Abstract

We demonstrated that lipid-enclosed CdSe quantum dots (LEQDs) can function as versatile contrast agents in epi-detection third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy for biological applications in vivo. With epi-THG intensities 20 times stronger than corresponding fluorescence intensities from the same LEQDs under the same conditions of energy absorption, such high brightness LEQDs were proved for the abilities of cell tracking and detection of specific molecular expression in live cancer cells. Using nude mice as an animal model, the distribution of LEQD-loaded tumor cells deep in subcutaneous tissues were imaged with high THG contrast. This is the first demonstration that THG contrast can be manipulated in vivo with nanoparticles. By linking LEQDs with anti-Her2 antibodies, the expression of Her2/neu receptors in live breast cancer cells could also be easily detected through THG. Compared with fluorescence modalities, the THG modality also provides the advantage of no photobleaching and photoblinking effects. Combined with a high penetration 1230 nm laser, these novel features make LEQDs excellent THG contrast agents for in vivo deep-tissue imaging in the future.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

E. J. Gualda, G. Filippidis, G. Voglis, M. Mari, C. Fotakis, and N. Tavernarakis, "In vivo imaging of cellular structures in Caenorhabditis elegans by combined TPEF, SHG and THG microscopy," J. Microsc. 229, 141-150 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, W.-J. Lee, Y.-F. Chan, H.-L. Liu, J.-Y. Lyu, and C.-K. Sun, "Molecular third-harmonic-generation microscopy through resonance enhancement with absorbing dye," Opt. Lett. 33, 387-389 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (13)

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, and W. Yu, "Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91-94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Xia, J. Bisi, J. Strum, L. H. Liu, K. Carrick, K. M. Graham, A. L. Treece, M. A. Hardwicke, M. Dush, Q. Y. Liao, R. E. Westlund, S. M. Zhao, S. Bacus, and N. L. Spector, "Regulation of survivin by ErbB2 signaling: Therapeutic implications for ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers," Cancer Res. 66, 1640-1647 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Emlet, R. Schwartz, K. A. Brown, A. A. Pollice, C. A. Smith, and S. E. Shackney, "HER2 expression as a potential marker for response to therapy targeted to the EGFR," Br. J. Cancer 94, 1144-1153 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Pritchard, L. E. Shepherd, F. P. O'Malley, I. L. Andrulis, D. S. Tu, V. H. Bramwell, and M. N. Levine, "HER2 and responsiveness of breast cancer to adjuvant chemotherapy," N. Engl. J. Med. 354, 2103-2111 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Thuerigen, A. Schneeweiss, G. Toedt, P. Warnat, M. Halm, H. Kramer, B. Brors, C. Rudlowski, A. Benner, F. Schuetz, B. Tews, R. Eils, H. P. Sinn, C. Sohn, and P. Lichter, "Gene expression signature predicting pathologic complete response with gemcitabine, epirubicin, and docetaxel in primary breast cancer," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 1839-1845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Plosker and S. J. Keam, "Trastuzumab - A review of its use in the management of HER2-positive metastatic and early-stage breast cancer," Drugs 66, 449-475 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Debarre, W. Supatto, A. M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nat. Methods 3, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Tsai, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, S.-Y. Chen, S.-P. Tai, K.-H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "Biomolecular imaging based on far-red fluorescent protein with a high two-photon excitation action cross section," Opt. Lett. 31, 930-932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, P.-C. Wu, H.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, "In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Opt. Express 14, 6178-6187 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-13-6178.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, "Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, C.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Wen, S.-W. Chu, L.-J. Chen, M. R. Prasad, K.-J. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "Measuring plasmon-resonance enhanced third-harmonic ??(3) of Ag nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. O. Clay, A. C. Millard, C. B. Schaffer, J. Aus-der-Au, P. S. Tsai, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, "Spectroscopy of third-harmonic generation: evidence for resonances in model compounds and ligated hemoglobin," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 23, 932-950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mohanta, G. A. Ahmed, A. Choudhury, F. Singh, D. K. Avasthi, G. Boyer, and G. A. Stanciu, "Scanning probe microscopy, luminescence and third harmonic generation studies of elongated CdS:Mn nanostructures developed by energetic oxygen-ion-impact," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 35, 29-36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, "Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 799-802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum dots for live cells, in vivo imaging, and diagnostics," Science 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Supatto, D. Debarre, B. Moulia, E. Brouzes, J. L. Martin, E. Farge, and E. Beaurepaire, "In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 1047-1052 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Barzda, C. Greenhalgh, J. Aus der Au, S. Elmore, J. van Beek, and J. Squier, "Visualization of mitochondria in cardiomyocytes by simultaneous harmonic generation and fluorescence microscopy," Opt. Express 13, 8263-8276 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8263.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, T.-H. Tsai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, Y.-H. Liao, H.-Y. Huang, K. Zhang, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, "Optical biopsy of fixed human skin with backward-collected optical harmonics signals," Opt. Express 13, 8231-8242 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8231.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, C.-L. Ho, C.-H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "High-resolution simultaneous three-photon fluorescence and third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech 66, 193-197 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, "Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology," J. Struct. Biol. 147, 19-30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Debarre, W. Supatto, E. Farge, B. Moulia, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Velocimetric third-harmonic generation microscopy: micrometer-scale quantification of morphogenetic movements in unstained embryos," Opt. Lett. 29, 2881-2883 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Voura, J. K. Jaiswal, H. Mattoussi, and S. M. Simon, "Tracking metastatic tumor cell extravasation with quantum dot nanocrystals and fluorescence emission-scanning microscopy," Nat. Med. 10, 993-998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Campiglio, A. Locatelli, C. Olgiati, N. Normanno, G. Somenzi, L. Vigano, M. Fumagalli, S. Menard, and L. Gianni, "Inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells by the epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD 1839(???Iressa???) is independent of EGFR expression level," J. Cell. Physiol. 198, 259-268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Faltus, J. Yuan, B. Zimmer, A. Kramer, S. Loibl, M. Kaufmann, and K. Strebhardt, "Silencing of the HER2/neu gene by siRNA inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells," Neoplasia 6, 786-795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

2002 (6)

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, "Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy," J. Microsc. 208, 190-200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, "In Vivo Imaging of Quantum Dots Encapsulated in Phospholipid Micelles," Science 298, 1759 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Green's function formulation for third-harmonic generation microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 19, 1604-1610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, T. Schrama, J. Squier, G. J. Brakenhoff, and M. Muller, "Determination of material properties by use of third-harmonic generation microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 19, 1627-1634 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Veres, S. Matsumoto, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Enhancement of third-harmonic generation in absorbing media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3714-3716 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Murphy, "Optical sensing with quantum dots," Anal. Chem. 74, 520A-526A (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, and R. J. Saykally, "Nonlinear Chemical Imaging Microscopy: Near-Field Third Harmonic Generation Imaging of Human Red Blood Cells," Anal. Chem 72, 5361-5364 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (5)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 99, 2957-2976 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Resonant and Off-Resonant Light-Driven Plasmons in Metal Nanoparticles Studied by Femtosecond-Resolution Third-Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4421-4424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Dharmadhikari, N. Kumbhojkar, J. A. Dharmadhikari, S. Mahamuni, and R. C. Aiyer, "Studies on third-harmonic generation in chemically grown ZnS quantum dots," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11, 1363-1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, A. Lemaitre, J. M. Gerard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, "Third-harmonic generation in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830-9833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Yelin and Y. Silberberg, "Laser scanning third-harmonic-generation microscopy in biology," Opt. Express 5, 169-175 (1999), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-5-8-169.

1997 (1)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, "Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

H. Kano and S. Kawata, "Two-photon-excited fluorescence enhanced by a surface plasmon," Opt. Lett. 21, 1848-1850 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Hines and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescing ZnS-Capped CdSe nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 468-471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, "Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E= sulfur, selenium, tellurium) semiconductor nanocrystallites," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706-8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. S. Bacus, K. Kiguchi, D. Chin, C. R. King, and E. Huberman, "Differentiation of Cultured Human Breast Cancer Cells (AU-565 and MCF-7) Associated with Loss of Cell Surface HER-2/neu Antigen," Mol. Carcinog. 3, 350-362 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

R. R. Anderson, and J. A. Parrish, "The Optics of Human Skin," J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13-19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmed, G. A.

D. Mohanta, G. A. Ahmed, A. Choudhury, F. Singh, D. K. Avasthi, G. Boyer, and G. A. Stanciu, "Scanning probe microscopy, luminescence and third harmonic generation studies of elongated CdS:Mn nanostructures developed by energetic oxygen-ion-impact," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 35, 29-36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aiyer, R. C.

A. K. Dharmadhikari, N. Kumbhojkar, J. A. Dharmadhikari, S. Mahamuni, and R. C. Aiyer, "Studies on third-harmonic generation in chemically grown ZnS quantum dots," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11, 1363-1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, and J. A. Parrish, "The Optics of Human Skin," J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13-19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrulis, I. L.

K. I. Pritchard, L. E. Shepherd, F. P. O'Malley, I. L. Andrulis, D. S. Tu, V. H. Bramwell, and M. N. Levine, "HER2 and responsiveness of breast cancer to adjuvant chemotherapy," N. Engl. J. Med. 354, 2103-2111 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aus-der-Au, J.

G. O. Clay, A. C. Millard, C. B. Schaffer, J. Aus-der-Au, P. S. Tsai, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, "Spectroscopy of third-harmonic generation: evidence for resonances in model compounds and ligated hemoglobin," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 23, 932-950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Resonant and Off-Resonant Light-Driven Plasmons in Metal Nanoparticles Studied by Femtosecond-Resolution Third-Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4421-4424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Avasthi, D. K.

D. Mohanta, G. A. Ahmed, A. Choudhury, F. Singh, D. K. Avasthi, G. Boyer, and G. A. Stanciu, "Scanning probe microscopy, luminescence and third harmonic generation studies of elongated CdS:Mn nanostructures developed by energetic oxygen-ion-impact," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 35, 29-36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bacus, S.

W. L. Xia, J. Bisi, J. Strum, L. H. Liu, K. Carrick, K. M. Graham, A. L. Treece, M. A. Hardwicke, M. Dush, Q. Y. Liao, R. E. Westlund, S. M. Zhao, S. Bacus, and N. L. Spector, "Regulation of survivin by ErbB2 signaling: Therapeutic implications for ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers," Cancer Res. 66, 1640-1647 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bacus, S. S.

S. S. Bacus, K. Kiguchi, D. Chin, C. R. King, and E. Huberman, "Differentiation of Cultured Human Breast Cancer Cells (AU-565 and MCF-7) Associated with Loss of Cell Surface HER-2/neu Antigen," Mol. Carcinog. 3, 350-362 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barzda, V.

Battle, R.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, and W. Yu, "Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91-94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, "Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E= sulfur, selenium, tellurium) semiconductor nanocrystallites," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706-8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Beaurepaire, E.

D. Debarre, N. Olivier, and E. Beaurepaire, "Signal epidetection in third-harmonic generation microscopy of turbid media," Opt. Express 15, 8913-8924 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-14-8913.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Debarre, W. Supatto, A. M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nat. Methods 3, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Supatto, D. Debarre, B. Moulia, E. Brouzes, J. L. Martin, E. Farge, and E. Beaurepaire, "In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 1047-1052 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Debarre, W. Supatto, E. Farge, B. Moulia, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Velocimetric third-harmonic generation microscopy: micrometer-scale quantification of morphogenetic movements in unstained embryos," Opt. Lett. 29, 2881-2883 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benner, A.

O. Thuerigen, A. Schneeweiss, G. Toedt, P. Warnat, M. Halm, H. Kramer, B. Brors, C. Rudlowski, A. Benner, F. Schuetz, B. Tews, R. Eils, H. P. Sinn, C. Sohn, and P. Lichter, "Gene expression signature predicting pathologic complete response with gemcitabine, epirubicin, and docetaxel in primary breast cancer," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 1839-1845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bentolila, L. A.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum dots for live cells, in vivo imaging, and diagnostics," Science 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bisi, J.

W. L. Xia, J. Bisi, J. Strum, L. H. Liu, K. Carrick, K. M. Graham, A. L. Treece, M. A. Hardwicke, M. Dush, Q. Y. Liao, R. E. Westlund, S. M. Zhao, S. Bacus, and N. L. Spector, "Regulation of survivin by ErbB2 signaling: Therapeutic implications for ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers," Cancer Res. 66, 1640-1647 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boucaud, P.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, A. Lemaitre, J. M. Gerard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, "Third-harmonic generation in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830-9833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, G.

D. Mohanta, G. A. Ahmed, A. Choudhury, F. Singh, D. K. Avasthi, G. Boyer, and G. A. Stanciu, "Scanning probe microscopy, luminescence and third harmonic generation studies of elongated CdS:Mn nanostructures developed by energetic oxygen-ion-impact," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 35, 29-36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brakenhoff, G. J.

J. M. Schins, T. Schrama, J. Squier, G. J. Brakenhoff, and M. Muller, "Determination of material properties by use of third-harmonic generation microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 19, 1627-1634 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bramwell, V. H.

K. I. Pritchard, L. E. Shepherd, F. P. O'Malley, I. L. Andrulis, D. S. Tu, V. H. Bramwell, and M. N. Levine, "HER2 and responsiveness of breast cancer to adjuvant chemotherapy," N. Engl. J. Med. 354, 2103-2111 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brivanlou, A. H.

B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, "In Vivo Imaging of Quantum Dots Encapsulated in Phospholipid Micelles," Science 298, 1759 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brors, B.

O. Thuerigen, A. Schneeweiss, G. Toedt, P. Warnat, M. Halm, H. Kramer, B. Brors, C. Rudlowski, A. Benner, F. Schuetz, B. Tews, R. Eils, H. P. Sinn, C. Sohn, and P. Lichter, "Gene expression signature predicting pathologic complete response with gemcitabine, epirubicin, and docetaxel in primary breast cancer," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 1839-1845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brouzes, E.

W. Supatto, D. Debarre, B. Moulia, E. Brouzes, J. L. Martin, E. Farge, and E. Beaurepaire, "In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 1047-1052 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, H.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, and W. Yu, "Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91-94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, K. A.

D. R. Emlet, R. Schwartz, K. A. Brown, A. A. Pollice, C. A. Smith, and S. E. Shackney, "HER2 expression as a potential marker for response to therapy targeted to the EGFR," Br. J. Cancer 94, 1144-1153 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campiglio, M.

M. Campiglio, A. Locatelli, C. Olgiati, N. Normanno, G. Somenzi, L. Vigano, M. Fumagalli, S. Menard, and L. Gianni, "Inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells by the epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD 1839(???Iressa???) is independent of EGFR expression level," J. Cell. Physiol. 198, 259-268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carrick, K.

W. L. Xia, J. Bisi, J. Strum, L. H. Liu, K. Carrick, K. M. Graham, A. L. Treece, M. A. Hardwicke, M. Dush, Q. Y. Liao, R. E. Westlund, S. M. Zhao, S. Bacus, and N. L. Spector, "Regulation of survivin by ErbB2 signaling: Therapeutic implications for ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers," Cancer Res. 66, 1640-1647 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, Y.-F.

Chang, C.-H.

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, "Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

Chen, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chen, S. R. Roffler, I.-S. Liu, C.-C. Liu, W.-F. Su, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called "Facile and efficient assembly of antibody-tagged quantum dots for membrane receptor targeting."

Chen, I.-H.

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, "Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy," J. Microsc. 208, 190-200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-J.

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, "Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, C.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Wen, S.-W. Chu, L.-J. Chen, M. R. Prasad, K.-J. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "Measuring plasmon-resonance enhanced third-harmonic ??(3) of Ag nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-Y.

T.-H. Tsai, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, S.-Y. Chen, S.-P. Tai, K.-H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "Biomolecular imaging based on far-red fluorescent protein with a high two-photon excitation action cross section," Opt. Lett. 31, 930-932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, "Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, "Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology," J. Struct. Biol. 147, 19-30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, "In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy," Opt. Express 11, 3093-3099 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3093.

Chen, Y.-C.

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, "Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, C.-C. Chen, S.-W. Chu, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Chen, and B.-L. Lin, "Multiharmonic-generation biopsy of skin," Opt. Lett. 28, 2488-2490 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. X.

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Green's function formulation for third-harmonic generation microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 19, 1604-1610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, P.-C.

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, "Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy," J. Microsc. 208, 190-200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, D.

S. S. Bacus, K. Kiguchi, D. Chin, C. R. King, and E. Huberman, "Differentiation of Cultured Human Breast Cancer Cells (AU-565 and MCF-7) Associated with Loss of Cell Surface HER-2/neu Antigen," Mol. Carcinog. 3, 350-362 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choudhury, A.

D. Mohanta, G. A. Ahmed, A. Choudhury, F. Singh, D. K. Avasthi, G. Boyer, and G. A. Stanciu, "Scanning probe microscopy, luminescence and third harmonic generation studies of elongated CdS:Mn nanostructures developed by energetic oxygen-ion-impact," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 35, 29-36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.-W.

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, "Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, "Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, C.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Wen, S.-W. Chu, L.-J. Chen, M. R. Prasad, K.-J. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "Measuring plasmon-resonance enhanced third-harmonic ??(3) of Ag nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, C.-L. Ho, C.-H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "High-resolution simultaneous three-photon fluorescence and third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech 66, 193-197 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, "Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology," J. Struct. Biol. 147, 19-30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, "In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy," Opt. Express 11, 3093-3099 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3093.

C.-K. Sun, C.-C. Chen, S.-W. Chu, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Chen, and B.-L. Lin, "Multiharmonic-generation biopsy of skin," Opt. Lett. 28, 2488-2490 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, "Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy," J. Microsc. 208, 190-200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clay, G. O.

G. O. Clay, A. C. Millard, C. B. Schaffer, J. Aus-der-Au, P. S. Tsai, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, "Spectroscopy of third-harmonic generation: evidence for resonances in model compounds and ligated hemoglobin," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 23, 932-950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Combettes, L.

D. Debarre, W. Supatto, A. M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nat. Methods 3, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cravetchi, I.

Creekmore, L.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, and W. Yu, "Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91-94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 99, 2957-2976 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Debarre, D.

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T. Faltus, J. Yuan, B. Zimmer, A. Kramer, S. Loibl, M. Kaufmann, and K. Strebhardt, "Silencing of the HER2/neu gene by siRNA inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells," Neoplasia 6, 786-795 (2004).
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W. L. Xia, J. Bisi, J. Strum, L. H. Liu, K. Carrick, K. M. Graham, A. L. Treece, M. A. Hardwicke, M. Dush, Q. Y. Liao, R. E. Westlund, S. M. Zhao, S. Bacus, and N. L. Spector, "Regulation of survivin by ErbB2 signaling: Therapeutic implications for ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers," Cancer Res. 66, 1640-1647 (2006).
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Libchaber, A.

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S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, C.-L. Ho, C.-H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "High-resolution simultaneous three-photon fluorescence and third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech 66, 193-197 (2005).
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S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, "Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054022 (2006).
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S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, "Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy," J. Microsc. 208, 190-200 (2002).
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S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, "Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
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Liu, I.-S.

C.-Y. Chen, S. R. Roffler, I.-S. Liu, C.-C. Liu, W.-F. Su, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called "Facile and efficient assembly of antibody-tagged quantum dots for membrane receptor targeting."

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G. O. Clay, A. C. Millard, C. B. Schaffer, J. Aus-der-Au, P. S. Tsai, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, "Spectroscopy of third-harmonic generation: evidence for resonances in model compounds and ligated hemoglobin," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 23, 932-950 (2006).
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B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, "In Vivo Imaging of Quantum Dots Encapsulated in Phospholipid Micelles," Science 298, 1759 (2002).
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X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum dots for live cells, in vivo imaging, and diagnostics," Science 307, 538-544 (2005).
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T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, C.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Wen, S.-W. Chu, L.-J. Chen, M. R. Prasad, K.-J. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "Measuring plasmon-resonance enhanced third-harmonic ??(3) of Ag nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043122 (2006).
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S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, A. Lemaitre, J. M. Gerard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, "Third-harmonic generation in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830-9833 (1999).
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C.-Y. Chen, S. R. Roffler, I.-S. Liu, C.-C. Liu, W.-F. Su, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called "Facile and efficient assembly of antibody-tagged quantum dots for membrane receptor targeting."

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O. Thuerigen, A. Schneeweiss, G. Toedt, P. Warnat, M. Halm, H. Kramer, B. Brors, C. Rudlowski, A. Benner, F. Schuetz, B. Tews, R. Eils, H. P. Sinn, C. Sohn, and P. Lichter, "Gene expression signature predicting pathologic complete response with gemcitabine, epirubicin, and docetaxel in primary breast cancer," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 1839-1845 (2006).
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S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, A. Lemaitre, J. M. Gerard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, "Third-harmonic generation in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830-9833 (1999).
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D. Debarre, W. Supatto, A. M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nat. Methods 3, 47-53 (2006).
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D. Debarre, W. Supatto, E. Farge, B. Moulia, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Velocimetric third-harmonic generation microscopy: micrometer-scale quantification of morphogenetic movements in unstained embryos," Opt. Lett. 29, 2881-2883 (2004).
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J. M. Schins, T. Schrama, J. Squier, G. J. Brakenhoff, and M. Muller, "Determination of material properties by use of third-harmonic generation microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 19, 1627-1634 (2002).
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J. M. Schins, T. Schrama, J. Squier, G. J. Brakenhoff, and M. Muller, "Determination of material properties by use of third-harmonic generation microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 19, 1627-1634 (2002).
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D. R. Emlet, R. Schwartz, K. A. Brown, A. A. Pollice, C. A. Smith, and S. E. Shackney, "HER2 expression as a potential marker for response to therapy targeted to the EGFR," Br. J. Cancer 94, 1144-1153 (2006).
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Seo, J. T.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, and W. Yu, "Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91-94 (2006).
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D. R. Emlet, R. Schwartz, K. A. Brown, A. A. Pollice, C. A. Smith, and S. E. Shackney, "HER2 expression as a potential marker for response to therapy targeted to the EGFR," Br. J. Cancer 94, 1144-1153 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. I. Pritchard, L. E. Shepherd, F. P. O'Malley, I. L. Andrulis, D. S. Tu, V. H. Bramwell, and M. N. Levine, "HER2 and responsiveness of breast cancer to adjuvant chemotherapy," N. Engl. J. Med. 354, 2103-2111 (2006).
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S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, "Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
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E. B. Voura, J. K. Jaiswal, H. Mattoussi, and S. M. Simon, "Tracking metastatic tumor cell extravasation with quantum dot nanocrystals and fluorescence emission-scanning microscopy," Nat. Med. 10, 993-998 (2004).
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O. Thuerigen, A. Schneeweiss, G. Toedt, P. Warnat, M. Halm, H. Kramer, B. Brors, C. Rudlowski, A. Benner, F. Schuetz, B. Tews, R. Eils, H. P. Sinn, C. Sohn, and P. Lichter, "Gene expression signature predicting pathologic complete response with gemcitabine, epirubicin, and docetaxel in primary breast cancer," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 1839-1845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, "In Vivo Imaging of Quantum Dots Encapsulated in Phospholipid Micelles," Science 298, 1759 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, and W. Yu, "Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91-94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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D. R. Emlet, R. Schwartz, K. A. Brown, A. A. Pollice, C. A. Smith, and S. E. Shackney, "HER2 expression as a potential marker for response to therapy targeted to the EGFR," Br. J. Cancer 94, 1144-1153 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohn, C.

O. Thuerigen, A. Schneeweiss, G. Toedt, P. Warnat, M. Halm, H. Kramer, B. Brors, C. Rudlowski, A. Benner, F. Schuetz, B. Tews, R. Eils, H. P. Sinn, C. Sohn, and P. Lichter, "Gene expression signature predicting pathologic complete response with gemcitabine, epirubicin, and docetaxel in primary breast cancer," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 1839-1845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Campiglio, A. Locatelli, C. Olgiati, N. Normanno, G. Somenzi, L. Vigano, M. Fumagalli, S. Menard, and L. Gianni, "Inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells by the epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD 1839(???Iressa???) is independent of EGFR expression level," J. Cell. Physiol. 198, 259-268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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W. L. Xia, J. Bisi, J. Strum, L. H. Liu, K. Carrick, K. M. Graham, A. L. Treece, M. A. Hardwicke, M. Dush, Q. Y. Liao, R. E. Westlund, S. M. Zhao, S. Bacus, and N. L. Spector, "Regulation of survivin by ErbB2 signaling: Therapeutic implications for ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers," Cancer Res. 66, 1640-1647 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. M. Schins, T. Schrama, J. Squier, G. J. Brakenhoff, and M. Muller, "Determination of material properties by use of third-harmonic generation microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 19, 1627-1634 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J. A.

G. O. Clay, A. C. Millard, C. B. Schaffer, J. Aus-der-Au, P. S. Tsai, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, "Spectroscopy of third-harmonic generation: evidence for resonances in model compounds and ligated hemoglobin," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 23, 932-950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stanciu, G. A.

D. Mohanta, G. A. Ahmed, A. Choudhury, F. Singh, D. K. Avasthi, G. Boyer, and G. A. Stanciu, "Scanning probe microscopy, luminescence and third harmonic generation studies of elongated CdS:Mn nanostructures developed by energetic oxygen-ion-impact," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 35, 29-36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strebhardt, K.

T. Faltus, J. Yuan, B. Zimmer, A. Kramer, S. Loibl, M. Kaufmann, and K. Strebhardt, "Silencing of the HER2/neu gene by siRNA inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells," Neoplasia 6, 786-795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strum, J.

W. L. Xia, J. Bisi, J. Strum, L. H. Liu, K. Carrick, K. M. Graham, A. L. Treece, M. A. Hardwicke, M. Dush, Q. Y. Liao, R. E. Westlund, S. M. Zhao, S. Bacus, and N. L. Spector, "Regulation of survivin by ErbB2 signaling: Therapeutic implications for ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers," Cancer Res. 66, 1640-1647 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, W.-F.

C.-Y. Chen, S. R. Roffler, I.-S. Liu, C.-C. Liu, W.-F. Su, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called "Facile and efficient assembly of antibody-tagged quantum dots for membrane receptor targeting."

Sun, C.-K.

C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, W.-J. Lee, Y.-F. Chan, H.-L. Liu, J.-Y. Lyu, and C.-K. Sun, "Molecular third-harmonic-generation microscopy through resonance enhancement with absorbing dye," Opt. Lett. 33, 387-389 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, I.-J. Wang, H.-C. Yu, H.-J. Huang, W.-J. Lee, Y.-F. Chan, and C.-K. Sun, "In vivo and ex vivo imaging of intra-tissue elastic fibers using third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 11167-11177 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11167.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, "Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, P.-C. Wu, H.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, "In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Opt. Express 14, 6178-6187 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-13-6178.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, C.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Wen, S.-W. Chu, L.-J. Chen, M. R. Prasad, K.-J. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "Measuring plasmon-resonance enhanced third-harmonic ??(3) of Ag nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Tsai, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, S.-Y. Chen, S.-P. Tai, K.-H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "Biomolecular imaging based on far-red fluorescent protein with a high two-photon excitation action cross section," Opt. Lett. 31, 930-932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, "Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, T.-H. Tsai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, Y.-H. Liao, H.-Y. Huang, K. Zhang, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, "Optical biopsy of fixed human skin with backward-collected optical harmonics signals," Opt. Express 13, 8231-8242 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8231.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, C.-L. Ho, C.-H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "High-resolution simultaneous three-photon fluorescence and third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech 66, 193-197 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, "Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology," J. Struct. Biol. 147, 19-30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, "In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy," Opt. Express 11, 3093-3099 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3093.

C.-K. Sun, C.-C. Chen, S.-W. Chu, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Chen, and B.-L. Lin, "Multiharmonic-generation biopsy of skin," Opt. Lett. 28, 2488-2490 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, "Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy," J. Microsc. 208, 190-200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundaresan, G.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum dots for live cells, in vivo imaging, and diagnostics," Science 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supatto, W.

D. Debarre, W. Supatto, A. M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nat. Methods 3, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Supatto, D. Debarre, B. Moulia, E. Brouzes, J. L. Martin, E. Farge, and E. Beaurepaire, "In vivo modulation of morphogenetic movements in Drosophila embryos with femtosecond laser pulses," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 1047-1052 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Debarre, W. Supatto, E. Farge, B. Moulia, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Velocimetric third-harmonic generation microscopy: micrometer-scale quantification of morphogenetic movements in unstained embryos," Opt. Lett. 29, 2881-2883 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tabibi, B.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, and W. Yu, "Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91-94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tai, S.-P.

C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, W.-J. Lee, Y.-F. Chan, H.-L. Liu, J.-Y. Lyu, and C.-K. Sun, "Molecular third-harmonic-generation microscopy through resonance enhancement with absorbing dye," Opt. Lett. 33, 387-389 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, I.-J. Wang, H.-C. Yu, H.-J. Huang, W.-J. Lee, Y.-F. Chan, and C.-K. Sun, "In vivo and ex vivo imaging of intra-tissue elastic fibers using third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 11167-11177 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11167.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, "Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, P.-C. Wu, H.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, "In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Opt. Express 14, 6178-6187 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-13-6178.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, C.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Wen, S.-W. Chu, L.-J. Chen, M. R. Prasad, K.-J. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "Measuring plasmon-resonance enhanced third-harmonic ??(3) of Ag nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Tsai, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, S.-Y. Chen, S.-P. Tai, K.-H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "Biomolecular imaging based on far-red fluorescent protein with a high two-photon excitation action cross section," Opt. Lett. 31, 930-932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, T.-H. Tsai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, Y.-H. Liao, H.-Y. Huang, K. Zhang, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, "Optical biopsy of fixed human skin with backward-collected optical harmonics signals," Opt. Express 13, 8231-8242 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8231.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, C.-L. Ho, C.-H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "High-resolution simultaneous three-photon fluorescence and third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech 66, 193-197 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tavernarakis, N.

E. J. Gualda, G. Filippidis, G. Voglis, M. Mari, C. Fotakis, and N. Tavernarakis, "In vivo imaging of cellular structures in Caenorhabditis elegans by combined TPEF, SHG and THG microscopy," J. Microsc. 229, 141-150 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tews, B.

O. Thuerigen, A. Schneeweiss, G. Toedt, P. Warnat, M. Halm, H. Kramer, B. Brors, C. Rudlowski, A. Benner, F. Schuetz, B. Tews, R. Eils, H. P. Sinn, C. Sohn, and P. Lichter, "Gene expression signature predicting pathologic complete response with gemcitabine, epirubicin, and docetaxel in primary breast cancer," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 1839-1845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiberge, S.

Thierry-Mieg, V.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, A. Lemaitre, J. M. Gerard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, "Third-harmonic generation in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830-9833 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thuerigen, O.

O. Thuerigen, A. Schneeweiss, G. Toedt, P. Warnat, M. Halm, H. Kramer, B. Brors, C. Rudlowski, A. Benner, F. Schuetz, B. Tews, R. Eils, H. P. Sinn, C. Sohn, and P. Lichter, "Gene expression signature predicting pathologic complete response with gemcitabine, epirubicin, and docetaxel in primary breast cancer," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 1839-1845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toedt, G.

O. Thuerigen, A. Schneeweiss, G. Toedt, P. Warnat, M. Halm, H. Kramer, B. Brors, C. Rudlowski, A. Benner, F. Schuetz, B. Tews, R. Eils, H. P. Sinn, C. Sohn, and P. Lichter, "Gene expression signature predicting pathologic complete response with gemcitabine, epirubicin, and docetaxel in primary breast cancer," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 1839-1845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tordjmann, T.

D. Debarre, W. Supatto, A. M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, "Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy," Nat. Methods 3, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Treece, A. L.

W. L. Xia, J. Bisi, J. Strum, L. H. Liu, K. Carrick, K. M. Graham, A. L. Treece, M. A. Hardwicke, M. Dush, Q. Y. Liao, R. E. Westlund, S. M. Zhao, S. Bacus, and N. L. Spector, "Regulation of survivin by ErbB2 signaling: Therapeutic implications for ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers," Cancer Res. 66, 1640-1647 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, H.-J.

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, "Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, S.-Y. Chen, S.-P. Tai, K.-H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "Biomolecular imaging based on far-red fluorescent protein with a high two-photon excitation action cross section," Opt. Lett. 31, 930-932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, "Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology," J. Struct. Biol. 147, 19-30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, "In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy," Opt. Express 11, 3093-3099 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3093.

Tsai, P. S.

G. O. Clay, A. C. Millard, C. B. Schaffer, J. Aus-der-Au, P. S. Tsai, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, "Spectroscopy of third-harmonic generation: evidence for resonances in model compounds and ligated hemoglobin," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 23, 932-950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T.-H.

Tsay, J. M.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum dots for live cells, in vivo imaging, and diagnostics," Science 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, D. S.

K. I. Pritchard, L. E. Shepherd, F. P. O'Malley, I. L. Andrulis, D. S. Tu, V. H. Bramwell, and M. N. Levine, "HER2 and responsiveness of breast cancer to adjuvant chemotherapy," N. Engl. J. Med. 354, 2103-2111 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Dijk, M. A.

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, "Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 799-802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veres, G.

G. Veres, S. Matsumoto, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Enhancement of third-harmonic generation in absorbing media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3714-3716 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vigano, L.

M. Campiglio, A. Locatelli, C. Olgiati, N. Normanno, G. Somenzi, L. Vigano, M. Fumagalli, S. Menard, and L. Gianni, "Inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells by the epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD 1839(???Iressa???) is independent of EGFR expression level," J. Cell. Physiol. 198, 259-268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Voglis, G.

E. J. Gualda, G. Filippidis, G. Voglis, M. Mari, C. Fotakis, and N. Tavernarakis, "In vivo imaging of cellular structures in Caenorhabditis elegans by combined TPEF, SHG and THG microscopy," J. Microsc. 229, 141-150 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voura, E. B.

E. B. Voura, J. K. Jaiswal, H. Mattoussi, and S. M. Simon, "Tracking metastatic tumor cell extravasation with quantum dot nanocrystals and fluorescence emission-scanning microscopy," Nat. Med. 10, 993-998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, I.-J.

Warnat, P.

O. Thuerigen, A. Schneeweiss, G. Toedt, P. Warnat, M. Halm, H. Kramer, B. Brors, C. Rudlowski, A. Benner, F. Schuetz, B. Tews, R. Eils, H. P. Sinn, C. Sohn, and P. Lichter, "Gene expression signature predicting pathologic complete response with gemcitabine, epirubicin, and docetaxel in primary breast cancer," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 1839-1845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, S.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum dots for live cells, in vivo imaging, and diagnostics," Science 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, Y.-C.

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, "Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, C.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Wen, S.-W. Chu, L.-J. Chen, M. R. Prasad, K.-J. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, "Measuring plasmon-resonance enhanced third-harmonic ??(3) of Ag nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Westlund, R. E.

W. L. Xia, J. Bisi, J. Strum, L. H. Liu, K. Carrick, K. M. Graham, A. L. Treece, M. A. Hardwicke, M. Dush, Q. Y. Liao, R. E. Westlund, S. M. Zhao, S. Bacus, and N. L. Spector, "Regulation of survivin by ErbB2 signaling: Therapeutic implications for ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers," Cancer Res. 66, 1640-1647 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, A. M.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum dots for live cells, in vivo imaging, and diagnostics," Science 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, P.-C.

Wu, Y.

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, "Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xia, W. L.

W. L. Xia, J. Bisi, J. Strum, L. H. Liu, K. Carrick, K. M. Graham, A. L. Treece, M. A. Hardwicke, M. Dush, Q. Y. Liao, R. E. Westlund, S. M. Zhao, S. Bacus, and N. L. Spector, "Regulation of survivin by ErbB2 signaling: Therapeutic implications for ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers," Cancer Res. 66, 1640-1647 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Green's function formulation for third-harmonic generation microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 19, 1604-1610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, and W. Yu, "Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91-94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yelin, D.

Yu, C.-H.

Yu, H.-C.

Yu, W.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, and W. Yu, "Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots," J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91-94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, J.

T. Faltus, J. Yuan, B. Zimmer, A. Kramer, S. Loibl, M. Kaufmann, and K. Strebhardt, "Silencing of the HER2/neu gene by siRNA inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells," Neoplasia 6, 786-795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

Zhao, S. M.

W. L. Xia, J. Bisi, J. Strum, L. H. Liu, K. Carrick, K. M. Graham, A. L. Treece, M. A. Hardwicke, M. Dush, Q. Y. Liao, R. E. Westlund, S. M. Zhao, S. Bacus, and N. L. Spector, "Regulation of survivin by ErbB2 signaling: Therapeutic implications for ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers," Cancer Res. 66, 1640-1647 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmer, B.

T. Faltus, J. Yuan, B. Zimmer, A. Kramer, S. Loibl, M. Kaufmann, and K. Strebhardt, "Silencing of the HER2/neu gene by siRNA inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells," Neoplasia 6, 786-795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, "Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 19, 4520-4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem (1)

R. D. Schaller, J. C. Johnson, and R. J. Saykally, "Nonlinear Chemical Imaging Microscopy: Near-Field Third Harmonic Generation Imaging of Human Red Blood Cells," Anal. Chem 72, 5361-5364 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

C. J. Murphy, "Optical sensing with quantum dots," Anal. Chem. 74, 520A-526A (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (540 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1813 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Absorption and emission spectra of ~5 nm CdSe QDs. Black line: absorption; red line: emission. (b) Transmission electron micrograph of ~100 nm lipid-enclosed CdSe QDs. Scale bar: 10 nm

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The tumor region in the dorsal skin was restrained on our home-made device for observation. (b) After anesthetization, the nude mouse was put under our epi-THG microscope with an electric blanket to maintain the body temperature.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Ep-THG intensities of nanoparticles with different sizes and materials. Figures (a)-(i) show the epi-THG images with different materials in solution: (a) Deionized water; (b) 10 nm GEC lipid nanoparticles; (c) 50 nm GEC lipid nanoparticles; (d) 100 nm GEC lipid nanoparticles; (e) 200 nm GEC lipid nanoparticles; (f) 100 nm DPPC lipid nanoparticles; (g) 5 nm CdSe QDs; (h) 30 nm GEC-lipid-enclosed CdSe QDs; (i) 130 nm GEC-lipid-enclosed CdSe QDs; (j) Epi-THG power vs. diameter for GEC-lipid-enclosed CdSe QDs (black circle), GEC lipid nanoparticles (green square), and ~5 nm CdSe QDs (blue triangle). Cyan and dark yellow dashed lines represent epi-THG and F-THG, respectively, from monodisperse LEQDs; black and red lines represent epi-THG and F-THG, respectively, assuming a Gaussian distribution in polydispersity. Epi-THG intensities from CdSe QDs and GEC lipid nanoparticles are much weaker than those from GEC-lipid-enclosed CdSe QDs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Schematic of the structure used in simulations to illustrate the coherent versus the multiple-interface effects. The thickness of each slab is 10 nm, while the separation between them is 0-100 nm. (b) Simulation results on the intensities of forward- and epi-THG from the structure. Black line: forward-THG; red line: epi-THG.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

One typical measured backward emission spectrum of these LEQDs excited by our fs Cr:fosterite laser is shown as (a). The observed epi-THG was ~20X stronger than the 3PF from the LEQDs. The cationic LEQDs in HeLa cells were also imaged by (b) THG microscopy and (c) 3PF microscopy. Scale bar: 20 µm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) (539 kB) An example movie shows a stack of depth-resolved in vivo horizontal sections from epi-harmonic generation microscopy in normal subcutaneous tissues of a nude mouse. Depth range: 70-100 µm. (b) (1.76 MB) An example movie shows a stack of depthresolved in vivo horizontal sections in the subcutaneous tissues in the tumor-induced region loaded with LEQD. The red color represents epi-THG and the green epi-SHG. Depth range: 70-120 µm. Image size: 120×120 µm. [Media 1][Media 2]

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Demonstration of THG imaging using anti-Her2-linked neutral LEQDs as contrast agents to identify the Her2 expression in live breast cancer cells with normal (MCF7) and high (AU565) expression. (a) Schematic of anti-Her2-linked LEQDs (b) THG image of AU565 cells not applied with LEQDs. (c) THG image of AU565 cells applied with LEQDs. (d) THG image of AU565 cells applied with anti-Her2-linked LEQDs. (e) THG image of MCF7 cells not applied with LEQDs. (f) THG image of MCF7 cells applied with LEQDs. (f) THG image of MCF7 cells applied with anti-Her2-linked LEQDs. Scale bar: 30 µm. Rich bright THG spots can only be observed in the AU565 cells applied with anti-Her2-linked LEQDs, and thus our developed THG microscopy can identify the Her2 expression levels in live breast cancer cells with normal and overexpressing Her2 receptors.

Equations (6)

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E ( 3 ω ) ( R ) V d V ( I ¯ + k 3 2 ) exp ( i k 3 R · r ) R · P ( 3 ω ) ( r ) ,
P ( 3 ω ) θ d θ 0 2 π d ϕ E ( 3 ω ) ( R ) 2 R 2 sin θ ,
P poly ( 3 ω ) ( d ) d d d P ( 3 ω ) ( d ) · 1 σ exp ( ( d d ) 2 2 σ 2 ) ,
I ( d ) [ 1 f f ( 1 512 × 512 m = 1 512 n = 1 512 S ( f , m , n ) ) ] · y ( V ) · d 3 ,
I ( d ) C · P poly ( 3 ω ) ( d ) ,
Δ ϕ = 2 π λ ( n 1 , slab 2 n 1 , medium n 1 , medium ) · δ ,

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