Abstract

A new monitoring method based on the use of dual wavelengths monitoring is proposed. Firstly, the sensitivity of each layer in an optical coating for the monitoring wavelength is calculated by admittance equations. Then two appropriate monitoring wavelengths are chosen to make sure that every layer has a sensitive terminal point. The thickness error of the layer can be compensated. For quarter-wave multilayer and nonquarter-wave multilayer optical coatings, the advantage of this new monitoring method has been demonstrated by both the theoretical analyses and experimental results.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. A. Macleod, "Monitoring of optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 20, 82-88 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. A. Macleod, ed., "Layer uniformity and thickness monitoring," in Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (Institute of Physics, 2001), Chap. 11, pp. 488-520.
  3. B. Vidal, A. Fornier, and E. Pelletier, "Optical monitoring of nonquarterwave multilayer filters," Appl. Opt. 17, 1038-1047 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Zhang, Y. Wang, and W. Lu, "Single-wavelength monitoring method for optical thin-film coating," Opt. Eng. 43, 1439-1444 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. V. Tikhonravov and M. K. Trubetskov, "Elimination of cumulative effect of thickness errors in monochromatic monitoring of optical coating production: theory," Appl. Opt. 46, 2084-2090 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Zhao, "Monitoring of periodic multilayer by the level method," Appl. Opt. 24, 3339-3342 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and T. V. Amotchkina, "Statistical approach to choosing a strategy of monochromatic monitoring of optical coating production," Appl. Opt. 45, 7863-7870 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. C. Lee and K. Wu, "In situ sensitive optical monitoring with proper error compensation," Opt. Lett. 32, 2118-2120 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. C. Lee, K. Wu, C. C. Kuo, and S. H. Chen, "Improvement of the optical coating process by cutting layers with sensitive monitor wavelengths," Opt. Express 13, 4854-4861 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. C. Lee and Y. J. Chen, "Multilayer coating monitoring using admittance diagram," Opt. Express 16, 6119-6124 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Rabady, K. Zinoviev, and I. Avrutsky, "High-resolution photometric optical monitoring for thin-film deposition," Appl. Opt. 43, 143-148 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Ristau, H. Ehlers, T. Gross, and M. Lappschies, "Optical broadband monitoring of conventional and ion processes," Appl. Opt. 45, 1495-1501 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. Lai, M. Li, K. Chen, H. Wang, Y. Song, and Y. Jiang, "Substrate temperature effect on the refractive index and a two-step film method for detecting small inhomogeneity in optical films," Appl. Opt. 44, 6181-6185 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Lin, F. Lai, Z. Huang, Y. Qu, and R. Gai, "Determination of the optical constants and thickness of Nb2O5 optical films from normal incidence transmission spectra," Proc. Of SPIE 6149, 614920 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. V. Tikhonravov and M. K. Trubetskov, "Computational manufacturing as a bridge between design and production," Appl. Opt. 44, 6877-6884 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

C. Zhang, Y. Wang, and W. Lu, "Single-wavelength monitoring method for optical thin-film coating," Opt. Eng. 43, 1439-1444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Rabady, K. Zinoviev, and I. Avrutsky, "High-resolution photometric optical monitoring for thin-film deposition," Appl. Opt. 43, 143-148 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

1981

1978

Amotchkina, T. V.

Avrutsky, I.

Chen, K.

Chen, S. H.

Chen, Y. J.

Chun, B. J.

Ehlers, H.

Fornier, A.

Gai, R.

L. Lin, F. Lai, Z. Huang, Y. Qu, and R. Gai, "Determination of the optical constants and thickness of Nb2O5 optical films from normal incidence transmission spectra," Proc. Of SPIE 6149, 614920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gross, T.

Huang, Z.

L. Lin, F. Lai, Z. Huang, Y. Qu, and R. Gai, "Determination of the optical constants and thickness of Nb2O5 optical films from normal incidence transmission spectra," Proc. Of SPIE 6149, 614920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hwangbo, C. K.

Jiang, Y.

Kim, J. S.

Kuo, C. C.

Lai, F.

L. Lin, F. Lai, Z. Huang, Y. Qu, and R. Gai, "Determination of the optical constants and thickness of Nb2O5 optical films from normal incidence transmission spectra," Proc. Of SPIE 6149, 614920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Lai, M. Li, K. Chen, H. Wang, Y. Song, and Y. Jiang, "Substrate temperature effect on the refractive index and a two-step film method for detecting small inhomogeneity in optical films," Appl. Opt. 44, 6181-6185 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lappschies, M.

Lee, C. C.

Li, M.

Lin, L.

L. Lin, F. Lai, Z. Huang, Y. Qu, and R. Gai, "Determination of the optical constants and thickness of Nb2O5 optical films from normal incidence transmission spectra," Proc. Of SPIE 6149, 614920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

C. Zhang, Y. Wang, and W. Lu, "Single-wavelength monitoring method for optical thin-film coating," Opt. Eng. 43, 1439-1444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

Pelletier, E.

Qu, Y.

L. Lin, F. Lai, Z. Huang, Y. Qu, and R. Gai, "Determination of the optical constants and thickness of Nb2O5 optical films from normal incidence transmission spectra," Proc. Of SPIE 6149, 614920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rabady, R.

Ristau, D.

Song, Y.

Tikhonravov, A. V.

Trubetskov, M. K.

Vidal, B.

Wang, H.

Wang, Y.

C. Zhang, Y. Wang, and W. Lu, "Single-wavelength monitoring method for optical thin-film coating," Opt. Eng. 43, 1439-1444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, Y. Wang, and W. Lu, "Single-wavelength monitoring method for optical thin-film coating," Opt. Eng. 43, 1439-1444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F.

Zinoviev, K.

Appl. Opt.

H. A. Macleod, "Monitoring of optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 20, 82-88 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Vidal, A. Fornier, and E. Pelletier, "Optical monitoring of nonquarterwave multilayer filters," Appl. Opt. 17, 1038-1047 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Tikhonravov and M. K. Trubetskov, "Elimination of cumulative effect of thickness errors in monochromatic monitoring of optical coating production: theory," Appl. Opt. 46, 2084-2090 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zhao, "Monitoring of periodic multilayer by the level method," Appl. Opt. 24, 3339-3342 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and T. V. Amotchkina, "Statistical approach to choosing a strategy of monochromatic monitoring of optical coating production," Appl. Opt. 45, 7863-7870 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rabady, K. Zinoviev, and I. Avrutsky, "High-resolution photometric optical monitoring for thin-film deposition," Appl. Opt. 43, 143-148 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ristau, H. Ehlers, T. Gross, and M. Lappschies, "Optical broadband monitoring of conventional and ion processes," Appl. Opt. 45, 1495-1501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lai, M. Li, K. Chen, H. Wang, Y. Song, and Y. Jiang, "Substrate temperature effect on the refractive index and a two-step film method for detecting small inhomogeneity in optical films," Appl. Opt. 44, 6181-6185 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Tikhonravov and M. K. Trubetskov, "Computational manufacturing as a bridge between design and production," Appl. Opt. 44, 6877-6884 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng.

C. Zhang, Y. Wang, and W. Lu, "Single-wavelength monitoring method for optical thin-film coating," Opt. Eng. 43, 1439-1444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Of SPIE

L. Lin, F. Lai, Z. Huang, Y. Qu, and R. Gai, "Determination of the optical constants and thickness of Nb2O5 optical films from normal incidence transmission spectra," Proc. Of SPIE 6149, 614920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. A. Macleod, ed., "Layer uniformity and thickness monitoring," in Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (Institute of Physics, 2001), Chap. 11, pp. 488-520.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sensitivity as a function of monitor wavelength on terminating point of the film with structure S/HLHLHLH/A: (a) high index layer “H”, (b) low index layer “L”.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Admittance locus of 600 nm of the first two layers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrum of the film with structure S/HLHLHLH/A monitored by different methods with a 0.5% standard deviation error.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Theoretical and measured transmittances of the film with structure S/HLHLHLH/A monitored by (a) the DWM method and (b) TPM method.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectrum of a longwave-pass filter monitored by the DWM method and TPM method.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Experimental parameters of the structure S/HLHLHLH/A.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ B C ] = [ cos θ i n ( λ ) sin θ in ( λ ) sin θ cos θ ] [ 1 α + i β ]
n ( λ ) = k 1 + k 2 λ 2 + k 3 λ 4
Y = C B = α cos θ + i [ n ( λ ) sin θ + β cos θ ] [ cos θ β ] + i α sin θ
R = [ ( 1 α ) cos θ β sin θ ] 2 + [ ( α n ( λ ) ) sin θ β cos θ ] 2 [ ( 1 + α ) cos θ β sin θ ] 2 + [ ( α + n ( λ ) ) sin θ + β cos θ ] 2
Y = { ( 1 + R ) ( 1 R ) ( Y > 1 ) ( 1 R ) ( 1 + R ) ( Y < 1 )
R ( n ( λ ) d ) = ( E + F ) ( G + J ) ( E + F ) ( G + J ) ( G + J ) 2
where E = [ ( 1 α ) cos θ β sin θ ] 2 , F = [ ( α n ( λ ) ) sin θ β cos θ ] 2
G = [ ( 1 + α ) cos θ β sin θ ] 2 , J = [ ( α + n ( λ ) ) sin θ + β cos θ ] 2
E = N ( λ ) [ ( 1 α ) cos θ β sin θ ] [ ( α 1 ) sin θ β cos θ ]
F = N ( λ ) [ ( α n ( λ ) ) sin θ β cos θ ] [ ( β n ( λ ) ) cos θ + β sin θ ]
G = N ( λ ) [ ( 1 + α ) cos θ β sin θ ] [ ( 1 + α ) sin θ β cos θ ]
J = N ( λ ) [ ( α + n ( λ ) ) sin θ + β cos θ ] [ ( α + n ( λ ) ) cos θ β sin θ ]
N ( λ ) = 4 π n ( λ ) λ
f = λ [ T meas ( λ ) T theo ( λ ) ] 2 .

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