Abstract

Acousto-optic deflectors (AOD) are promising ultrafast scanners for non-linear microscopy. Their use has been limited until now by their small scanning range and by the spatial and temporal dispersions of the laser beam going through the deflectors. We show that the use of AOD of large aperture (13mm) compared to standard deflectors allows accessing much larger field of view while minimizing spatio-temporal distortions. An acousto-optic modulator (AOM) placed at distance of the AOD is used to compensate spatial and temporal dispersions. Fine tuning of the AOM-AOD setup using a frequency-resolved optical gating (GRENOUILLE) allows elimination of pulse front tilt whereas spatial chirp is minimized thanks to the large aperture AOD.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008 (2)

2007 (4)

S. Zeng, K. Bi, S. Xue, Y. Liu, X. Lv, and Q. Luo, "Acousto-optic modulator system for femtosecond laser pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 015103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zeng, X. Lv, K. Bi, C. Zhan, D. Li, W. R. Chen, W. Xiong, S. L. Jacques, and Q. Luo, "Analysis of the dispersion compensation of acousto-optic deflectors used for multiphoton imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zeng, D. Li, X. Lv, J. Liu, and Q. Luo, "Pulse broadening of the femtosecond pulses in a Gaussian beam passing an angular disperser," Opt. Lett. 32, 1180-1182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Li, S. Q. Zeng, X. H. Lv, J. Liu, R. Du, R. H. Jiang, W. R. Chen, and Q. M. Luo, "Dispersion characteristics of acousto-optic deflector for scanning Gaussian laser beam of femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 15, 4726-4734 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

S. Zeng, X. Lv, C. Zhan, W. R. Chen, W. Xiong, S. L. Jacques, and Q. Luo, "Simultaneous compensation for spatial and temporal dispersion of acousto-optical deflectors for two-dimensional scanning with a single prism," Opt. Lett. 31, 1091-1093 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

S. Akturk, X. Gu, E. Zeek, and R. Trebino, "Pulse-front tilt caused by spatial and temporal chirp," Opt. Express 12, 4399-4410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gu, S. Akturk, and R. Trebino, "Spatial chirp in ultrafast optics," Opt. Commun. 242, 599-604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Roorda, T. M. Hohl, R. Toledo-Crow, and G. Miesenbock, "Video-rate nonlinear microscopy of neuronal membrane dynamics with genetically encoded probes," J. Neurophysiol. 92, 609-621 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

J. D. Lechleiter, D. T. Lin, and I. Sieneart, "Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy using an acoustic optical deflector," Biophys. J. 83, 2292-2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1988 (1)

1984 (1)

Akturk, S.

Bi, K.

S. Zeng, K. Bi, S. Xue, Y. Liu, X. Lv, and Q. Luo, "Acousto-optic modulator system for femtosecond laser pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 015103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zeng, X. Lv, K. Bi, C. Zhan, D. Li, W. R. Chen, W. Xiong, S. L. Jacques, and Q. Luo, "Analysis of the dispersion compensation of acousto-optic deflectors used for multiphoton imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourdieu, L.

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatenay, D.

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. R.

Dieudonne, S.

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, R.

Fork, M.

Gabolde, P.

Gu, X.

Hohl, T. M.

R. D. Roorda, T. M. Hohl, R. Toledo-Crow, and G. Miesenbock, "Video-rate nonlinear microscopy of neuronal membrane dynamics with genetically encoded probes," J. Neurophysiol. 92, 609-621 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iyer, V.

V. Iyer, B. E. Losavio, and P. Saggau, "Compensation of spatial and temporal dispersion for acousto-optic multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 460-471 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. Zeng, X. Lv, K. Bi, C. Zhan, D. Li, W. R. Chen, W. Xiong, S. L. Jacques, and Q. Luo, "Analysis of the dispersion compensation of acousto-optic deflectors used for multiphoton imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zeng, X. Lv, C. Zhan, W. R. Chen, W. Xiong, S. L. Jacques, and Q. Luo, "Simultaneous compensation for spatial and temporal dispersion of acousto-optical deflectors for two-dimensional scanning with a single prism," Opt. Lett. 31, 1091-1093 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, R. H.

Kimmel, M.

Kremer, Y.

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krichevsky, O.

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubota, H.

Lechleiter, J. D.

J. D. Lechleiter, D. T. Lin, and I. Sieneart, "Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy using an acoustic optical deflector," Biophys. J. 83, 2292-2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leger, J. F.

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, D.

Li, D. R.

Lin, D. T.

J. D. Lechleiter, D. T. Lin, and I. Sieneart, "Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy using an acoustic optical deflector," Biophys. J. 83, 2292-2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

S. Zeng, K. Bi, S. Xue, Y. Liu, X. Lv, and Q. Luo, "Acousto-optic modulator system for femtosecond laser pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 015103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Losavio, B. E.

V. Iyer, B. E. Losavio, and P. Saggau, "Compensation of spatial and temporal dispersion for acousto-optic multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 460-471 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

Luo, Q. M.

Lv, X.

Lv, X. H.

Miesenbock, G.

R. D. Roorda, T. M. Hohl, R. Toledo-Crow, and G. Miesenbock, "Video-rate nonlinear microscopy of neuronal membrane dynamics with genetically encoded probes," J. Neurophysiol. 92, 609-621 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakashima, T.

Nakazawa, M.

Ngoi,

O'Shea, P.

Roorda, R. D.

R. D. Roorda, T. M. Hohl, R. Toledo-Crow, and G. Miesenbock, "Video-rate nonlinear microscopy of neuronal membrane dynamics with genetically encoded probes," J. Neurophysiol. 92, 609-621 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saggau, P.

V. Iyer, B. E. Losavio, and P. Saggau, "Compensation of spatial and temporal dispersion for acousto-optic multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 460-471 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salome, R.

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sieneart, I.

J. D. Lechleiter, D. T. Lin, and I. Sieneart, "Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy using an acoustic optical deflector," Biophys. J. 83, 2292-2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toledo-Crow, R.

R. D. Roorda, T. M. Hohl, R. Toledo-Crow, and G. Miesenbock, "Video-rate nonlinear microscopy of neuronal membrane dynamics with genetically encoded probes," J. Neurophysiol. 92, 609-621 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

Wyart, C.

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, W.

S. Zeng, X. Lv, K. Bi, C. Zhan, D. Li, W. R. Chen, W. Xiong, S. L. Jacques, and Q. Luo, "Analysis of the dispersion compensation of acousto-optic deflectors used for multiphoton imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zeng, X. Lv, C. Zhan, W. R. Chen, W. Xiong, S. L. Jacques, and Q. Luo, "Simultaneous compensation for spatial and temporal dispersion of acousto-optical deflectors for two-dimensional scanning with a single prism," Opt. Lett. 31, 1091-1093 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, S.

S. Zeng, K. Bi, S. Xue, Y. Liu, X. Lv, and Q. Luo, "Acousto-optic modulator system for femtosecond laser pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 015103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeek, E.

Zeng, S.

Zeng, S. Q.

Zhan, C.

S. Zeng, X. Lv, K. Bi, C. Zhan, D. Li, W. R. Chen, W. Xiong, S. L. Jacques, and Q. Luo, "Analysis of the dispersion compensation of acousto-optic deflectors used for multiphoton imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zeng, X. Lv, C. Zhan, W. R. Chen, W. Xiong, S. L. Jacques, and Q. Luo, "Simultaneous compensation for spatial and temporal dispersion of acousto-optical deflectors for two-dimensional scanning with a single prism," Opt. Lett. 31, 1091-1093 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

J. D. Lechleiter, D. T. Lin, and I. Sieneart, "Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy using an acoustic optical deflector," Biophys. J. 83, 2292-2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

V. Iyer, B. E. Losavio, and P. Saggau, "Compensation of spatial and temporal dispersion for acousto-optic multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 460-471 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zeng, X. Lv, K. Bi, C. Zhan, D. Li, W. R. Chen, W. Xiong, S. L. Jacques, and Q. Luo, "Analysis of the dispersion compensation of acousto-optic deflectors used for multiphoton imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024015 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

R. D. Roorda, T. M. Hohl, R. Toledo-Crow, and G. Miesenbock, "Video-rate nonlinear microscopy of neuronal membrane dynamics with genetically encoded probes," J. Neurophysiol. 92, 609-621 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Gu, S. Akturk, and R. Trebino, "Spatial chirp in ultrafast optics," Opt. Commun. 242, 599-604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. Zeng, K. Bi, S. Xue, Y. Liu, X. Lv, and Q. Luo, "Acousto-optic modulator system for femtosecond laser pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 015103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The optical setup. Laser: Tsunami Ti:Sa laser. AOM: acousto-optic modulator and AOD: acousto-optic deflectors. Both were mounted on goniometric plates for alignment and placed on a rail to adjust their distance. □/2: achromatic half waveplates. GRENOUILLE: single shot second harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating devices. M1, M2, M3: dielectric mirrors. Attenuator: variable intensity attenuator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Compensation of spatial dispersion. A) Images at 765nm, 820nm and 875nm of the beam scanned by the scanner 1 and focused on the CCD. Spots are separated by 3.7mrad. B) Spot ellipticity (∙) as a function of ΔF and spot angle (▪) as function of ΔFx /ΔFy . Data obtained from images at 820nm containing 14×14 ellipses separated by 3.5 MHz (4.4mrad) were binned (bin for ΔF: 2MHz, bin for ΔFx/ΔFy: 0.5). Lines are the theoretical curves obtained from Eqs.5 and 6 respectively. For comparison, spot ellipticity (◦) and spot angle (□) are shown for the small scanner 2 using the same bins. C) AOM frequency (∙), AOD minimum (⍁), centre (⊞) and maximum (⍂) frequencies and maximum scan angle (◦) as a function of the wavelength for the scanner 1. D) Laser spectrum measured before the AOM (□), between the AOM and the AODs (◦) and after the AODs (+) for scanner 1. Data were fitted to Gaussians having the same FWHM=11+/-0.5nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temporal compensation. Pulse duration (fs) as a function of the AOM-AOD distance (D) measured: A) at 820 nm for the large scanner 1; B) at 840 nm for the small scanner 2. The lines are fit to the data using Eq.3. C) Pulse duration (fs) measured as a function of the wavelength λ (nm) for the scanner 1 (D=63cm).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spatio-temporal distortions. GRENOUILLE traces measured for 3 AOM-AOD distances: A) for the scanner 1 (D=54cm, D=64cm and D=75cm) B) for the scanner 2 (D=17cm, D=40cm and D=75cm). C) Pulse front tilt as a function of the distance D for the scanner 1 (∙) and for the scanner 2 (◦). Horizontal bar: 100fs, vertical bar: 1nm.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ = λ F v
δ θ θ = δ λ λ
t out = t in . 1 + ( 4 . ln 2 . ( l e . GVD e + l o GVD o ) t in 2 ) 2
F AOM = 2 . F 0
w l = w r 2 + ( δ λ ( F F 0 ) f obj v T ) 2 , w s = w r ; e = w l w s
tan φ = Δ F y Δ F x
GDD AOD AOD = GDD AOD + D . GVD AOD AOD
GDD AOD == λ 3 2 π c 2 L d 2 n d λ 2
GVD AOD AOD == D λ 3 2 π c 2 F 2 v 2
R = ζ a . Δ ω D a = D F δ λ v D 0 .

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