Abstract

Light propagation in dry and wet softwood (silver fir) was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The spatially and time resolved reflectance from softwood was measured. Light propagation was modeled with Monte Carlo simulations considering the microstructure of softwood. By comparing the spatially resolved reflectance we found that all characteristics of the experimentally obtained iso-intensity contour lines were recovered by the theory. In addition, the reduced scattering and the absorption coefficients were determined in the time domain by fitting a solution of the diffusion equation to Monte Carlo simulations and to measurements. Good qualitative agreement was obtained between the experimentally and theoretically derived optical properties.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Dinwoodie, (Taylor & Francis 2000) .
  2. J. Zhou and J. Shen, "Improved Phase Demodulation for Grain Orientation Measurement," Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 160-169 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. P. Simonaho, J. Palviainen, Y. Tolonen, and R. Silvennoinen, "Determination of Wood Grain Direction from Laser Light Scattering Pattern," Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 95-103 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Tsuchikawa, "A Review of Recent Near Infrared Research for Wood and Paper," Appl. Spectr. Rev. 42, 43-71 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. S. Kelley, T. G. Rials, R. Snell, L. H. Groom, and A. Sluiter, "Use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Measure the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Solid Wood," Wood Sci. Technolo. 38, 257-276 (2004).
  6. S. P. Simonaho and R. Silvennoinen, "Light Diffraction from Wood Tissue," Opt. Rev. 11, 308-311 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Saarinen and K. Muinonen, "Light Scattering by Wood Fibres," Appl. Opt. 40, 5064-5077 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Andersson, L. Persson, M. Sjoholm, and S. Svanberg, "Spectroscopic Studies of Wood-Drying Processus," Opt. Express 14, 3641-3653 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Tsuchikawa and S. Tsutsumi, Application of "Time-of-Flight Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Wood with Anisotropic Cellular Structure," Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 869-876 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. R. Marschner, S. H. Westin, A. Arbree, and J. T. Moon, "Measuring and Modeling the Appearance of Finished Wood," International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, ACM SIGGRAPH, 727- 734 (2005).
  11. A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, and R. Hibst, "Anisotropy of Light Propagation in Biological Tissue," Opt. Lett. 29, 2617-2619 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, "Determination of the Optical Properties of Anisotropic Biological Media using an Isotropic Model," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014026 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic Press, New York 1978).
  14. I. D. Donato and P. Agozzino, "Composti polimerici per il consolidamento di legni degradati," Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage 13, 71 (2004).
  15. H. A. Yousif and E. Boutros, "A FORTRAN Code for the Scattering of EM Plane Waves by an Infinitely Long Cylinder at Oblique Incidence," Comput. Phys. Commun. 69, 406-414 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles, JohnWiley & Sons, New York, USA (1983).
  17. C. D???Andrea, A. Farina, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, L. Zoia, M. Orlandi, and A. Kienle, "Time-Resolved Optical Spectroscopy of Wood," Appl. Spectrosc., in press (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, "Time Resolved Reflectance and Transmittance for the Noninvasive Measurement of Tissue Optical Properties," Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Kienle, "Anisotropic Light Diffusion: An Oxymoron?," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 218104 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, "Spatially-Resolved Absolute Diffuse Reflectance Measurements for Non-Invasive Determination of the Optical Scattering and Absorption Coefficients of Biological Tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 2304-2314 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu: "Fully Automated Time Domain Spectrometer for the Absorption and Scattering Characterization of Diffusive Media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S .P. Simonaho, Y. Tolonen, J. Rouvinen, and R. Silvennoinen: "Laser Light Scattering from Wood Samples Soaked in Water or in Benzyl Benzoate," Optik 114, 445-448 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2008

C. D???Andrea, A. Farina, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, L. Zoia, M. Orlandi, and A. Kienle, "Time-Resolved Optical Spectroscopy of Wood," Appl. Spectrosc., in press (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, "Determination of the Optical Properties of Anisotropic Biological Media using an Isotropic Model," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, "Anisotropic Light Diffusion: An Oxymoron?," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 218104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu: "Fully Automated Time Domain Spectrometer for the Absorption and Scattering Characterization of Diffusive Media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tsuchikawa, "A Review of Recent Near Infrared Research for Wood and Paper," Appl. Spectr. Rev. 42, 43-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou and J. Shen, "Improved Phase Demodulation for Grain Orientation Measurement," Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 160-169 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

S. S. Kelley, T. G. Rials, R. Snell, L. H. Groom, and A. Sluiter, "Use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Measure the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Solid Wood," Wood Sci. Technolo. 38, 257-276 (2004).

S. P. Simonaho and R. Silvennoinen, "Light Diffraction from Wood Tissue," Opt. Rev. 11, 308-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Donato and P. Agozzino, "Composti polimerici per il consolidamento di legni degradati," Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage 13, 71 (2004).

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, and R. Hibst, "Anisotropy of Light Propagation in Biological Tissue," Opt. Lett. 29, 2617-2619 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

S .P. Simonaho, Y. Tolonen, J. Rouvinen, and R. Silvennoinen: "Laser Light Scattering from Wood Samples Soaked in Water or in Benzyl Benzoate," Optik 114, 445-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Tsuchikawa and S. Tsutsumi, Application of "Time-of-Flight Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Wood with Anisotropic Cellular Structure," Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 869-876 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Simonaho, J. Palviainen, Y. Tolonen, and R. Silvennoinen, "Determination of Wood Grain Direction from Laser Light Scattering Pattern," Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 95-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1996

1992

H. A. Yousif and E. Boutros, "A FORTRAN Code for the Scattering of EM Plane Waves by an Infinitely Long Cylinder at Oblique Incidence," Comput. Phys. Commun. 69, 406-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

Agozzino, P.

I. D. Donato and P. Agozzino, "Composti polimerici per il consolidamento di legni degradati," Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage 13, 71 (2004).

Andersson, M.

Bassi, A.

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, "Determination of the Optical Properties of Anisotropic Biological Media using an Isotropic Model," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu: "Fully Automated Time Domain Spectrometer for the Absorption and Scattering Characterization of Diffusive Media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boutros, E.

H. A. Yousif and E. Boutros, "A FORTRAN Code for the Scattering of EM Plane Waves by an Infinitely Long Cylinder at Oblique Incidence," Comput. Phys. Commun. 69, 406-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

Comelli, D.

C. D???Andrea, A. Farina, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, L. Zoia, M. Orlandi, and A. Kienle, "Time-Resolved Optical Spectroscopy of Wood," Appl. Spectrosc., in press (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu: "Fully Automated Time Domain Spectrometer for the Absorption and Scattering Characterization of Diffusive Media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, "Determination of the Optical Properties of Anisotropic Biological Media using an Isotropic Model," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

C. D???Andrea, A. Farina, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, L. Zoia, M. Orlandi, and A. Kienle, "Time-Resolved Optical Spectroscopy of Wood," Appl. Spectrosc., in press (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu: "Fully Automated Time Domain Spectrometer for the Absorption and Scattering Characterization of Diffusive Media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D???Andrea, C.

C. D???Andrea, A. Farina, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, L. Zoia, M. Orlandi, and A. Kienle, "Time-Resolved Optical Spectroscopy of Wood," Appl. Spectrosc., in press (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donato, I.D.

I. D. Donato and P. Agozzino, "Composti polimerici per il consolidamento di legni degradati," Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage 13, 71 (2004).

Farina, A.

C. D???Andrea, A. Farina, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, L. Zoia, M. Orlandi, and A. Kienle, "Time-Resolved Optical Spectroscopy of Wood," Appl. Spectrosc., in press (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forster, F. K.

Groom, L. H.

S. S. Kelley, T. G. Rials, R. Snell, L. H. Groom, and A. Sluiter, "Use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Measure the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Solid Wood," Wood Sci. Technolo. 38, 257-276 (2004).

Hibst, R.

Kelley, S. S.

S. S. Kelley, T. G. Rials, R. Snell, L. H. Groom, and A. Sluiter, "Use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Measure the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Solid Wood," Wood Sci. Technolo. 38, 257-276 (2004).

Kienle, A.

C. D???Andrea, A. Farina, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, L. Zoia, M. Orlandi, and A. Kienle, "Time-Resolved Optical Spectroscopy of Wood," Appl. Spectrosc., in press (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, "Determination of the Optical Properties of Anisotropic Biological Media using an Isotropic Model," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, "Anisotropic Light Diffusion: An Oxymoron?," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 218104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, and R. Hibst, "Anisotropy of Light Propagation in Biological Tissue," Opt. Lett. 29, 2617-2619 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, "Spatially-Resolved Absolute Diffuse Reflectance Measurements for Non-Invasive Determination of the Optical Scattering and Absorption Coefficients of Biological Tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 2304-2314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lilge, L.

Muinonen, K.

Orlandi, M.

C. D???Andrea, A. Farina, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, L. Zoia, M. Orlandi, and A. Kienle, "Time-Resolved Optical Spectroscopy of Wood," Appl. Spectrosc., in press (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palviainen, J.

S. P. Simonaho, J. Palviainen, Y. Tolonen, and R. Silvennoinen, "Determination of Wood Grain Direction from Laser Light Scattering Pattern," Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 95-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

Persson, L.

Pifferi, A.

C. D???Andrea, A. Farina, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, L. Zoia, M. Orlandi, and A. Kienle, "Time-Resolved Optical Spectroscopy of Wood," Appl. Spectrosc., in press (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu: "Fully Automated Time Domain Spectrometer for the Absorption and Scattering Characterization of Diffusive Media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, "Determination of the Optical Properties of Anisotropic Biological Media using an Isotropic Model," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rials, T. G.

S. S. Kelley, T. G. Rials, R. Snell, L. H. Groom, and A. Sluiter, "Use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Measure the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Solid Wood," Wood Sci. Technolo. 38, 257-276 (2004).

Rouvinen, J.

S .P. Simonaho, Y. Tolonen, J. Rouvinen, and R. Silvennoinen: "Laser Light Scattering from Wood Samples Soaked in Water or in Benzyl Benzoate," Optik 114, 445-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saarinen, K.

Shen, J.

J. Zhou and J. Shen, "Improved Phase Demodulation for Grain Orientation Measurement," Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 160-169 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silvennoinen, R.

S. P. Simonaho and R. Silvennoinen, "Light Diffraction from Wood Tissue," Opt. Rev. 11, 308-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S .P. Simonaho, Y. Tolonen, J. Rouvinen, and R. Silvennoinen: "Laser Light Scattering from Wood Samples Soaked in Water or in Benzyl Benzoate," Optik 114, 445-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Simonaho, J. Palviainen, Y. Tolonen, and R. Silvennoinen, "Determination of Wood Grain Direction from Laser Light Scattering Pattern," Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 95-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simonaho, S. P.

S. P. Simonaho and R. Silvennoinen, "Light Diffraction from Wood Tissue," Opt. Rev. 11, 308-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S .P. Simonaho, Y. Tolonen, J. Rouvinen, and R. Silvennoinen: "Laser Light Scattering from Wood Samples Soaked in Water or in Benzyl Benzoate," Optik 114, 445-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Simonaho, J. Palviainen, Y. Tolonen, and R. Silvennoinen, "Determination of Wood Grain Direction from Laser Light Scattering Pattern," Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 95-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sjoholm, M.

Sluiter, A.

S. S. Kelley, T. G. Rials, R. Snell, L. H. Groom, and A. Sluiter, "Use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Measure the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Solid Wood," Wood Sci. Technolo. 38, 257-276 (2004).

Snell, R.

S. S. Kelley, T. G. Rials, R. Snell, L. H. Groom, and A. Sluiter, "Use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Measure the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Solid Wood," Wood Sci. Technolo. 38, 257-276 (2004).

Steiner, R.

Svanberg, S.

Taroni, P.

C. D???Andrea, A. Farina, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, L. Zoia, M. Orlandi, and A. Kienle, "Time-Resolved Optical Spectroscopy of Wood," Appl. Spectrosc., in press (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu: "Fully Automated Time Domain Spectrometer for the Absorption and Scattering Characterization of Diffusive Media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, "Determination of the Optical Properties of Anisotropic Biological Media using an Isotropic Model," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tolonen, Y.

S .P. Simonaho, Y. Tolonen, J. Rouvinen, and R. Silvennoinen: "Laser Light Scattering from Wood Samples Soaked in Water or in Benzyl Benzoate," Optik 114, 445-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Simonaho, J. Palviainen, Y. Tolonen, and R. Silvennoinen, "Determination of Wood Grain Direction from Laser Light Scattering Pattern," Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 95-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Torricelli, A.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu: "Fully Automated Time Domain Spectrometer for the Absorption and Scattering Characterization of Diffusive Media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuchikawa, S.

Tsutsumi, S.

Valentini, G.

C. D???Andrea, A. Farina, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, L. Zoia, M. Orlandi, and A. Kienle, "Time-Resolved Optical Spectroscopy of Wood," Appl. Spectrosc., in press (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wetzel, C.

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, "Determination of the Optical Properties of Anisotropic Biological Media using an Isotropic Model," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Yousif, H. A.

H. A. Yousif and E. Boutros, "A FORTRAN Code for the Scattering of EM Plane Waves by an Infinitely Long Cylinder at Oblique Incidence," Comput. Phys. Commun. 69, 406-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou and J. Shen, "Improved Phase Demodulation for Grain Orientation Measurement," Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 160-169 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zoia, L.

C. D???Andrea, A. Farina, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, L. Zoia, M. Orlandi, and A. Kienle, "Time-Resolved Optical Spectroscopy of Wood," Appl. Spectrosc., in press (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Spectr. Rev.

S. Tsuchikawa, "A Review of Recent Near Infrared Research for Wood and Paper," Appl. Spectr. Rev. 42, 43-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

C. D???Andrea, A. Farina, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, L. Zoia, M. Orlandi, and A. Kienle, "Time-Resolved Optical Spectroscopy of Wood," Appl. Spectrosc., in press (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tsuchikawa and S. Tsutsumi, Application of "Time-of-Flight Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Wood with Anisotropic Cellular Structure," Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 869-876 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun.

H. A. Yousif and E. Boutros, "A FORTRAN Code for the Scattering of EM Plane Waves by an Infinitely Long Cylinder at Oblique Incidence," Comput. Phys. Commun. 69, 406-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, "Determination of the Optical Properties of Anisotropic Biological Media using an Isotropic Model," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lasers Eng.

J. Zhou and J. Shen, "Improved Phase Demodulation for Grain Orientation Measurement," Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 160-169 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Simonaho, J. Palviainen, Y. Tolonen, and R. Silvennoinen, "Determination of Wood Grain Direction from Laser Light Scattering Pattern," Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 95-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Rev.

S. P. Simonaho and R. Silvennoinen, "Light Diffraction from Wood Tissue," Opt. Rev. 11, 308-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Optik

S .P. Simonaho, Y. Tolonen, J. Rouvinen, and R. Silvennoinen: "Laser Light Scattering from Wood Samples Soaked in Water or in Benzyl Benzoate," Optik 114, 445-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Kienle, "Anisotropic Light Diffusion: An Oxymoron?," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 218104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Bassi, and R. Cubeddu: "Fully Automated Time Domain Spectrometer for the Absorption and Scattering Characterization of Diffusive Media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage

I. D. Donato and P. Agozzino, "Composti polimerici per il consolidamento di legni degradati," Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage 13, 71 (2004).

Wood Sci. Technolo.

S. S. Kelley, T. G. Rials, R. Snell, L. H. Groom, and A. Sluiter, "Use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Measure the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Solid Wood," Wood Sci. Technolo. 38, 257-276 (2004).

Other

J. M. Dinwoodie, (Taylor & Francis 2000) .

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic Press, New York 1978).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles, JohnWiley & Sons, New York, USA (1983).

S. R. Marschner, S. H. Westin, A. Arbree, and J. T. Moon, "Measuring and Modeling the Appearance of Finished Wood," International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, ACM SIGGRAPH, 727- 734 (2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of the geometrical arrangement of the cylindrical scatterers and the scatterers having isotropic optical properties. (a) Three dimensional view; (b) cross section in the y-z-plane.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Iso-intensity contour lines of the experimental spatially resolved reflectance R(x,y) from (a) the wet and (b) the dry wood sample. The numbers are given in counts of the CCD-Camera pixels.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Iso-intensity contour lines of the spatially resolved reflectance R(x,y) from a) the wet and b) the dry wood sample calculated with the Monte Carlo method. The numbers indicate the probability that an incident photon is remitted per mm-2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

R(x) and R(y) of dry and wet wood obtained from the experimental and simulated data shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spatially resolved reflectance (in pixel counts) along the x-and y-direction during the drying process of the wood sample.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Time resolved reflectance R(t) from wet and dry wood at a distance of 4.5mm (x=4.5mm, y=0mm or x=0mm, y=4.5mm) from the incident source calculated by the Monte Carlo method.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Fit of the time resolved reflectance measurements (small diamonds) for the wet wood taken along the fiber directions with the convolution (solid line) of the theoretical model with the system response (dashed line). The interfiber distance was 25 mm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Tab. 1: Reduced scattering coefficients derived from non-linear regression on Monte Carlo simulations and experiments for measurements parallel (par) or perpendicular (per) to the tracheids’ direction on dry and wet wood.

Equations (1)

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μ s ( ξ ) = Q sca ( ξ ) d c a ,

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