Abstract

Detail of control technique of bit-wise phase correlation in 160 (4×40) Gbit/s optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) signal using a phase-correlation monitor based on 1-bit delay asymmetric interferometers (AIFs) is described. The 1-bit delay AIF transforms a bit-by-bit optical phase discontinuity to an optical power variation, so that it enables to quantify the phase-jump between adjacent bits. By use of this unique technique, we experimentally demonstrated stable generation of bitwisely phase-controlled 160 Gbit/s periodical alternate-phase return-to-Zero (APRZ) signal in addition to other different modulation formats such as conventional RZ, carrier suppressed RZ (CS-RZ), pair-wise alternate-phase CSRZ (PAP-CSRZ) and π/2-APRZ. And long term stability was observed with CS-RZ signal. Also, we show some experimental results of 120 km unrepeatered transmission using standard single mode fiber (SSMF) and then discuss the impact of bit-wise phase change on 160 Gbit/s OTDM transmission performance.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (2)

H. Murai, M. Kagawa, H. Tsuji, and K. Fujii, "EA-modulator-based optical time division multiplexing/demultiplexing techniques for 160-Gb/s optical signal transmission," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 13, 70-78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohara, H. Takara. I. Shake, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, I. Ogawa, and M. Okamoto, "High stable 160-Gb/s OTDM technologies based on integrated MUX/DEMUX and drift-free PLL-type clock recovery," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 40-47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Daikoku, T. Miyazaki, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, F. Kubota, and M. Suzuki, "8 x 160-Gb/s WDM field transmission experiment with single-polarization RZ-DPSK signals and PDM compensator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 391-393 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Kim, M. Hanawa, S. J. Kim S. Hann, Y. H. Kim, W. T. Han, and C. S. Park, "Optical delay interforometer based on phase shifted fiber Bragg grating with optically controlleable phase shifter," Opt. Express,  14, 4250-4255 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, and S. J. Mihailov, "Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864-1867 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, and K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tbit/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron.Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

N. S. Bergano, F. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems," Photon. Techenol. Lett. 5, 304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N. S.

N. S. Bergano, F. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems," Photon. Techenol. Lett. 5, 304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boerner, C.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daikoku, M.

M. Daikoku, T. Miyazaki, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, F. Kubota, and M. Suzuki, "8 x 160-Gb/s WDM field transmission experiment with single-polarization RZ-DPSK signals and PDM compensator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 391-393 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, C. R.

N. S. Bergano, F. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems," Photon. Techenol. Lett. 5, 304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ferber, S.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, K.

H. Murai, M. Kagawa, H. Tsuji, and K. Fujii, "EA-modulator-based optical time division multiplexing/demultiplexing techniques for 160-Gb/s optical signal transmission," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 13, 70-78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Futami, F.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, and S. J. Mihailov, "Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864-1867 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hagiuda, K.

Hanawa, M.

Hirooka, T.

Ishii, M.

T. Ohara, H. Takara. I. Shake, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, I. Ogawa, and M. Okamoto, "High stable 160-Gb/s OTDM technologies based on integrated MUX/DEMUX and drift-free PLL-type clock recovery," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 40-47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kagawa, M.

H. Murai, M. Kagawa, H. Tsuji, and K. Fujii, "EA-modulator-based optical time division multiplexing/demultiplexing techniques for 160-Gb/s optical signal transmission," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 13, 70-78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kerfoot, F.

N. S. Bergano, F. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems," Photon. Techenol. Lett. 5, 304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. Y.

Kroh, M.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, F.

M. Daikoku, T. Miyazaki, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, F. Kubota, and M. Suzuki, "8 x 160-Gb/s WDM field transmission experiment with single-polarization RZ-DPSK signals and PDM compensator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 391-393 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, R.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marembert, V.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, and S. J. Mihailov, "Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864-1867 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, T.

M. Daikoku, T. Miyazaki, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, F. Kubota, and M. Suzuki, "8 x 160-Gb/s WDM field transmission experiment with single-polarization RZ-DPSK signals and PDM compensator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 391-393 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morita, I.

M. Daikoku, T. Miyazaki, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, F. Kubota, and M. Suzuki, "8 x 160-Gb/s WDM field transmission experiment with single-polarization RZ-DPSK signals and PDM compensator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 391-393 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murai, H.

H. Murai, M. Kagawa, H. Tsuji, and K. Fujii, "EA-modulator-based optical time division multiplexing/demultiplexing techniques for 160-Gb/s optical signal transmission," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 13, 70-78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

T. Hirooka, S. Ono, K. Hagiuda, and M. Nakazawa, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in dispersion-decreasing fiber with ultrahigh-speed femtosecond soliton pulse compression," Opt. Lett. 30, 364-366 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, and K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tbit/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron.Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, I.

T. Ohara, H. Takara. I. Shake, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, I. Ogawa, and M. Okamoto, "High stable 160-Gb/s OTDM technologies based on integrated MUX/DEMUX and drift-free PLL-type clock recovery," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 40-47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, T.

T. Ohara, H. Takara. I. Shake, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, I. Ogawa, and M. Okamoto, "High stable 160-Gb/s OTDM technologies based on integrated MUX/DEMUX and drift-free PLL-type clock recovery," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 40-47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, M.

T. Ohara, H. Takara. I. Shake, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, I. Ogawa, and M. Okamoto, "High stable 160-Gb/s OTDM technologies based on integrated MUX/DEMUX and drift-free PLL-type clock recovery," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 40-47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ono, S.

Schmidt-Langhorst, C.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, C.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shake, I.

T. Ohara, H. Takara. I. Shake, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, I. Ogawa, and M. Okamoto, "High stable 160-Gb/s OTDM technologies based on integrated MUX/DEMUX and drift-free PLL-type clock recovery," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 40-47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smelser, C. W.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, and S. J. Mihailov, "Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864-1867 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

M. Daikoku, T. Miyazaki, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, F. Kubota, and M. Suzuki, "8 x 160-Gb/s WDM field transmission experiment with single-polarization RZ-DPSK signals and PDM compensator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 391-393 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takara, H.

T. Ohara, H. Takara. I. Shake, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, I. Ogawa, and M. Okamoto, "High stable 160-Gb/s OTDM technologies based on integrated MUX/DEMUX and drift-free PLL-type clock recovery," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 40-47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K. R.

M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, and K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tbit/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron.Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

M. Daikoku, T. Miyazaki, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, F. Kubota, and M. Suzuki, "8 x 160-Gb/s WDM field transmission experiment with single-polarization RZ-DPSK signals and PDM compensator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 391-393 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, H.

H. Murai, M. Kagawa, H. Tsuji, and K. Fujii, "EA-modulator-based optical time division multiplexing/demultiplexing techniques for 160-Gb/s optical signal transmission," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 13, 70-78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. G.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

T. Ohara, H. Takara. I. Shake, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, I. Ogawa, and M. Okamoto, "High stable 160-Gb/s OTDM technologies based on integrated MUX/DEMUX and drift-free PLL-type clock recovery," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 40-47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, and K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tbit/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron.Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron.Lett. (1)

M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, and K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tbit/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron.Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Ohara, H. Takara. I. Shake, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, I. Ogawa, and M. Okamoto, "High stable 160-Gb/s OTDM technologies based on integrated MUX/DEMUX and drift-free PLL-type clock recovery," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 40-47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Murai, M. Kagawa, H. Tsuji, and K. Fujii, "EA-modulator-based optical time division multiplexing/demultiplexing techniques for 160-Gb/s optical signal transmission," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 13, 70-78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, and S. J. Mihailov, "Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864-1867 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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A. Hirano, M. Asobe, K. Sato, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, H. Miyazawa, M. Abe, H. Takara, and I. Shake, "Dispersion tolerant 80-Gbit/s carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CS-RZ) format generated by using phase- and duty-controlled optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) technique," IEICE Trans. Commun. E85-B, 2002.

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S. Randel, B. Konrad, A. Hodži�?, and K. Petermann, "Influence of bitwise phase changes on the performance of 160 Gbit/s transmission systems," in Proc. 28th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2002), P3.31, 2002.

L. Möller, Y. Su, C. Xie, R. Ryf, X. Liu, X. Wei, and S. Cabot, "All-optical phase construction of ps-pulses from fiber lasers for coherent signaling at ultla-high data rates (�?�160 Gb/s)," in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2004 (OFC�??04), PDP20, 2004

J. Matensson, A. Berntson, A. Djupsjöbacka, M. Forzati, and J. Li, "Phase modulation schemes for improbing intra-channel nonlinear tolerance in 40 Gbit/s transmission," in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2003 (OFC�??03), FE5, 2003

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H. Murai, M. Kagawa, H. Tsuji, and K. Fujii, "EA modulator-based optical multiplexing/demultiplexing techniques for 160 Gbit./s OTDM signal transmission," IEICE Trans. Commun., E88-C, 2005

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K. Sasaki, M. Sarashina, S. Kobayashi, H. Tamai, A. Nishiki, and T. Ushikubo "A new �?/2-shift BPSK signal by superstructure fiber Bragg grating," in Proc. 31st European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2005), We4.P.047, 2005

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The bit-wise phase difference of two-channel OTDM signal and phase difference of interfered signal by a 1-bit delay AIF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity variation as a function of the carrier phase difference between neighboring bits.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The bit-wise phase correlation of four channel OTDM signal and phase difference of interfered signal by a 1-bit delay AIF. l, where Δϕijij.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Intensity variation of interfered signal changing ϕ from 0 to π, (a) in case of I: (0, ϕ, 0, ϕ), (b) in case of II: (0, ϕ, θ, θ+ϕ), (c) in case of III: (0, ϕ, 0, θ+ϕ) and the definition of intensity variation (d).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

40 GHz intensity of the interfered signal in the case of OTDM phase correlation (0, 0, 0, π) in case of ξ=0 (a), the intensity of 40 GHz component (b), and the monitoring setup of the 40 GHz component extraction (c).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Setup of 160 Gbit/s OTDM transmitter.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

PS-FBG output intensity (a), and input reference 80 Gbit/s signals with phase difference θ of 0 (b), π/2 (c), and π (d), respectively.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Spectra and waveforms for (a) in-phase RZ signal, (b) π/2-APRZ signal, (c) CSP-RZ signal, (d) PAP-RZ signal and (e) periodical APRZ signal.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Stability of the technique. (a) spectral evolution for 12 consecutive hours and drifted spectrum after 12 hours without stabilizing (inset). (b), (c) eye-diagrams of controlled and initialized temperatures after 12 hours.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Schematic of experimental set-up

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Influence on average Q factors of signals with the phase relation (0, π, 0, π) by phase error Δθ or Δϕ.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

120 km transmission results, (a) Measured Q penalty for pulse width of 2.5 ps, Q penalty (b) for pulse width of 3 ps (c) and eye diagrams for pulse width of 3 ps, in case of (i) in-phase RZ signal, (ii) π/2-APRZ signal, (iii) CSP-RZ signal, (iv) PAP-RZ signal and (v) periodical APRZ signal.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Performance with different pulse width, simulated results at a launched power of +14 dBm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Specification of PS-FBG and FSI-AIF

Equations (4)

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I ave = 1 8 { 4 + cos ( θ + ξ ) + cos ( θ ξ ) } 1 T B T B 2 T B 2 E ( t ) 2 d t
I ave = 1 16 { 8 + cos ( Δ ϕ 12 ξ ) + cos ( Δ ϕ 23 ξ ) + cos ( Δ ϕ 34 ξ ) + cos ( Δ ϕ 41 ξ ) } 1 T B T B 2 T B 2 E ( t ) 2 d t .
Δ ϕ 12 = ϕ Δ ϕ 23 = ϕ θ Δ ϕ 34 = ϕ Δ ϕ 41 = θ + ϕ .
Δ ϕ 12 = ϕ Δ ϕ 23 = ϕ Δ ϕ 34 = ( θ + ϕ ) Δ ϕ 41 = θ + ϕ .

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