Abstract

We report an in situ thermal study of Yb-doped fluorite crystals Yb:CaF2 and Yb:SrF2 under high power pumping, with or without laser operation. The experiment combines simultaneously thermography and measurement of the thermal aberrations. This setup allows us to measure temperature gradients, thermal lens, and absorption coefficients. From these measurements, we evaluate the thermal conductivity, fractional thermal load, and thermo-optic coefficient. Great differences are observed between the lasing and non lasing regimes. Our measured thermal lenses are greater than what are expected from the thermo-optic parameters found in previous work. Based on this thermal study, we design a laser cavity operating with large output power and TEM00, leading to better performances for Yb:CaF2 than Yb:SrF2.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, M. von Edlinger, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, "Comparative spectroscopic and laser properties of Yb3+-doped CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2 single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 89, 539-542 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Lucca, G. Debourg, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, "High-power diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 2767-2769 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-23-2767
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Lucca, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, "High-power tunable diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 1879-1881 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-16-1879.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. Petit, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, "CW and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ doped CaF2," Appl. Phys. B 78, 681-684 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Siebold, J. Hein, M. C. Kaluza, and R. Uecker, "High-peak-power tunable laser operation of Yb:SrF2," Opt. Lett. 32, 1818-1820 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-13-1818
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Siebold, M. Hornung, S. Bock, J. Hein, M.C. Kaluza, J. Wemans and R. Uecker, "Broad-band regenerative laser amplification in ytterbium-doped calcium fluoride (Yb:CaF2)," Appl. Phys. B 89, 543-547 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials, (CRC Press LLC, 2003).
  8. R. Gaumé, B. Viana, D. Vivien, J. P. Roger, and D. Fournier, "A simple model for the prediction of thermal conductivity in pure and doped insaluting crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1355-1357 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. M. Mogilevskii, V. F. Tumnuroma, A. F. Chudnovskii, E. D. Kaplan, L. M. Puchkina and V. M. Reiterov, "Thermal conductivity of fluorides of alkali earth metals," J. Eng. Phys. and Thermo. 30, 210-214 (1976).
  10. S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, "Thermal lensing in Diode-pumped Ytterbium Lasers - Part I: Theoretical Analysis and Wavefront Measurements," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1217-1234 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. M. Jeong, D. -K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Method of reconstructing wavefront aberrations by use of Zernike polynomials in radial shearing interferometers," Opt. Lett. 32, 232-234 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-3-232
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Didierjean, E. Herault, F. Balembois, P. Georges "Thermal conductivity measurements of laser crystals by infrared thermography. Application to Nd:doped crystals," accepted for publication in Opt. Express
    [PubMed]
  13. S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois and P. Georges, "Direct and absolute temperature mapping in diode-end pumped Yb:YAG," Appl. Phys. B 79, 221-224 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Y. Fan, "Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG", IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457-1459 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Augé, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, "Theroretical and Experimental Investigations of a Diode-Pumped Quasi-Three-Level Laser: The Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598-606 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (4)

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, M. von Edlinger, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, "Comparative spectroscopic and laser properties of Yb3+-doped CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2 single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 89, 539-542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Siebold, J. Hein, M. C. Kaluza, and R. Uecker, "High-peak-power tunable laser operation of Yb:SrF2," Opt. Lett. 32, 1818-1820 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-13-1818
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, S. Bock, J. Hein, M.C. Kaluza, J. Wemans and R. Uecker, "Broad-band regenerative laser amplification in ytterbium-doped calcium fluoride (Yb:CaF2)," Appl. Phys. B 89, 543-547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Jeong, D. -K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Method of reconstructing wavefront aberrations by use of Zernike polynomials in radial shearing interferometers," Opt. Lett. 32, 232-234 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-3-232
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois and P. Georges, "Direct and absolute temperature mapping in diode-end pumped Yb:YAG," Appl. Phys. B 79, 221-224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, "Thermal lensing in Diode-pumped Ytterbium Lasers - Part I: Theoretical Analysis and Wavefront Measurements," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1217-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Lucca, G. Debourg, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, "High-power diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 2767-2769 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-23-2767
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lucca, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, "High-power tunable diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 1879-1881 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-16-1879.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Petit, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, "CW and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ doped CaF2," Appl. Phys. B 78, 681-684 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. Gaumé, B. Viana, D. Vivien, J. P. Roger, and D. Fournier, "A simple model for the prediction of thermal conductivity in pure and doped insaluting crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1355-1357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

F. Augé, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, "Theroretical and Experimental Investigations of a Diode-Pumped Quasi-Three-Level Laser: The Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. Y. Fan, "Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG", IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457-1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

B. M. Mogilevskii, V. F. Tumnuroma, A. F. Chudnovskii, E. D. Kaplan, L. M. Puchkina and V. M. Reiterov, "Thermal conductivity of fluorides of alkali earth metals," J. Eng. Phys. and Thermo. 30, 210-214 (1976).

Aka, G.

F. Augé, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, "Theroretical and Experimental Investigations of a Diode-Pumped Quasi-Three-Level Laser: The Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Augé, F.

F. Augé, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, "Theroretical and Experimental Investigations of a Diode-Pumped Quasi-Three-Level Laser: The Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Balembois, F.

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois and P. Georges, "Direct and absolute temperature mapping in diode-end pumped Yb:YAG," Appl. Phys. B 79, 221-224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, "Thermal lensing in Diode-pumped Ytterbium Lasers - Part I: Theoretical Analysis and Wavefront Measurements," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1217-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Lucca, G. Debourg, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, "High-power diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 2767-2769 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-23-2767
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lucca, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, "High-power tunable diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 1879-1881 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-16-1879.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Augé, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, "Theroretical and Experimental Investigations of a Diode-Pumped Quasi-Three-Level Laser: The Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Didierjean, E. Herault, F. Balembois, P. Georges "Thermal conductivity measurements of laser crystals by infrared thermography. Application to Nd:doped crystals," accepted for publication in Opt. Express
[PubMed]

Benayad, A.

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, M. von Edlinger, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, "Comparative spectroscopic and laser properties of Yb3+-doped CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2 single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 89, 539-542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bock, S.

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, S. Bock, J. Hein, M.C. Kaluza, J. Wemans and R. Uecker, "Broad-band regenerative laser amplification in ytterbium-doped calcium fluoride (Yb:CaF2)," Appl. Phys. B 89, 543-547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brun, A.

F. Augé, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, "Theroretical and Experimental Investigations of a Diode-Pumped Quasi-Three-Level Laser: The Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Camy, P.

Chénais, S.

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois and P. Georges, "Direct and absolute temperature mapping in diode-end pumped Yb:YAG," Appl. Phys. B 79, 221-224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, "Thermal lensing in Diode-pumped Ytterbium Lasers - Part I: Theoretical Analysis and Wavefront Measurements," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1217-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chudnovskii, A. F.

B. M. Mogilevskii, V. F. Tumnuroma, A. F. Chudnovskii, E. D. Kaplan, L. M. Puchkina and V. M. Reiterov, "Thermal conductivity of fluorides of alkali earth metals," J. Eng. Phys. and Thermo. 30, 210-214 (1976).

Debourg, G.

Didierjean, J.

J. Didierjean, E. Herault, F. Balembois, P. Georges "Thermal conductivity measurements of laser crystals by infrared thermography. Application to Nd:doped crystals," accepted for publication in Opt. Express
[PubMed]

Doualan, J. L.

Druon, F.

A. Lucca, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, "High-power tunable diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 1879-1881 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-16-1879.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lucca, G. Debourg, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, "High-power diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 2767-2769 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-23-2767
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois and P. Georges, "Direct and absolute temperature mapping in diode-end pumped Yb:YAG," Appl. Phys. B 79, 221-224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, "Thermal lensing in Diode-pumped Ytterbium Lasers - Part I: Theoretical Analysis and Wavefront Measurements," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1217-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Augé, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, "Theroretical and Experimental Investigations of a Diode-Pumped Quasi-Three-Level Laser: The Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, "Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG", IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457-1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Forget, S.

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois and P. Georges, "Direct and absolute temperature mapping in diode-end pumped Yb:YAG," Appl. Phys. B 79, 221-224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, D.

R. Gaumé, B. Viana, D. Vivien, J. P. Roger, and D. Fournier, "A simple model for the prediction of thermal conductivity in pure and doped insaluting crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1355-1357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gaumé, R.

R. Gaumé, B. Viana, D. Vivien, J. P. Roger, and D. Fournier, "A simple model for the prediction of thermal conductivity in pure and doped insaluting crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1355-1357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Georges, P.

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois and P. Georges, "Direct and absolute temperature mapping in diode-end pumped Yb:YAG," Appl. Phys. B 79, 221-224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, "Thermal lensing in Diode-pumped Ytterbium Lasers - Part I: Theoretical Analysis and Wavefront Measurements," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1217-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Lucca, G. Debourg, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, "High-power diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 2767-2769 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-23-2767
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lucca, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, "High-power tunable diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 1879-1881 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-16-1879.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Augé, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, "Theroretical and Experimental Investigations of a Diode-Pumped Quasi-Three-Level Laser: The Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Didierjean, E. Herault, F. Balembois, P. Georges "Thermal conductivity measurements of laser crystals by infrared thermography. Application to Nd:doped crystals," accepted for publication in Opt. Express
[PubMed]

Hein, J.

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, S. Bock, J. Hein, M.C. Kaluza, J. Wemans and R. Uecker, "Broad-band regenerative laser amplification in ytterbium-doped calcium fluoride (Yb:CaF2)," Appl. Phys. B 89, 543-547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Siebold, J. Hein, M. C. Kaluza, and R. Uecker, "High-peak-power tunable laser operation of Yb:SrF2," Opt. Lett. 32, 1818-1820 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-13-1818
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herault, E.

J. Didierjean, E. Herault, F. Balembois, P. Georges "Thermal conductivity measurements of laser crystals by infrared thermography. Application to Nd:doped crystals," accepted for publication in Opt. Express
[PubMed]

Hornung, M.

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, S. Bock, J. Hein, M.C. Kaluza, J. Wemans and R. Uecker, "Broad-band regenerative laser amplification in ytterbium-doped calcium fluoride (Yb:CaF2)," Appl. Phys. B 89, 543-547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemet, M.

Jeong, T. M.

Kaluza, M. C.

Kaluza, M.C.

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, S. Bock, J. Hein, M.C. Kaluza, J. Wemans and R. Uecker, "Broad-band regenerative laser amplification in ytterbium-doped calcium fluoride (Yb:CaF2)," Appl. Phys. B 89, 543-547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, E. D.

B. M. Mogilevskii, V. F. Tumnuroma, A. F. Chudnovskii, E. D. Kaplan, L. M. Puchkina and V. M. Reiterov, "Thermal conductivity of fluorides of alkali earth metals," J. Eng. Phys. and Thermo. 30, 210-214 (1976).

Ko, D. -K.

Lee, J.

Lucas-Leclin, G.

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, "Thermal lensing in Diode-pumped Ytterbium Lasers - Part I: Theoretical Analysis and Wavefront Measurements," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1217-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lucca, A.

Ménard, V.

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, M. von Edlinger, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, "Comparative spectroscopic and laser properties of Yb3+-doped CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2 single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 89, 539-542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Petit, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, "CW and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ doped CaF2," Appl. Phys. B 78, 681-684 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mogilevskii, B. M.

B. M. Mogilevskii, V. F. Tumnuroma, A. F. Chudnovskii, E. D. Kaplan, L. M. Puchkina and V. M. Reiterov, "Thermal conductivity of fluorides of alkali earth metals," J. Eng. Phys. and Thermo. 30, 210-214 (1976).

Moncorgé, R.

Mougel, F.

F. Augé, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, "Theroretical and Experimental Investigations of a Diode-Pumped Quasi-Three-Level Laser: The Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petit, V.

V. Petit, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, "CW and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ doped CaF2," Appl. Phys. B 78, 681-684 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Puchkina, L. M.

B. M. Mogilevskii, V. F. Tumnuroma, A. F. Chudnovskii, E. D. Kaplan, L. M. Puchkina and V. M. Reiterov, "Thermal conductivity of fluorides of alkali earth metals," J. Eng. Phys. and Thermo. 30, 210-214 (1976).

Reiterov, V. M.

B. M. Mogilevskii, V. F. Tumnuroma, A. F. Chudnovskii, E. D. Kaplan, L. M. Puchkina and V. M. Reiterov, "Thermal conductivity of fluorides of alkali earth metals," J. Eng. Phys. and Thermo. 30, 210-214 (1976).

Roger, J. P.

R. Gaumé, B. Viana, D. Vivien, J. P. Roger, and D. Fournier, "A simple model for the prediction of thermal conductivity in pure and doped insaluting crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1355-1357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Siebold, M.

M. Siebold, J. Hein, M. C. Kaluza, and R. Uecker, "High-peak-power tunable laser operation of Yb:SrF2," Opt. Lett. 32, 1818-1820 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-13-1818
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, S. Bock, J. Hein, M.C. Kaluza, J. Wemans and R. Uecker, "Broad-band regenerative laser amplification in ytterbium-doped calcium fluoride (Yb:CaF2)," Appl. Phys. B 89, 543-547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tumnuroma, V. F.

B. M. Mogilevskii, V. F. Tumnuroma, A. F. Chudnovskii, E. D. Kaplan, L. M. Puchkina and V. M. Reiterov, "Thermal conductivity of fluorides of alkali earth metals," J. Eng. Phys. and Thermo. 30, 210-214 (1976).

Uecker, R.

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, S. Bock, J. Hein, M.C. Kaluza, J. Wemans and R. Uecker, "Broad-band regenerative laser amplification in ytterbium-doped calcium fluoride (Yb:CaF2)," Appl. Phys. B 89, 543-547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Siebold, J. Hein, M. C. Kaluza, and R. Uecker, "High-peak-power tunable laser operation of Yb:SrF2," Opt. Lett. 32, 1818-1820 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-13-1818
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viana, B.

R. Gaumé, B. Viana, D. Vivien, J. P. Roger, and D. Fournier, "A simple model for the prediction of thermal conductivity in pure and doped insaluting crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1355-1357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, D.

R. Gaumé, B. Viana, D. Vivien, J. P. Roger, and D. Fournier, "A simple model for the prediction of thermal conductivity in pure and doped insaluting crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1355-1357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Augé, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, "Theroretical and Experimental Investigations of a Diode-Pumped Quasi-Three-Level Laser: The Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

von Edlinger, M.

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, M. von Edlinger, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, "Comparative spectroscopic and laser properties of Yb3+-doped CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2 single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 89, 539-542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wemans, J.

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, S. Bock, J. Hein, M.C. Kaluza, J. Wemans and R. Uecker, "Broad-band regenerative laser amplification in ytterbium-doped calcium fluoride (Yb:CaF2)," Appl. Phys. B 89, 543-547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, M. von Edlinger, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, "Comparative spectroscopic and laser properties of Yb3+-doped CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2 single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 89, 539-542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Petit, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, "CW and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ doped CaF2," Appl. Phys. B 78, 681-684 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, S. Bock, J. Hein, M.C. Kaluza, J. Wemans and R. Uecker, "Broad-band regenerative laser amplification in ytterbium-doped calcium fluoride (Yb:CaF2)," Appl. Phys. B 89, 543-547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois and P. Georges, "Direct and absolute temperature mapping in diode-end pumped Yb:YAG," Appl. Phys. B 79, 221-224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Gaumé, B. Viana, D. Vivien, J. P. Roger, and D. Fournier, "A simple model for the prediction of thermal conductivity in pure and doped insaluting crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1355-1357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

T. Y. Fan, "Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG", IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457-1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Augé, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, "Theroretical and Experimental Investigations of a Diode-Pumped Quasi-Three-Level Laser: The Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, "Thermal lensing in Diode-pumped Ytterbium Lasers - Part I: Theoretical Analysis and Wavefront Measurements," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1217-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Eng. Phys. and Thermo. (1)

B. M. Mogilevskii, V. F. Tumnuroma, A. F. Chudnovskii, E. D. Kaplan, L. M. Puchkina and V. M. Reiterov, "Thermal conductivity of fluorides of alkali earth metals," J. Eng. Phys. and Thermo. 30, 210-214 (1976).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optics Express (1)

J. Didierjean, E. Herault, F. Balembois, P. Georges "Thermal conductivity measurements of laser crystals by infrared thermography. Application to Nd:doped crystals," accepted for publication in Opt. Express
[PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials, (CRC Press LLC, 2003).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Absorption (a) and emission (b) spectra of the Yb3+:MeF2 (where Me=Ca and Sr)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for thermal characterizations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Thermography of Yb3+:CaF2and Yb3+:SrF2 (a) with laser operation and (b) without laser operation at maximum pump power. The cooled sides are right left and bottom.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dioptric power versus incident power for CaF2:Yb3+ and SrF2:Yb3+

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Amplitude of wavefront distortion (a) and (c) and corresponding Zernike polynomial decomposition (b) and (d) for Yb3+:CaF2 and Yb3+:SrF2 at maximal incident pump power, respectively; in the polynomial decomposition the yellow bar represents the focus.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Thermal conductivity for (a) Yb:CaF2 and (b) Yb:SrF2

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental (bleu points) and the corresponding theoretical (red line) temperature profiles at z=0 for (a) Yb3+:CaF2 and for (b) Yb3+SrF2

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Laser extraction efficiency for Yb3+:CaF2 (triangles) and Yb3+:SrF2 (circles).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Experimental (bleu points) and the corresponding theoretical (red line) temperature profiles at z=0 for (a) Yb3+:CaF2 and for (b) Yb3+SrF2 under laser operation.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a). Laser cavity design (b) output power versus incident power.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

M2 factors along the x and y directions for Yb:CaF2

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1: Spectroscopic parameters and crystallographic data for the fluoride crystals

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Table 2: Temperature gradient and global temperature elevation for Yb3+:CaF2 and Yb3+:SrF2

Tables Icon

Table 3. Table of parameters and results obtained.

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Table 4. Table of parameters and results obtained with thermographies under laser operation.

Tables Icon

Table 5. Comparison between the experimental and theoretical results

Equations (8)

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D th = 1 f th = η h P abs 2 π w p 2 κ c [ ( dn dT ) + ( n 1 ) ( 1 + v ) α T + 2 n 3 α T C r ] = η h P abs χ 2 π w p 2 κ c
η h ( with laser ) = 1 η p [ ( 1 η l ) η r λ p λ f + η l λ p λ l ]
Δ T = T ( r , z ) T ( r 0 , z ) = η h ( without laser ) 4 π κ c dP ( z ) dz f ( r , z )
f ( r , z ) = { ln ( r 0 2 w p 2 ( z ) ) + 1 r 2 w p 2 ( z ) x w p ( z ) ln ( r 0 2 r 2 ( z ) ) r > w p ( z )
dI p ( z ) dz = α NS I p ( z ) 1 + I p ( z ) I psat = α NS I p ( z ) 1 + I p ( z ) [ ( σ abs ( λ p ) + σ em ( λ p ) ) τ ]
η h ( without laser ) = 1 η p η r λ p λ f
η l ( r ) σ em ( λ l ) I ( r ) σ em ( λ l ) I ( r ) + ( 1 η r τ )
I ( r ) = 2 . λ l . P int h c π . w c 2 exp { 2 r 2 w c 2 }

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