletti, A.

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, D. Rouan, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device,” A&A 448, 801–808 (2006).

Burton, J.

J. Burton, “The way I see it. A record of my observations of the night sky: Cor Caroli” x.astrogeek.org/observations/log.php?object_id=508.

Butler, R. P.

G. W. Marcy, R. P. Butler, “Detection of extrasolar giant planets,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 36, 57–97 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

Christensen, E.

We acknowledge G. E. Foo, E. Christensen, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., for this measurement using the 60”telescope on Mt. Lemmon, Arizona, Dec. 2002. Similar results were later reported in F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, C. Barbieri, “Optical Vortices with Starlight,” arXiv:0706.2675v2.

Close, L.

G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., E. L. Ford, R. Abdul-Malik, J. Kim, L. Close, M. A. Peters, D Palacios, D. Wilson, “Advancements of the optical vortex coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669311–17 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Close, L. M.

M. A. Peters, L. M. Close, M. Rademacher, T. Stalcup, G. A. Swartzlander, E. Ford, R. S. Abdul-Malik, “A high-Strehl low-resolution optical imager (BESSEL): Detection of a 0.7λ/D separation binary from the ground,” New Astron. 13, 359–369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Collins, B.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coulter, D.

D. Coulter, “NASA/s Terrestrial Planet Finder mission: the search for habitable planets,” in Towards other Earths: DARWIN/TPF and the Search for Extrasolar Planets, M. Fridlund, T. Henning, eds., (European Space Agency, 2003), pp. 47–54.

Cuevas, S.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, V. Vuntesmeri, “The Nulling Stellar Coronagraph : Laboratory Tests and Performance Evaluation,” PASP 111, 1321–1330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dibson-Smith, R.

R. Dibson-Smith, “The Constellations: Canes Venatici,” www.dibonsmith.com/cvn_con.htm.

Dick, S. J.

S. J. Dick, The Biological Universe (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1996).

Dimotakis, P. E.

Dupuis, O.

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, D. Rouan, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device,” A&A 448, 801–808 (2006).

Echternach, P. M.

D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, P. M. Echternach, J. P. Backlund, “Electron-beam lithography for micro-and nano-optical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 68–77 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Enya, K.

K. Enya, L. Abe, S. Tanaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Haze, T. Sato, T. Wakayama, “High contrast experiment of an AO-free coronagraph with a checkerboard pupil mask,” Astron. Astrophys. 480, 899–903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Espejo, C.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, V. Vuntesmeri, “The Nulling Stellar Coronagraph : Laboratory Tests and Performance Evaluation,” PASP 111, 1321–1330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Foo, G.

J. H. Lee, G. Foo, E. G. Johnson, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Experimental verification of an Optical Vortex Coronagraph,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053901(1–4) (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Foo, D. M. Palacios, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Optical Vortex Coronagraph,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3308–3310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Foo, G. E.

We acknowledge G. E. Foo, E. Christensen, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., for this measurement using the 60”telescope on Mt. Lemmon, Arizona, Dec. 2002. Similar results were later reported in F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, C. Barbieri, “Optical Vortices with Starlight,” arXiv:0706.2675v2.

Ford, E.

M. A. Peters, L. M. Close, M. Rademacher, T. Stalcup, G. A. Swartzlander, E. Ford, R. S. Abdul-Malik, “A high-Strehl low-resolution optical imager (BESSEL): Detection of a 0.7λ/D separation binary from the ground,” New Astron. 13, 359–369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ford, E. L.

G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., E. L. Ford, R. Abdul-Malik, J. Kim, L. Close, M. A. Peters, D Palacios, D. Wilson, “Advancements of the optical vortex coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669311–17 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ford, V. G.

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, A. E. Lowman, “The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274–1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frail, D. A.

A. Wolszczan, D. A. Frail, “A planetary system around the millisecond pulsar PSR1257+12,” Nature 355, 145–147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Galicher, R.

R. Galicher, O. Guyon, M. Otsubo, H. Suto, S. Ridgway, “Laboratory Demonstration and Numerical Simulations of the Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization,” PASP 117, 411–420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, S.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, V. Vuntesmeri, “The Nulling Stellar Coronagraph : Laboratory Tests and Performance Evaluation,” PASP 111, 1321–1330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Graves, J. E.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, V. Vuntesmeri, “The Nulling Stellar Coronagraph : Laboratory Tests and Performance Evaluation,” PASP 111, 1321–1330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guyon, O.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Galicher, O. Guyon, M. Otsubo, H. Suto, S. Ridgway, “Laboratory Demonstration and Numerical Simulations of the Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization,” PASP 117, 411–420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, V. Vuntesmeri, “The Nulling Stellar Coronagraph : Laboratory Tests and Performance Evaluation,” PASP 111, 1321–1330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haze, K.

K. Enya, L. Abe, S. Tanaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Haze, T. Sato, T. Wakayama, “High contrast experiment of an AO-free coronagraph with a checkerboard pupil mask,” Astron. Astrophys. 480, 899–903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, T.

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, A. E. Lowman, “The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274–1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, D.

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, A. E. Lowman, “The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274–1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, E. G.

J. H. Lee, G. Foo, E. G. Johnson, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Experimental verification of an Optical Vortex Coronagraph,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053901(1–4) (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaltenegger, L.

A. Karlsson, L. Kaltenegger, “The technology of DARWIN,” in Towards other Earths: DARWIN/TPF and the Search for Extrasolar Planets, M. Fridlund, T. Henning, eds., (European Space Agency, 2003), pp. 41–46.

Karlsson, A.

A. Karlsson, L. Kaltenegger, “The technology of DARWIN,” in Towards other Earths: DARWIN/TPF and the Search for Extrasolar Planets, M. Fridlund, T. Henning, eds., (European Space Agency, 2003), pp. 41–46.

Kern, B.

Khonina, S. N.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, G. V. Uspleniev, “The Phase Rotor Filter (PRF),” J. Modern Opt. 39, 1147–1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., E. L. Ford, R. Abdul-Malik, J. Kim, L. Close, M. A. Peters, D Palacios, D. Wilson, “Advancements of the optical vortex coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669311–17 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kotlyar, V. V.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, G. V. Uspleniev, “The Phase Rotor Filter (PRF),” J. Modern Opt. 39, 1147–1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kuchner, M. J.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laurence, T. A.

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, G. Foo, E. G. Johnson, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Experimental verification of an Optical Vortex Coronagraph,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053901(1–4) (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lisman, P. D.

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, A. E. Lowman, “The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274–1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lowman, A. E.

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, A. E. Lowman, “The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274–1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lyot, M. B.

M. B. Lyot, “A study of the solar corona and prominences without eclipses,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 580 (1939).

Maker, P. D.

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Z. Mouroulis, J. Backlund, “Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5173, 115–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Maker, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, “Fabrication and performance of optical interconnect analog phase holograms made by E-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE CR62, 415–430 (1996).

Marcy, G. W.

G. W. Marcy, R. P. Butler, “Detection of extrasolar giant planets,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 36, 57–97 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martin, C.

Martinez, A.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, V. Vuntesmeri, “The Nulling Stellar Coronagraph : Laboratory Tests and Performance Evaluation,” PASP 111, 1321–1330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mawet, D.

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, D. Rouan, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device,” A&A 448, 801–808 (2006).

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, J. Surdej, “Annular Groove Phase Mask Coronagraph,” The Astrophys. J. 633, 1191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mouroulis, P. Z.

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Z. Mouroulis, J. Backlund, “Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5173, 115–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R. E.

D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, P. M. Echternach, J. P. Backlund, “Electron-beam lithography for micro-and nano-optical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 68–77 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Z. Mouroulis, J. Backlund, “Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5173, 115–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Maker, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, “Fabrication and performance of optical interconnect analog phase holograms made by E-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE CR62, 415–430 (1996).

Nakagawa, T.

K. Enya, L. Abe, S. Tanaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Haze, T. Sato, T. Wakayama, “High contrast experiment of an AO-free coronagraph with a checkerboard pupil mask,” Astron. Astrophys. 480, 899–903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Otsubo, M.

R. Galicher, O. Guyon, M. Otsubo, H. Suto, S. Ridgway, “Laboratory Demonstration and Numerical Simulations of the Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization,” PASP 117, 411–420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palacios, D

G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., E. L. Ford, R. Abdul-Malik, J. Kim, L. Close, M. A. Peters, D Palacios, D. Wilson, “Advancements of the optical vortex coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669311–17 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palacios, D. M.

Peters, M. A.

M. A. Peters, L. M. Close, M. Rademacher, T. Stalcup, G. A. Swartzlander, E. Ford, R. S. Abdul-Malik, “A high-Strehl low-resolution optical imager (BESSEL): Detection of a 0.7λ/D separation binary from the ground,” New Astron. 13, 359–369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., E. L. Ford, R. Abdul-Malik, J. Kim, L. Close, M. A. Peters, D Palacios, D. Wilson, “Advancements of the optical vortex coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669311–17 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pluzhnik, E. A.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rademacher, M.

M. A. Peters, L. M. Close, M. Rademacher, T. Stalcup, G. A. Swartzlander, E. Ford, R. S. Abdul-Malik, “A high-Strehl low-resolution optical imager (BESSEL): Detection of a 0.7λ/D separation binary from the ground,” New Astron. 13, 359–369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riaud, P.

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, D. Rouan, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device,” A&A 448, 801–808 (2006).

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, J. Surdej, “Annular Groove Phase Mask Coronagraph,” The Astrophys. J. 633, 1191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, S.

R. Galicher, O. Guyon, M. Otsubo, H. Suto, S. Ridgway, “Laboratory Demonstration and Numerical Simulations of the Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization,” PASP 117, 411–420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, S. T.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, C.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, V. Vuntesmeri, “The Nulling Stellar Coronagraph : Laboratory Tests and Performance Evaluation,” PASP 111, 1321–1330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, V. Vuntesmeri, “The Nulling Stellar Coronagraph : Laboratory Tests and Performance Evaluation,” PASP 111, 1321–1330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rogosky, M.

Rouan, D.

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, D. Rouan, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device,” A&A 448, 801–808 (2006).

Sato, T.

K. Enya, L. Abe, S. Tanaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Haze, T. Sato, T. Wakayama, “High contrast experiment of an AO-free coronagraph with a checkerboard pupil mask,” Astron. Astrophys. 480, 899–903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shaklan, S. B.

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, A. E. Lowman, “The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274–1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shinkaryev, M. V.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, G. V. Uspleniev, “The Phase Rotor Filter (PRF),” J. Modern Opt. 39, 1147–1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soifer, V. A.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, G. V. Uspleniev, “The Phase Rotor Filter (PRF),” J. Modern Opt. 39, 1147–1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stalcup, T.

M. A. Peters, L. M. Close, M. Rademacher, T. Stalcup, G. A. Swartzlander, E. Ford, R. S. Abdul-Malik, “A high-Strehl low-resolution optical imager (BESSEL): Detection of a 0.7λ/D separation binary from the ground,” New Astron. 13, 359–369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Surdej, J.

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, J. Surdej, “Annular Groove Phase Mask Coronagraph,” The Astrophys. J. 633, 1191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suto, H.

R. Galicher, O. Guyon, M. Otsubo, H. Suto, S. Ridgway, “Laboratory Demonstration and Numerical Simulations of the Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization,” PASP 117, 411–420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Swartzlander, G. A.

M. A. Peters, L. M. Close, M. Rademacher, T. Stalcup, G. A. Swartzlander, E. Ford, R. S. Abdul-Malik, “A high-Strehl low-resolution optical imager (BESSEL): Detection of a 0.7λ/D separation binary from the ground,” New Astron. 13, 359–369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swartzlander, Jr., G. A.

G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., E. L. Ford, R. Abdul-Malik, J. Kim, L. Close, M. A. Peters, D Palacios, D. Wilson, “Advancements of the optical vortex coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669311–17 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Swartzlander, Jr. “Achromatic optical vortex lens” Opt. Lett. 31, 2042–2044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, G. Foo, E. G. Johnson, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Experimental verification of an Optical Vortex Coronagraph,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053901(1–4) (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Broadband Nulling of a Vortex Phase Mask,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2876–2878 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Foo, D. M. Palacios, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Optical Vortex Coronagraph,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3308–3310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Peering into darkness with a vortex spatial filter,” Opt. Lett. 26, 497–499 (2001).
[CrossRef]

We acknowledge G. E. Foo, E. Christensen, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., for this measurement using the 60”telescope on Mt. Lemmon, Arizona, Dec. 2002. Similar results were later reported in F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, C. Barbieri, “Optical Vortices with Starlight,” arXiv:0706.2675v2.

Tanaka, S.

K. Enya, L. Abe, S. Tanaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Haze, T. Sato, T. Wakayama, “High contrast experiment of an AO-free coronagraph with a checkerboard pupil mask,” Astron. Astrophys. 480, 899–903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, L.

Traub, W. A.

J. T. Trauger, W. A. Traub, “A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet,” Nature 446, 771–773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trauger, J. T.

J. T. Trauger, W. A. Traub, “A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet,” Nature 446, 771–773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, A. E. Lowman, “The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274–1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uspleniev, G. V.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, G. V. Uspleniev, “The Phase Rotor Filter (PRF),” J. Modern Opt. 39, 1147–1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vuntesmeri, V.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, V. Vuntesmeri, “The Nulling Stellar Coronagraph : Laboratory Tests and Performance Evaluation,” PASP 111, 1321–1330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wakayama, T.

K. Enya, L. Abe, S. Tanaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Haze, T. Sato, T. Wakayama, “High contrast experiment of an AO-free coronagraph with a checkerboard pupil mask,” Astron. Astrophys. 480, 899–903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D.

G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., E. L. Ford, R. Abdul-Malik, J. Kim, L. Close, M. A. Peters, D Palacios, D. Wilson, “Advancements of the optical vortex coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669311–17 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. W.

D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, P. M. Echternach, J. P. Backlund, “Electron-beam lithography for micro-and nano-optical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 68–77 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Z. Mouroulis, J. Backlund, “Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5173, 115–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Maker, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, “Fabrication and performance of optical interconnect analog phase holograms made by E-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE CR62, 415–430 (1996).

Wolszczan, A.

A. Wolszczan, D. A. Frail, “A planetary system around the millisecond pulsar PSR1257+12,” Nature 355, 145–147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A&A

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, D. Rouan, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device,” A&A 448, 801–808 (2006).

Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.

G. W. Marcy, R. P. Butler, “Detection of extrasolar giant planets,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 36, 57–97 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

K. Enya, L. Abe, S. Tanaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Haze, T. Sato, T. Wakayama, “High contrast experiment of an AO-free coronagraph with a checkerboard pupil mask,” Astron. Astrophys. 480, 899–903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Suppl.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Modern Opt.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, G. V. Uspleniev, “The Phase Rotor Filter (PRF),” J. Modern Opt. 39, 1147–1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.

M. B. Lyot, “A study of the solar corona and prominences without eclipses,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 580 (1939).

Nature

A. Wolszczan, D. A. Frail, “A planetary system around the millisecond pulsar PSR1257+12,” Nature 355, 145–147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, W. A. Traub, “A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet,” Nature 446, 771–773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New Astron.

M. A. Peters, L. M. Close, M. Rademacher, T. Stalcup, G. A. Swartzlander, E. Ford, R. S. Abdul-Malik, “A high-Strehl low-resolution optical imager (BESSEL): Detection of a 0.7λ/D separation binary from the ground,” New Astron. 13, 359–369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

PASP

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, V. Vuntesmeri, “The Nulling Stellar Coronagraph : Laboratory Tests and Performance Evaluation,” PASP 111, 1321–1330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Galicher, O. Guyon, M. Otsubo, H. Suto, S. Ridgway, “Laboratory Demonstration and Numerical Simulations of the Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization,” PASP 117, 411–420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. H. Lee, G. Foo, E. G. Johnson, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., “Experimental verification of an Optical Vortex Coronagraph,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053901(1–4) (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, A. E. Lowman, “The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: technology and mission design studies,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274–1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, P. M. Echternach, J. P. Backlund, “Electron-beam lithography for micro-and nano-optical applications,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 68–77 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, P. Z. Mouroulis, J. Backlund, “Recent advances in blazed grating fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5173, 115–126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Maker, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, “Fabrication and performance of optical interconnect analog phase holograms made by E-beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE CR62, 415–430 (1996).

G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., E. L. Ford, R. Abdul-Malik, J. Kim, L. Close, M. A. Peters, D Palacios, D. Wilson, “Advancements of the optical vortex coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669311–17 (2007).
[CrossRef]

The Astrophys. J.

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, J. Surdej, “Annular Groove Phase Mask Coronagraph,” The Astrophys. J. 633, 1191 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

We acknowledge G. E. Foo, E. Christensen, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., for this measurement using the 60”telescope on Mt. Lemmon, Arizona, Dec. 2002. Similar results were later reported in F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, C. Barbieri, “Optical Vortices with Starlight,” arXiv:0706.2675v2.

J. Burton, “The way I see it. A record of my observations of the night sky: Cor Caroli” x.astrogeek.org/observations/log.php?object_id=508.

R. Dibson-Smith, “The Constellations: Canes Venatici,” www.dibonsmith.com/cvn_con.htm.

D. Coulter, “NASA/s Terrestrial Planet Finder mission: the search for habitable planets,” in Towards other Earths: DARWIN/TPF and the Search for Extrasolar Planets, M. Fridlund, T. Henning, eds., (European Space Agency, 2003), pp. 47–54.

A. Karlsson, L. Kaltenegger, “The technology of DARWIN,” in Towards other Earths: DARWIN/TPF and the Search for Extrasolar Planets, M. Fridlund, T. Henning, eds., (European Space Agency, 2003), pp. 41–46.

S. J. Dick, The Biological Universe (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1996).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram showing rays from a binary star system (S1 and S2) passing through the atmosphere (Atm) and into a telescope comprised of an objective lens, L0, and subaperture, Ap. The rays are recollimated by lens L1 whereby an image of Ap appears at the piezoelectrically driven tip-tilt mirror (TTM). A relay system, RL1 and RL2, reproduces this image at the input face of lens L2. A 50/50 beam splitter (BS) directs light to a fast (500 Hz) camera, Cam1, whereby the star system is imaged by use of camera lens (CL1). To correct the wavefront a computer sends a feedback signal to TTM. The remaining light is imaged on the optical vortex lens (OVL) by use of L2 and recollimated by lens L3. A Lyot stop (LS) is positioned in the image plane of Ap, and the transmitted light forms a spatially filtered image of the star system on a telescope camera (Cam2) by use of lens CL2. Both cameras employ bandpass filters (BPF). The surface of an OVL is illustrated in the inset.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Surface profile of the optical vortex lens in PMMA resist showing (a) relatively good surface quality in the central region containing the vortex axis, and (b) significant surface roughness owing to exposure non-uniformity near electron-beam field boundaries.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Image of a star (Betelgeuse) through a vortex lens without adaptive optics [28]. (b) Image of a star (Arcturus) through a vortex lens using adaptive optics.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

False color laboratory measurements using a vortex coronagraph. (a) Without vortex lens. (b) With vortex lens. (c) Radially averaged intensity profiles of the data in (a) and (b). Black solid curve in (c) shifted to 4λ/D.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Raw dark-frame-subtracted images of Cor Caroli in false color (a) without vortex, (b) with vortex, (c) difference with (a) subtracted from (b). The 2×2 pixel outline in each image demarks the registration position that produces the greatest difference.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Interpolated images (a) without vortex (fa), (b) with vortex lens (fb), (c) Relative difference, (fb-fa)/fa. (d) Black line: Intensity plot through the peaks of the primary and secondary star without the vortex lens. Blue line: Same points with the vortex lens. Red line: the percent change that reaches -97%. Dashed lines: computer generated defocused point spread functions.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Numerically generated images (a) without (b) with the vortex lens. To achieve agreement with the experimental images (see Fig. 6) quartic wavefront distortion at the telescope objective was included, and the vortex lens was misaligned. (c) Predicted image for the same system using instead, a Lyot coronagraph with the central Airy disk occulted.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical Design Specifications: diameter, D, focal length, f. Lenses are near-infrared achromatic doublets, except the visible air spaced achromat, L0.

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