Abstract

A variable (0.2 to 5 MHz) repetition rate femtosecond laser was applied to delineate the role of thermal diffusion and heat accumulation effects in forming low-loss optical waveguides in borosilicate glass across a broad range of laser exposure conditions. For the first time, a smooth transition from diffusion-only transport at 200-kHz repetition rate to strong heat accumulation effects at 0.5 to 2 MHz was observed and shown to drive significant variations in waveguide morphology, with rapidly increasing waveguide diameter that accurately followed a simple thermal diffusion model over all exposure variables tested. Amongst these strong thermal trends, a common exposure window of 200-mW average power and ~15-mm/s scan speed was discovered across the range of 200-kHz to 2-MHz repetition rates for minimizing insertion loss despite a 10-fold drop in laser pulse energy. Waveguide morphology and thermal modeling indicate that strong thermal diffusion effects at 200 kHz give way to a weak heat accumulation effect at ~1-µJ pulse energy for generating low loss waveguides, while stronger heat accumulation effects above 1-MHz repetition rate offered overall superior guiding. A comprehensive characterization of waveguide properties is presented for laser writing in the thermal diffusion and heat accumulation regimes. The waveguides are shown to be thermally stable up to 800°C and can be written in a convenient 520-μm depth range with low spherical aberration.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, and P. R. Herman, "Rapid thermal annealing in high repetition rate ultrafast laser waveguidewriting in lithium niobate," Opt. Express 15, 10842-10854 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse," Opt. Express 15, 16800-16807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, "Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates," J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.  2, 57-63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, J. Li, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, and P. R. Herman, "Type II high-strength Bragg grating waveguides photowritten with ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Express 15, 4182-4191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. R. de la Cruz, and J. Solis, "Deep subsurface waveguides with circular cross section produced by femtosecond laser writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 86, 165-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Low-loss Type II waveguide writing in fused silica with single picosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 4826-4834 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A. 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, "Study of the influence of femtosecond laser polarisation on direct writing of waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 13158-13163 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A. 84, 257-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor, "Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 1312-1314 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A. 6, 787-790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fukuda, S. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, K. Sakuma, and H. Hosoya, "Low-loss optical waveguides written by femtosecond laser pulses for three-dimensional photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 5339, 524-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, "Localized Dynamics during Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 087401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. D. Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1900-1902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, "Ultrafast laser processing: new options for three-dimensional photonic structures," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2533-2542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. R. Herman, A. Oettl, K. P. Chen, and R. S. Marjoribanks, "Laser micromachining of transparent fused silica with 1-ps pulses and pulse trains," Proc. SPIE 3616, 148-155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, "Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882-884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

L. McCaughan and E. J. Murphy, "Influence of temperature and initial titanium dimensions on fiber Ti:lithium niobate waveguide insertion loss at 1.3 microns," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 131-136 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1971

R. Bruckner, "Metastable equilibrium density of hydroxyl-free synthetic vitreous silica," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5, 281-285 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

R. Bruckner, "Properties and structure of vitreous silica. I," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5, 123-175 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Aiello, L.

Ams, M.

An, R.

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A. 84, 257-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A.

Arai, A. Y.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A. 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor, "Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 1312-1314 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bovatsek, J.

Brodeur, A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bruckner, R.

R. Bruckner, "Metastable equilibrium density of hydroxyl-free synthetic vitreous silica," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5, 281-285 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruckner, "Properties and structure of vitreous silica. I," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5, 123-175 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 86, 165-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, "Ultrafast laser processing: new options for three-dimensional photonic structures," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2533-2542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carr, C. W.

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, "Localized Dynamics during Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 087401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. P.

P. R. Herman, A. Oettl, K. P. Chen, and R. S. Marjoribanks, "Laser micromachining of transparent fused silica with 1-ps pulses and pulse trains," Proc. SPIE 3616, 148-155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiodo, N.

Corkum, P. B.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A. 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Rayner, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum, "Ultrashort pulse non-linear optical absorption in transparent media," Opt. Express 13, 3208-3217 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor, "Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 1312-1314 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, K. M.

de la Cruz, A. R.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. R. de la Cruz, and J. Solis, "Deep subsurface waveguides with circular cross section produced by femtosecond laser writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Nicola, S.

Della Valle, G.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Demos, S. G.

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, "Localized Dynamics during Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 087401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diez-Blanco, V.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. R. de la Cruz, and J. Solis, "Deep subsurface waveguides with circular cross section produced by femtosecond laser writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dou, Y.

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A. 84, 257-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S.

Eaton, S. M.

Fang, Y.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A. 6, 787-790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, "Localized Dynamics during Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 087401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

Ferrer, A.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. R. de la Cruz, and J. Solis, "Deep subsurface waveguides with circular cross section produced by femtosecond laser writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Finizio, A.

Fujii, T.

T. Fukuda, S. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, K. Sakuma, and H. Hosoya, "Low-loss optical waveguides written by femtosecond laser pulses for three-dimensional photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 5339, 524-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fukuda, T.

T. Fukuda, S. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, K. Sakuma, and H. Hosoya, "Low-loss optical waveguides written by femtosecond laser pulses for three-dimensional photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 5339, 524-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gamaly, E. G.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J. F.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, B.

Gisin, N.

Glezer, E. N.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, "Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882-884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A. 84, 257-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q. H.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A. 6, 787-790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gottmann, J.

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, "Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates," J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.  2, 57-63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H. C.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A. 6, 787-790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hallo, L.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Hartung, H.

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 86, 165-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, J. S.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P.

Herman, P. R.

Herman, S.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A. 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor, "Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 1312-1314 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horn, A.

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, "Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates," J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.  2, 57-63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hosoya, H.

T. Fukuda, S. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, K. Sakuma, and H. Hosoya, "Low-loss optical waveguides written by femtosecond laser pulses for three-dimensional photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 5339, 524-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huser, T. R.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huttner, B.

Ippen, E. P.

Ishikawa, S.

T. Fukuda, S. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, K. Sakuma, and H. Hosoya, "Low-loss optical waveguides written by femtosecond laser pulses for three-dimensional photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 5339, 524-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. B.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A. 6, 787-790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Killi, A.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. D. Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1900-1902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopf, D.

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Krol, D. M.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, V. Maselli, A. Yin, M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, L. Aiello, S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, "Optical properties of waveguides written by a 26 MHz stretched cavity Ti:Sapphire femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Express 13, 612-620 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, M.

Li, J.

Li, Y.

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A. 84, 257-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A. 6, 787-790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A. 84, 257-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marjoribanks, R. S.

P. R. Herman, A. Oettl, K. P. Chen, and R. S. Marjoribanks, "Laser micromachining of transparent fused silica with 1-ps pulses and pulse trains," Proc. SPIE 3616, 148-155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

Maselli, V.

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, "Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882-884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McCaughan, L.

L. McCaughan and E. J. Murphy, "Influence of temperature and initial titanium dimensions on fiber Ti:lithium niobate waveguide insertion loss at 1.3 microns," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 131-136 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

Misawa, H.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

Miyamoto, I.

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, "Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates," J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.  2, 57-63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. D. Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1900-1902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, E. J.

L. McCaughan and E. J. Murphy, "Influence of temperature and initial titanium dimensions on fiber Ti:lithium niobate waveguide insertion loss at 1.3 microns," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 131-136 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Naumov, A.

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

Nicolai, P.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, K.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 86, 165-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, "Ultrafast laser processing: new options for three-dimensional photonic structures," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2533-2542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oberson, P.

Oettl, A.

P. R. Herman, A. Oettl, K. P. Chen, and R. S. Marjoribanks, "Laser micromachining of transparent fused silica with 1-ps pulses and pulse trains," Proc. SPIE 3616, 148-155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

Peng, C.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A. 6, 787-790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pierattini, G.

Radousky, H. B.

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, "Localized Dynamics during Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 087401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajeev, P. P.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A. 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. D. Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1900-1902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A. 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Rayner, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum, "Ultrashort pulse non-linear optical absorption in transparent media," Opt. Express 13, 3208-3217 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor, "Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 1312-1314 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Risbud, S. H.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, "Localized Dynamics during Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 087401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sakakura, M.

Sakuma, K.

T. Fukuda, S. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, K. Sakuma, and H. Hosoya, "Low-loss optical waveguides written by femtosecond laser pulses for three-dimensional photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 5339, 524-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shah, L.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, J.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. R. de la Cruz, and J. Solis, "Deep subsurface waveguides with circular cross section produced by femtosecond laser writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A. 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor, "Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 1312-1314 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solis, J.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. R. de la Cruz, and J. Solis, "Deep subsurface waveguides with circular cross section produced by femtosecond laser writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Svelto, O.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

Taylor, R. S.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A. 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor, "Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 1312-1314 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terazima, M.

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

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Wortmann, D.

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Yang, H.

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A. 84, 257-260 (2006).
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Yin, A.

Yoshino, F.

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, "Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates," J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.  2, 57-63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
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Zavelani-Rossi, M.

Zhang, H.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

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C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, "Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates," J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.  2, 57-63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, "Ultrafast laser processing: new options for three-dimensional photonic structures," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2533-2542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A. 6, 787-790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, J. Li, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, and P. R. Herman, "Type II high-strength Bragg grating waveguides photowritten with ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Express 15, 4182-4191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, and P. R. Herman, "Rapid thermal annealing in high repetition rate ultrafast laser waveguidewriting in lithium niobate," Opt. Express 15, 10842-10854 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shah, A. Arai, S. Eaton, and P. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005).
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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (3364 KB)     

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(3.3 MB) Simulated temperature profile evolution (0 to 25 µs) for static laser exposures (200-nJ absorbed energy/pulse) in Corning EAGLE2000 borosilicate glass for repetition rates of 200 kHz (left) and 1.5 MHz (right). The horizontal red line at Ts =985°C is the softening point for EAGLE2000 used to define the threshold radius for melting. [Media 1]

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption (a) versus repetition rate for pulse energies of 100, 200 and 250 nJ, and transverse waveguide diameter (b) versus scan speed for pulse energies of 100, 200 and 250 nJ at 1.5-MHz repetition rate. Colored curves show calculated diameter. The black line at 2-µm diameter shows the approximate spot diameter (2w 0) of the laser.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Waveguide diameters plotted against scan speed for 250-nJ pulse energy and repetition rates of 0.2, 0.5 and 1.5 MHz. The circled data points show melt diameters for NF=2kJ/cm2. Calculated thermal model values of the melt diameter are shown by the solid curves.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transverse waveguide diameter (a) as a function of scan speed for repetition rates of 0.2, 0.5 and 1.5 MHz at a constant average power of 200 mW. Data points are experimental diameters and solid curves are diameters predicted by model; corresponding values of absorption and absorbed energy (b) versus repetition rate at 200-mW average power.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Overhead microscope image (a) showing diffusion zones from single pulses with 1-µJ pulse energy. Experimental and calculated modification diameters (b) from single-pulse diffusion versus incident pulse energy.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental values of threshold pulse energy for onset of heat accumulation as a function of laser repetition rate for scan speeds of 2, 10 and 40 mm/s and NA=0.55 focusing.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Cross-sectional refractive index profiles from RNF measurements of waveguides written with 0.55-NA focusing, 200-mW power, 150-µm depth, 25-mm/s scan speed and repetition rates of 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 MHz. The writing laser was incident from the top.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Processing window map: waveguide properties as a function of average power and scan speed for 1.5-MHz repetition rate.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measured insertion loss and mode field diameter (a) and coupling and propagation loss (b) versus repetition rate for waveguides written with 200-mW average power and 15-mm/s scan speed. Waveguides were formed 150 µm below the surface with a 0.55-NA lens.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Waveguide fabricated with 1.5-MHz repetition rate, 200-mW power, 0.55-NA lens, 150-µm depth and 15-mm/s scan speed: refractive index profile, simulated mode and measured mode. Red arrow indicates position of mode relative to waveguide cross section.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Mode field diameter versus focusing depth for waveguides formed with 1.5-MHz repetition rate, 15-mm/s scan speed with 0.55 NA (230 mW) and 0.4 NA (200 mW).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

The 1550-nm mode profile (a) and overhead microscope image (b) at increasing annealing temperatures for waveguides fabricated with 240-mW power, 1.5-MHz repetition rate, 0.4 NA, 150-µm depth and 15-mm/s scan speed. The size scale applies to all images

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Mode field diameter (a) and insertion loss (b) versus one-hour baking cycles at indicated temperature (same waveguide exposure conditions as Fig. 12)

Equations (1)

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NF = 2 w 0 R v F p

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