Abstract

Beams with helical phasefronts described by exp(iℓϕ) carry an orbital angular momentum equivalent to ℓh̄ per photon. Using diffractive optics this helical phase structure can be applied to every spectral component of the beam such that a spatially coherent white-light beam can carry orbital angular momentum without any chromatic distortion. This achromatic property can be hard to achieve in spin angular momentum where pure circular polarization is difficult to maintain across a finite spectral bandwidth. We illustrate the achromatic, helical phase structure of a white-light beam by observing the transfer of its orbital angular momentum to particles held in optical tweezers.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. H. Poynting, "The wave motion of a revolving shaft, and a suggestion as to the angular momentum in a beam of circularly polarised light," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 560-567 (1909).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. A. Beth, "Mechanical detection and measurement of the angular momentum of light," Phys. Rev. 50, 115-125 (1936).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes," Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8190 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826-829 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, "Optical angular-momentum transfer to trapped absorbing particles," Phys. Rev. A 54, 1593-1596 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. B. Simpson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "The mechanical equivalence of the spin and orbital angular momentum of light: an optical spanner," Opt. Lett. 22, 52-54 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. T. O???Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vastnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, "Laser-beams with screw dislocations in their wave-fronts," JETP Lett. 52, 429-431 (1990).
  9. L. Allen, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Optical Angular Momentum (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, "Light???s orbital angular momentum," Phys. Today 57, 35-40 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Leach and M. J. Padgett, "Observation of chromatic effects near a white-light vortex," New J. Phys. 5, 154 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Mariyenko, J. Strohaber, and C. Uiterwaal, "Creation of optical vortices in femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 3, 7599-7608 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, "Structure of optical vortices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Leach, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, E. Esposito, G. McConnell, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, "Generation of achromatic Bessel beams using a compensated spatial light modulator," Opt. Express 14, 5581-5587 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, "Optical forces arising from phase gradients," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013602 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Jesacher, C. Maurer, A. Schwaighofer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Mart, "Full phase and amplitude control of holographic optical tweezers with high efficiency," Opt. Express 16, 4479-4486 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Roichman, D. G. Grier, and G. Zaslavsky, "Anomalous collective dynamics in optically driven colloidal rings," Phys. Rev. E 75, 020401 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Franke-Arnold, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, V. Lembessis, A. Arnold, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, "Optical ferris wheel for ultracold atoms," Opt. Express. 15, 8619-8625 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

Y. Roichman, D. G. Grier, and G. Zaslavsky, "Anomalous collective dynamics in optically driven colloidal rings," Phys. Rev. E 75, 020401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Franke-Arnold, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, V. Lembessis, A. Arnold, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, "Optical ferris wheel for ultracold atoms," Opt. Express. 15, 8619-8625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

I. Mariyenko, J. Strohaber, and C. Uiterwaal, "Creation of optical vortices in femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 3, 7599-7608 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, "Light???s orbital angular momentum," Phys. Today 57, 35-40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. Leach and M. J. Padgett, "Observation of chromatic effects near a white-light vortex," New J. Phys. 5, 154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, "Structure of optical vortices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. T. O???Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1996

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, "Optical angular-momentum transfer to trapped absorbing particles," Phys. Rev. A 54, 1593-1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826-829 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes," Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8190 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vastnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, "Laser-beams with screw dislocations in their wave-fronts," JETP Lett. 52, 429-431 (1990).

1936

R. A. Beth, "Mechanical detection and measurement of the angular momentum of light," Phys. Rev. 50, 115-125 (1936).
[CrossRef]

1909

J. H. Poynting, "The wave motion of a revolving shaft, and a suggestion as to the angular momentum in a beam of circularly polarised light," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 560-567 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, "Light???s orbital angular momentum," Phys. Today 57, 35-40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. T. O???Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. B. Simpson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "The mechanical equivalence of the spin and orbital angular momentum of light: an optical spanner," Opt. Lett. 22, 52-54 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes," Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8190 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amato-Grill, J.

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, "Optical forces arising from phase gradients," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, A.

S. Franke-Arnold, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, V. Lembessis, A. Arnold, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, "Optical ferris wheel for ultracold atoms," Opt. Express. 15, 8619-8625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnett, S. M.

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bazhenov, V. Y.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vastnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, "Laser-beams with screw dislocations in their wave-fronts," JETP Lett. 52, 429-431 (1990).

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes," Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8190 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernet, S.

Beth, R. A.

R. A. Beth, "Mechanical detection and measurement of the angular momentum of light," Phys. Rev. 50, 115-125 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Courtial, J.

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, "Light???s orbital angular momentum," Phys. Today 57, 35-40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, "Structure of optical vortices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

Enger, J.

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, "Optical angular-momentum transfer to trapped absorbing particles," Phys. Rev. A 54, 1593-1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esposito, E.

Franke-Arnold, S.

S. Franke-Arnold, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, V. Lembessis, A. Arnold, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, "Optical ferris wheel for ultracold atoms," Opt. Express. 15, 8619-8625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friese, M. E. J.

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, "Optical angular-momentum transfer to trapped absorbing particles," Phys. Rev. A 54, 1593-1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826-829 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, G. M.

Girkin, J. M.

S. Franke-Arnold, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, V. Lembessis, A. Arnold, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, "Optical ferris wheel for ultracold atoms," Opt. Express. 15, 8619-8625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, E. Esposito, G. McConnell, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, "Generation of achromatic Bessel beams using a compensated spatial light modulator," Opt. Express 14, 5581-5587 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grier, D. G.

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, "Optical forces arising from phase gradients," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Roichman, D. G. Grier, and G. Zaslavsky, "Anomalous collective dynamics in optically driven colloidal rings," Phys. Rev. E 75, 020401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, "Structure of optical vortices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, H.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826-829 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heckenberg, N. R.

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, "Optical angular-momentum transfer to trapped absorbing particles," Phys. Rev. A 54, 1593-1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826-829 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jesacher, A.

Leach, J.

S. Franke-Arnold, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, V. Lembessis, A. Arnold, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, "Optical ferris wheel for ultracold atoms," Opt. Express. 15, 8619-8625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, E. Esposito, G. McConnell, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, "Generation of achromatic Bessel beams using a compensated spatial light modulator," Opt. Express 14, 5581-5587 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach and M. J. Padgett, "Observation of chromatic effects near a white-light vortex," New J. Phys. 5, 154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lembessis, V.

S. Franke-Arnold, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, V. Lembessis, A. Arnold, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, "Optical ferris wheel for ultracold atoms," Opt. Express. 15, 8619-8625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacVicar, I.

A. T. O???Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mariyenko, I.

I. Mariyenko, J. Strohaber, and C. Uiterwaal, "Creation of optical vortices in femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 3, 7599-7608 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, C.

McConnell, G.

O???Neil, A. T.

A. T. O???Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padgett, M.

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, "Light???s orbital angular momentum," Phys. Today 57, 35-40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padgett, M. J.

S. Franke-Arnold, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, V. Lembessis, A. Arnold, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, "Optical ferris wheel for ultracold atoms," Opt. Express. 15, 8619-8625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, E. Esposito, G. McConnell, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, "Generation of achromatic Bessel beams using a compensated spatial light modulator," Opt. Express 14, 5581-5587 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach and M. J. Padgett, "Observation of chromatic effects near a white-light vortex," New J. Phys. 5, 154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. T. O???Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. B. Simpson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "The mechanical equivalence of the spin and orbital angular momentum of light: an optical spanner," Opt. Lett. 22, 52-54 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poynting, J. H.

J. H. Poynting, "The wave motion of a revolving shaft, and a suggestion as to the angular momentum in a beam of circularly polarised light," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 560-567 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Ritsch-Mart, M.

Roichman, Y.

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, "Optical forces arising from phase gradients," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, "Optical forces arising from phase gradients," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Roichman, D. G. Grier, and G. Zaslavsky, "Anomalous collective dynamics in optically driven colloidal rings," Phys. Rev. E 75, 020401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, "Optical angular-momentum transfer to trapped absorbing particles," Phys. Rev. A 54, 1593-1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826-829 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwaighofer, A.

Simpson, N. B.

Skeldon, K.

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soskin, M. S.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vastnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, "Laser-beams with screw dislocations in their wave-fronts," JETP Lett. 52, 429-431 (1990).

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes," Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8190 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strohaber, J.

I. Mariyenko, J. Strohaber, and C. Uiterwaal, "Creation of optical vortices in femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 3, 7599-7608 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, "Optical forces arising from phase gradients," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiterwaal, C.

I. Mariyenko, J. Strohaber, and C. Uiterwaal, "Creation of optical vortices in femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 3, 7599-7608 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vastnetsov, M. V.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vastnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, "Laser-beams with screw dislocations in their wave-fronts," JETP Lett. 52, 429-431 (1990).

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes," Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8190 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, A. J.

S. Franke-Arnold, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, V. Lembessis, A. Arnold, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, "Optical ferris wheel for ultracold atoms," Opt. Express. 15, 8619-8625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, E. Esposito, G. McConnell, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, "Generation of achromatic Bessel beams using a compensated spatial light modulator," Opt. Express 14, 5581-5587 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaslavsky, G.

Y. Roichman, D. G. Grier, and G. Zaslavsky, "Anomalous collective dynamics in optically driven colloidal rings," Phys. Rev. E 75, 020401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vastnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, "Laser-beams with screw dislocations in their wave-fronts," JETP Lett. 52, 429-431 (1990).

New J. Phys.

J. Leach and M. J. Padgett, "Observation of chromatic effects near a white-light vortex," New J. Phys. 5, 154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Express.

S. Franke-Arnold, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, V. Lembessis, A. Arnold, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, "Optical ferris wheel for ultracold atoms," Opt. Express. 15, 8619-8625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

R. A. Beth, "Mechanical detection and measurement of the angular momentum of light," Phys. Rev. 50, 115-125 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes," Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8190 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. J. Friese, J. Enger, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, "Optical angular-momentum transfer to trapped absorbing particles," Phys. Rev. A 54, 1593-1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E

Y. Roichman, D. G. Grier, and G. Zaslavsky, "Anomalous collective dynamics in optically driven colloidal rings," Phys. Rev. E 75, 020401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, "Optical forces arising from phase gradients," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, "Structure of optical vortices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826-829 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. O???Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, "Light???s orbital angular momentum," Phys. Today 57, 35-40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A

J. H. Poynting, "The wave motion of a revolving shaft, and a suggestion as to the angular momentum in a beam of circularly polarised light," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 560-567 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Allen, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Optical Angular Momentum (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic representation of the experimental setup. A short pulsed Ti:Sapphire laser beam of 800nm was coupled into a photonic crystal fibre with a zero dispersion at 750nm to produce a white-light super-continuum. The beam was then incident on a SLM displaying a forked hologram to generate a Laguerre-Gaussian beam. A 6 degree prism corrected for the angular chromatic dispersion in the positive first-order beam and this was re-imaged onto the back aperture of a high numerical aperture microscope objective. A notch filter at 514nm was placed in the white-light super-continuum and a narrow pass 514nm filter was placed in front on the CCD camera, this allowed the sample to be viewed using the normal microscope illumination system without the white-light super-continuum saturating the camera.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Near white-light output from photonic crystal fibre. A filter is used to block out component at 514nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Images of both the positive and negative first diffraction orders at the focus of the microscope objective. The prism angle was selected to correct for chromatic dispersion in the positive first-order beam and, as a result, the chromatic dispersion in the negative first-order beam was increased.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Series of images showing the micron sized particles orbiting around the beam axis, illustrating that the rotation direction changes according to the sign of .

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Plot of /r 3 against the rotation rate for three particles orbiting around the beam axis, where r is the measured radius of the annular ring and is the azimuthal mode index.

Equations (2)

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F recoil P 2 π r kr
R P 2 π r 2 kr

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