Abstract

Polarization rotation of vector solitons in a fiber ring laser was experimentally studied. It was observed that the period of vector soliton polarization rotation could be locked to the cavity roundtrip time or multiple of it. We further show that multiple vector solitons can be formed in a fiber laser, and all the vector solitons have the same group velocity in cavity, however, their instantaneous polarization ellipse orientations could be orthogonal.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. R. Menyuk, "Stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers. I: Equal propagation amplitudes," Opt. Lett. 12, 614-616 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. R. Menyuk, "Stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers. II. Arbitrary amplitudes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 392-402 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, "Vector solitons in birefringent nonlinear dispersive media," Opt. Lett. 13, 53-55 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 112, 278-282 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, "Polarization locking in an isotropic, modelocked soliton Er/Yb fiber laser," Opt. Express 1, 12-20 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 354-365 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. M. Soto-Crespo and N. Akhmediev, "Soliton as strange attractor: Nonlinear synchronization and chaos," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 024101 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Energy quantization in figure eight fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 67-68 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. M. J. Kelly, "Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton," Electron. Lett. 28, 806-807 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, "Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers," Opt. Lett.submitted (2008).
    [PubMed]
  12. J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, "Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers," Opt. Lett.submitted (2008).
[PubMed]

2006

J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. M. Soto-Crespo and N. Akhmediev, "Soliton as strange attractor: Nonlinear synchronization and chaos," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 024101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1999

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1994

N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 112, 278-282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Energy quantization in figure eight fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 67-68 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. M. J. Kelly, "Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton," Electron. Lett. 28, 806-807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

Akhmediev, N.

J. M. Soto-Crespo and N. Akhmediev, "Soliton as strange attractor: Nonlinear synchronization and chaos," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 024101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 112, 278-282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N. N.

B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 354-365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 354-365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buryak, A.

N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 112, 278-282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C.

J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

Collings, B. C.

Cundiff, S. T.

Grudinin, A. B.

A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Energy quantization in figure eight fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 67-68 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, R. I.

Kelly, S. M. J.

S. M. J. Kelly, "Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton," Electron. Lett. 28, 806-807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

Menyuk, C. R.

Payne, D. N.

A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Energy quantization in figure eight fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 67-68 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Energy quantization in figure eight fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 67-68 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

J. M. Soto-Crespo and N. Akhmediev, "Soliton as strange attractor: Nonlinear synchronization and chaos," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 024101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 354-365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 112, 278-282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, "Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers," Opt. Lett.submitted (2008).
[PubMed]

J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, N.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, "Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers," Opt. Lett.submitted (2008).
[PubMed]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, "Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers," Opt. Lett.submitted (2008).
[PubMed]

Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, "Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers," Opt. Lett.submitted (2008).
[PubMed]

J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Energy quantization in figure eight fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 67-68 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. M. J. Kelly, "Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton," Electron. Lett. 28, 806-807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, "Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 112, 278-282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E

J. Wu, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, "Soliton polarization dynamics in fiber lasers passively mode-locked by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique," Phys. Rev. E 74, 046605 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988-3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Soto-Crespo and N. Akhmediev, "Soliton as strange attractor: Nonlinear synchronization and chaos," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 024101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the fiber laser. SESAM: semiconductor saturable absorber mirror; PC: polarization controller; WDM: wavelength-division multiplexer; EDF: erbium-doped fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The optical spectra (a) and corresponding oscilloscope traces (b) before polarizer; (c) after polarizer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Period-doubling of multiple vector solitons. (a) five vector solitons and (b) eight vector solitons in cavity.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Period-tripling of (a) single vector soliton and (b) two vector solitons in cavity.

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