Abstract

In this work the spectral response of cascaded tapered long period gratings coated by nano-sized polymeric films has been investigated as function of the surrounding medium refractive index (SRI). The investigation was aimed to identify the best configuration in terms of coated/not coated areas in order to fully benefit of the SRI sensitivity enhancement due to the modal transition mechanism of nano-coated long period gratings while preserving the fringes visibility.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  4. I. Del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, "Deposition of an Overlay with Electrostactic Self-Assembly Method in Long Period Fiber Gratings," Opt. Lett. 30, 720-722 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  6. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, "Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201116- (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 2536-2538 (2005).
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  25. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (6)

J. Lee, Q. Chen, Q. Zhang, K. Reichard, D. Ditto, J. Mazurowski, M. Hackert, and S. Yin, "Enhancing the tuning range of a single resonant band long period grating while maintaining the resonant peak depth by using an optimized high index indium tin oxide overlay," Appl. Opt. 46, 6984-6989 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, and M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3098-3102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilla, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J.  Bock, and A.  Cusano, "Sensitivity Characteristics Tuning in Tapered Long-Period Gratings by Nanocoatings, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1517-1519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Murphy, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, "Multiplexing of Fiber-Optic Long-Period Grating-Based Interferometric Sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 825-829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, D. Paladino, A. Cutolo, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, "Spectral characteristics in long-period fiber gratings with nonuniform symmetrically ring shaped coatings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141105- (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, A. Cusano, D. Paladino, and A. Cutolo, "Fringe generation with non-uniformly coated long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Express 15, 9326-9340 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

2005 (7)

I. Del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, "Deposition of an Overlay with Electrostactic Self-Assembly Method in Long Period Fiber Gratings," Opt. Lett. 30, 720-722 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Achaerandio, "Nanodeposition of Materials With Complex Refractive Index in Long-Period Fiber Gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4192-4199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 2536-2538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. James, I. Ishaq, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, "Cascaded long-period gratings with nanostructured coatings," Opt. Lett. 30, 2197-2199 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, "In-fiber reflection mode interferometer based on a long-period grating for external refractive-index measurement," Appl. Opt. 44, 5368-5373 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in Long Period Fiber Gratings with overlay deposition," Opt. Express 13, 56-69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, and G. Mensitieri, "An high sensitivity optical sensor for chloroform vapours detection based on nanometric film of ?-form syndiotactic polystyrene," Sens. Actuators B 107, 140-147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

S. W. James, N. D. Rees, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long period gratings with Langmuir Blodgett thin film overlays," Opt. Lett. 9, 686-688 (2002).

G. Humbert and A. Malki, " Electric-arc-induced gratings in non-hydrogenated fibres: fabrication and high temperature characterizations," J. Opt. A 4, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. -J. Kim, U. -C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, "Measurement of refractive-index variation with temperature by use of long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 27, 1297-1299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

B. H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Chung, W.-T. Han, and U.-C. Paek, "Fibre modal index measurements based on fibre gratings," Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 443-455 (2001).

G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, and V. Sulimov, "High-temperature stability of long period fiber gratings produced using an electric arc," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1574-1579 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y.-G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 778-781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytis, and S. C. Mettler, "CO2 laser-induced long-period fibre gratings: spectral characteristics, cladding modes and polarization independence," Electron. Lett. 34, 1414-1417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. J. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, "In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings," in Proc. European conf.Optical Communication, 65-68 (1996).

1988 (1)

L. E. Scriven, "Physics And Applications of Dip Coating And Spin Coating," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 121, 717-729 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Achaerandio, M.

Arregui, F. J.

Ashwell, G. J.

S. W. James, I. Ishaq, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, "Cascaded long-period gratings with nanostructured coatings," Opt. Lett. 30, 2197-2199 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. James, N. D. Rees, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long period gratings with Langmuir Blodgett thin film overlays," Opt. Lett. 9, 686-688 (2002).

Bock, W. J.

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, and M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3098-3102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilla, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J.  Bock, and A.  Cusano, "Sensitivity Characteristics Tuning in Tapered Long-Period Gratings by Nanocoatings, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1517-1519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bucholtz, F.

Campopiano, S.

Chen, J.

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, and M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3098-3102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Chung, Y.

B. H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Chung, W.-T. Han, and U.-C. Paek, "Fibre modal index measurements based on fibre gratings," Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 443-455 (2001).

Y.-G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 778-781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Contessa, L.

Cooper, K. L.

Cusano, A.

A. Cusano, D. Paladino, A. Cutolo, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, "Spectral characteristics in long-period fiber gratings with nonuniform symmetrically ring shaped coatings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141105- (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, A. Cusano, D. Paladino, and A. Cutolo, "Fringe generation with non-uniformly coated long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Express 15, 9326-9340 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J.  Bock, and A.  Cusano, "Sensitivity Characteristics Tuning in Tapered Long-Period Gratings by Nanocoatings, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1517-1519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "Coated Long-Period Fiber Gratings as High-Sensitivity Optochemical Sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1776-1786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, "Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201116- (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 2536-2538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, and G. Mensitieri, "An high sensitivity optical sensor for chloroform vapours detection based on nanometric film of ?-form syndiotactic polystyrene," Sens. Actuators B 107, 140-147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

Davis, D. D.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytis, and S. C. Mettler, "CO2 laser-induced long-period fibre gratings: spectral characteristics, cladding modes and polarization independence," Electron. Lett. 34, 1414-1417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Del Villar, I.

Dianov, E.

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. J. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, "In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings," in Proc. European conf.Optical Communication, 65-68 (1996).

Ditto, D.

Eftimov, T.

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, and M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3098-3102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytis, and S. C. Mettler, "CO2 laser-induced long-period fibre gratings: spectral characteristics, cladding modes and polarization independence," Electron. Lett. 34, 1414-1417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

P. Pilla, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J.  Bock, and A.  Cusano, "Sensitivity Characteristics Tuning in Tapered Long-Period Gratings by Nanocoatings, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1517-1519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "Coated Long-Period Fiber Gratings as High-Sensitivity Optochemical Sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1776-1786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, "Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201116- (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive-index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 2536-2538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, and G. Mensitieri, "An high sensitivity optical sensor for chloroform vapours detection based on nanometric film of ?-form syndiotactic polystyrene," Sens. Actuators B 107, 140-147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Glytis, E. N.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytis, and S. C. Mettler, "CO2 laser-induced long-period fibre gratings: spectral characteristics, cladding modes and polarization independence," Electron. Lett. 34, 1414-1417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guerra, G.

Hackert, M.

Han, W.-T.

Y.-G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 778-781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Chung, W.-T. Han, and U.-C. Paek, "Fibre modal index measurements based on fibre gratings," Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 443-455 (2001).

Han, Y.-G.

Y.-G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 778-781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Humbert, G.

G. Humbert and A. Malki, " Electric-arc-induced gratings in non-hydrogenated fibres: fabrication and high temperature characterizations," J. Opt. A 4, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, I. K.

Iadicicco, A.

Ishaq, I.

James, S. W.

R. P. Murphy, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, "Multiplexing of Fiber-Optic Long-Period Grating-Based Interferometric Sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 825-829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Fibre Optic Sensors with Nano-Structured Coatings," J. Opt. A 8, S430-S444 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James, I. Ishaq, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, "Cascaded long-period gratings with nanostructured coatings," Opt. Lett. 30, 2197-2199 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James, N. D. Rees, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long period gratings with Langmuir Blodgett thin film overlays," Opt. Lett. 9, 686-688 (2002).

Kersey, A. D.

Kim, B. Y.

Kim, D. W.

Kim, Y. -J.

Kim, Y.-J.

B. H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Chung, W.-T. Han, and U.-C. Paek, "Fibre modal index measurements based on fibre gratings," Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 443-455 (2001).

Korwin-Pawlowski, M.

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, and M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3098-3102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

P. Pilla, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J.  Bock, and A.  Cusano, "Sensitivity Characteristics Tuning in Tapered Long-Period Gratings by Nanocoatings, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1517-1519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kurkov, A. S.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. J. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, "In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings," in Proc. European conf.Optical Communication, 65-68 (1996).

Lalanne, P.

Lee, B. H.

Y. -J. Kim, U. -C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, "Measurement of refractive-index variation with temperature by use of long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 27, 1297-1299 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Chung, W.-T. Han, and U.-C. Paek, "Fibre modal index measurements based on fibre gratings," Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 443-455 (2001).

Y.-G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 778-781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

Malki, A.

G. Humbert and A. Malki, " Electric-arc-induced gratings in non-hydrogenated fibres: fabrication and high temperature characterizations," J. Opt. A 4, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matias, I. R.

Matías, I. R.

Mazurowski, J.

Medvedkov, O. J.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. J. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, "In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings," in Proc. European conf.Optical Communication, 65-68 (1996).

Mensitieri, G.

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, and G. Mensitieri, "An high sensitivity optical sensor for chloroform vapours detection based on nanometric film of ?-form syndiotactic polystyrene," Sens. Actuators B 107, 140-147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mettler, S. C.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytis, and S. C. Mettler, "CO2 laser-induced long-period fibre gratings: spectral characteristics, cladding modes and polarization independence," Electron. Lett. 34, 1414-1417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mikulic, P.

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, and M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3098-3102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, R. P.

Okhotnikov, O.

Paek, U. -C.

Paek, U.-C.

Y.-G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 778-781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Chung, W.-T. Han, and U.-C. Paek, "Fibre modal index measurements based on fibre gratings," Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 443-455 (2001).

Paladino, D.

I. Del Villar, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, A. Cusano, D. Paladino, and A. Cutolo, "Fringe generation with non-uniformly coated long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Express 15, 9326-9340 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, D. Paladino, A. Cutolo, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, "Spectral characteristics in long-period fiber gratings with nonuniform symmetrically ring shaped coatings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141105- (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

Pilla, P.

Protopopov, V. N.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. J. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, "In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings," in Proc. European conf.Optical Communication, 65-68 (1996).

Rees, N. D.

S. W. James, N. D. Rees, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long period gratings with Langmuir Blodgett thin film overlays," Opt. Lett. 9, 686-688 (2002).

Rego, G.

Reichard, K.

Russo, M.

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, and G. Mensitieri, "An high sensitivity optical sensor for chloroform vapours detection based on nanometric film of ?-form syndiotactic polystyrene," Sens. Actuators B 107, 140-147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scriven, L. E.

L. E. Scriven, "Physics And Applications of Dip Coating And Spin Coating," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 121, 717-729 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sulimov, V.

Tatam, R. P.

R. P. Murphy, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, "Multiplexing of Fiber-Optic Long-Period Grating-Based Interferometric Sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 825-829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Fibre Optic Sensors with Nano-Structured Coatings," J. Opt. A 8, S430-S444 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James, I. Ishaq, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, "Cascaded long-period gratings with nanostructured coatings," Opt. Lett. 30, 2197-2199 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James, N. D. Rees, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long period gratings with Langmuir Blodgett thin film overlays," Opt. Lett. 9, 686-688 (2002).

Vasiliev, S. A.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. J. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, "In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings," in Proc. European conf.Optical Communication, 65-68 (1996).

Villar, I. D.

Wang, A.

Yin, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, "Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201116- (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, D. Paladino, A. Cutolo, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, "Spectral characteristics in long-period fiber gratings with nonuniform symmetrically ring shaped coatings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141105- (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytis, and S. C. Mettler, "CO2 laser-induced long-period fibre gratings: spectral characteristics, cladding modes and polarization independence," Electron. Lett. 34, 1414-1417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

B. H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Chung, W.-T. Han, and U.-C. Paek, "Fibre modal index measurements based on fibre gratings," Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 443-455 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Pilla, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J.  Bock, and A.  Cusano, "Sensitivity Characteristics Tuning in Tapered Long-Period Gratings by Nanocoatings, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1517-1519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

J. Opt. A (2)

G. Humbert and A. Malki, " Electric-arc-induced gratings in non-hydrogenated fibres: fabrication and high temperature characterizations," J. Opt. A 4, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Fibre Optic Sensors with Nano-Structured Coatings," J. Opt. A 8, S430-S444 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

L. E. Scriven, "Physics And Applications of Dip Coating And Spin Coating," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 121, 717-729 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, and M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3098-3102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Fibre-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fibre gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 778-781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Optical Communication (1)

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. J. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, "In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings," in Proc. European conf.Optical Communication, 65-68 (1996).

Sens. Actuators B (1)

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, and G. Mensitieri, "An high sensitivity optical sensor for chloroform vapours detection based on nanometric film of ?-form syndiotactic polystyrene," Sens. Actuators B 107, 140-147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity Characteristics of Long-Period Fiber Gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255- (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Falate, G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, J. L. Fabris, and H. J. Kalinowski, "Temperature influence of an air conditioner in refractive index measurements using long-period fiber gratings," Third European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, Proc. of the SPIE 6619, 66193W (2007).

M. J.  Weber, Handbook of optical materials (CRC, New York, 2003).

G. Rego, O. V. Ivanov, P. V.S. Marques, and J. L. Santos "Investigation of Formation Mechanisms of Arc-Induced Long-Period Fiber Gratings," in Proc. of 18th Int. Conf. on Optical Fiber Sensors, Cancun, Mexico, paper TuE84 (2006).

D.  Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic Press, New York, 1974).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Computer-assisted arc-discharge apparatus.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Coated TLPG (10× objective magnification);(b) overview of the coated TLPG (5× objective magnification, focus on the surface); (c) overview of the coated TLPG (5× objective magnification, focus on the edges); (d) scratched overlay for following AFM measurements (10× objective magnification).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

AFM topography image (12×12 µm2) of the scratched overlay onto the TLPG. Line and markers are referred to the cross section reported in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Cross section of the measured topography. Overlay thickness is measured to be about 320 nm in this case.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Summary of the three configurations studied in this work (not to scale): 1) all coated device; 2) coated separation length and bare gratings; 3) coated gratings and bare separation length.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectral characterization to SRI changes of the bare C-TLPG under test: (a) guided cladding modes; (b) broadband radiation modes; (c) leaky modes; (d) wavelength shift of the interference fringes related to cladding mode LP03.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Shift of the interference fringes related to the cladding mode LP03 caused by the deposition of an sPS overlay of about 315 nm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Spectral characterization of the all coated C-TLPGs in different points of the SRI induced modal transition: (a) beginning; (b) half-way; (c) toward completion; (d) comparison of the LP03 interference fringes minima wavelength shift in the bare and all coated C-TLPGs.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Spectral characterization of the C-TLPGs with coated separation length and bare gratings in different points of the SRI induced modal transition in the separation length itself: (a) beginning; (b) half-way; (c) toward completion; (d) broadband radiation modes coupling by the bare gratings.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Spectral characterization of the C-TLPGs with coated gratings and bare separation length in different points of the SRI induced modal transition in the gratings themself: (a) beginning; (b) half-way; (c) toward completion; (d) comparison of the LP03 interference fringes minima wavelength shift in the all coated C-TLPGs and in the device with coated gratings and bare separation length; (e) comparison of the fringes visibility in the same cases as in (d).

Equations (2)

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λ res , 0 i = ( n eff , co n eff , cl 0 i ) · Λ
I = I core + α · I clad , i + 2 · α · I core · I clad , i · cos θ

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